5,863 Works

The Integration of Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union Electricity Market – The case for “Smart Grids”

Joëlle De Sépibus
The power sector is to play a central role in a low carbon economy. In all the decarbonisation scenarios of the European Union renewable energy sources (RES) will be a crucial part of the solution. Current grids constitute however major bottlenecks for the future expansion of RES. Recognising the need for a modernisation of its grids, the European Union has called for the creation of a "smart supergrid" interconnecting European grids at the continental level...

Possible role of Cdx2 in the serrated pathway of colorectal cancer characterized by BRAF mutation, high-level CpG Island methylator phenotype and mismatch repair-deficiency

Caroline Hammer, Dominique-Elisabeth Müller, Melina Helbling, Inti Zlobec, Alessandro Lugli, José Alberto Galván Hernández, Heather Dawson, Mary Economou, Evanthia Karamitopoulou & Viktor Kölzer
Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease at the histomorphological, clinical and molecular level. Approximately 20% of cases may progress through the "serrated" pathway characterized by BRAF mutation and high-level CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP). A large subgroup are additionally microsatellite instable (MSI) and demonstrate significant loss of tumor suppressor Cdx2. The aim of this study is to determine the specificity of Cdx2 protein expression and CpG promoter hypermethylation for BRAF(V600E) and high-level CIMP in colorectal...

A Synopsis of The Euro-Syrian Excavations at Tell Beydar

Alexander Pruss
Overview on the excavation results of the Euro-Syrian archaeological mission at Tell Beydar (North-East Syria) in the years 1992-2009

Hepatitis C: a changing epidemic.

Gilles Wandeler, Philip Bruggmann, Andri Rauch & Jean-François Dufour
Approximately 3% of the world population is estimated to have a chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and 500,000 individuals die from its consequences yearly. Persons who inject drugs (PWID) bear the majority of the disease burden in high-income countries. Drug substitution programmes have helped reduce HCV transmissions among PWID. However, recent epidemics of sexually transmitted HCV infections in HIV-infected men who have sex with men demonstrated the changing nature of the HCV epidemic. HCV...

Long-term stability of contour augmentation in the esthetic zone: histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of 12 human biopsies 14 to 80 months after augmentation.

Reinhard Gruber, Daniel Buser, Simon Storgaard Jensen & Dieter Bosshardt
BACKGROUND Contour augmentation around early-placed implants (Type 2 placement) using autogenous bone chips combined with deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and a collagen barrier membrane has been documented to predictably provide esthetically satisfactory clinical outcomes. In addition, recent data from cone beam computed tomography studies have shown the augmented volume to be stable long-term. However, no human histologic data are available to document the tissue reactions to this bone augmentation procedure. METHODS Over an 8-year...

A global reanalysis of vegetation phenology

This Rutishauser, Ian Baker, Mark A. Liniger, A. Scott Denning & Reto Stöckli

Long-term tissue coverage of a biodegradable polylactide polymer-coated biolimus-eluting stent: comparative sequential assessment with optical coherence tomography until complete resorption of the polymer

Gioel Gabrio Secco, Simon Davies, Carlo Di Mario, Robert Jan Van Geuns, Héctor M García-García, Evelyn Regar, Juan Luis Gutiérrez-Chico, Susanne Meis, Willem J Van Der Giessen, Patrick W Serruys, Eveline Nüesch, Stephan Windecker, Francesco Borgia & Peter Jüni
Biolimus-eluting stents (BESs) with a biodegradable polymer in abluminal coating achieve more complete coverage at 9 months compared with sirolimus-eluting stents (SESs) with a durable polymer, as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Whether this advantage persists or augments after complete resorption of the polymer (>12 months) is unknown.

How valuable are multiple treatment comparison methods in evidence-based health-care evaluation?

Simon Wandel, Monica C W Lai, Mike Paulden, Nicola J Cooper, Alex J Sutton, Jaime Peters, Sylwia Bujkiewicz, Keith R Abrams, David Spiegelhalter, Stefano Conti, Nicky J Welton, Steve Palmer & Peter Juni
Objectives To compare the use of pair-wise meta-analysis methods to multiple treatment comparison (MTC) methods for evidence-based health-care evaluation to estimate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative health-care interventions based on the available evidence. Methods Pair-wise meta-analysis and more complex evidence syntheses, incorporating an MTC component, are applied to three examples: 1) clinical effectiveness of interventions for preventing strokes in people with atrial fibrillation; 2) clinical and cost-effectiveness of using drug-eluting stents in percutaneous coronary...

Sacral neuromodulation for neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction: systematic review and meta-analysis

Thomas M Kessler, Daniel S Engeler, David La Framboise, Gustav Kiss, Karl-Dietrich Sievert, Brigitte Schurch, Sven Trelle, Clare J Fowler & Jürgen Pannek
Context Treatment of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) is a challenge, because conventional therapies often fail. Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) has become a well-established therapy for refractory non-neurogenic LUTD, but its value in patients with a neurologic cause is unclear. Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of SNM for neurogenic LUTD. Evidence acquisition Studies were identified by electronic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and ScienceDirect (on 15 April 2010) and hand search of reference lists...

A second look at gauged supergravities from fluxes in M-theory

Jose Adolfo Guarino & Jean-Pierre Derendinger
We investigate reductions of M-theory beyond twisted tori by allowing the presence of KK6 monopoles (KKO6-planes) compatible with N = 4 supersymmetry in four dimensions. The presence of KKO6-planes proves crucial to achieve full moduli stabilisation as they generate new universal moduli powers in the scalar potential. The resulting gauged supergravities turn out to be compatible with a weak G2 holonomy at N = 1 as well as at some non-supersymmetric AdS4 vacua. The M-theory...

Patient-reported outcomes in borderline personality disorder.

Christopher J Hopwood, Thomas Schulte-Vels, Gregor Hasler, Gitta A Jacob & Laura Silvia Brändle
Patient-reported outcome (PRO) refers to measures that emphasize the subjective view of patients about their health-related conditions and behaviors. Typically, PROs include self-report questionnaires and clinical interviews. Defining PROs for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is particularly challenging given the disorder's high symptomatic heterogeneity, high comorbidity with other psychiatric conditions, highly fluctuating symptoms, weak correlations between symptoms and functional outcomes, and lack of valid and reliable experimental measures to complement self-report data. Here, we provide an...

A systematic review of prophylactic antibiotics in the surgical treatment of maxillofacial fractures

Simon Storgaard Jensen, Yören Hillerup, Ole Schwartz & Jens O Andreasen
PURPOSE: A systematic review was performed to find evidence for prophylactic administration of antibiotics in relation to treatment of maxillofacial fractures. METHODS: Four studies were retrieved that fulfilled most of the requirements of being randomized controlled clinical trials. RESULTS: An analysis of these studies showed a 3-fold decrease in the infection rate of mandibular fractures in the antibiotic treated groups compared with the control groups. A variety of antibiotics had been used with an apparently...

Iron fluxes to Talos Dome, Antarctica, over the past 200 kyr

J. Gabrieli, A. Spolaor, C. Turetta, C. Barbante, G. Cozzi, Simon Schüpbach & P. Vallelonga
Atmospheric fluxes of iron (Fe) over the past 200 kyr are reported for the coastal Antarctic Talos Dome ice core, based on acid leachable Fe concentrations. Fluxes of Fe to Talos Dome were consistently greater than those at Dome C, with the greatest difference observed during interglacial climates. We observe different Fe flux trends at Dome C and Talos Dome during the deglaciation and early Holocene, attributed to a combination of deglacial activation of dust...

The H19/let-7 double-negative feedback loop contributes to glucose metabolism in muscle cells

Lei Yan, Julia Szendroedi, Jichun Zhou, Hugh Taylor, Clare Flannery, Yingqun Huang, Fuju Wu, Michael J Jurczak, Lihua Yang, Gordon G Carmichael, Michael Roden, Martin Müller, Gerald I Shulman, Yuan Gao, Luisa Dandolo, Xiao-Bo Zhou & Hui-Young Lee
The H19 lncRNA has been implicated in development and growth control and is associated with human genetic disorders and cancer. Acting as a molecular sponge, H19 inhibits microRNA (miRNA) let-7. Here we report that H19 is significantly decreased in muscle of human subjects with type-2 diabetes and insulin resistant rodents. This decrease leads to increased bioavailability of let-7, causing diminished expression of let-7 targets, which is recapitulated in vitro where H19 depletion results in impaired...

Portfolio-optimization models for small investors

Philipp Baumann & Norbert Trautmann
Since 2010, the client base of online-trading service providers has grown significantly. Such companies enable small investors to access the stock market at advantageous rates. Because small investors buy and sell stocks in moderate amounts, they should consider fixed transaction costs, integral transaction units, and dividends when selecting their portfolio. In this paper, we consider the small investor’s problem of investing capital in stocks in a way that maximizes the expected portfolio return and guarantees...

Sportvereine als Interessenorganisationen?! Ziel-Interessen-Divergenzen und ihre Auswirkungen

Christoffer Klenk & Siegfried Nagel
Einleitung: Freiwillige Sportorganisationen wie Sportvereine sind als Interessenorganisationen zu charakterisieren, deren primärer Organisationszweck sich auf die Vertretung der Interessen ihrer Mitglieder bezieht (Nagel, 2006). Mit dieser Interessenvertretungsfunktion wird gewährleistet, dass die Vereinsziele an die Mitgliederinteressen rückgebunden bleiben und Ziel-Interessen-Kongruenz herrscht (Schimank, 2005). Die Beobachtungen der Ver-einsrealität weisen jedoch darauf hin, dass die Ziele der Vereine oftmals von den Interessen ihrer Mitglieder abweichen und im Widerspruch zueinander stehen (Baur & Burrmann, 2003; Heinemann, 2004). Vor diesem...

The Getting-Out-of-Bed (GoB) scale: a measure of motivation and life outlook in older adults with cancer

Melissa Clark, William Rakowski, Kerri M Clough-Gorr & Rebecca A Silliman
OBJECTIVE: To develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a measure of motivation and life outlook (Getting-Out-of-Bed [GoB]). DESIGN: Secondary analysis of baseline and 6-month data from a longitudinal follow-up study of older breast cancer survivors. PARTICIPANTS: Women (N = 660) diagnosed with primary breast cancer stage I-IIIA disease, age >or=65 years, and permission to contact from an attending physician in four geographic regions in the United States (city-based Los Angeles, California; statewide in Minnesota,...

Comparison of three strip-type tests and two laboratory methods for salivary buffering analysis

Andreas Lamanda, Adrian Lussi, Zeinab Cheaib, Carolina Ganss & Melek Dilek Turgut
This study evaluated the correlation between three strip-type, colorimetric tests and two laboratory methods with respect to the analysis of salivary buffering. The strip-type tests were saliva-check buffer, Dentobuff strip and CRT(®) Buffer test. The laboratory methods included Ericsson's laboratory method and a monotone acid/base titration to create a reference scale for the salivary titratable acidity. Additionally, defined buffer solutions were prepared and tested to simulate the carbonate, phosphate and protein buffer systems of saliva....

Intratumoural budding (ITB) in preoperative biopsies predicts the presence of lymph node and distant metastases in colon and rectal cancer patients

Viktor Kölzer, M Mallaev, Alessandro Lugli, Daniel Inderbitzin, M Borner, Beat Schnüriger, Heather Dawson, Marion Hädrich & Inti Zlobec
Background:In colorectal cancer (CRC), tumour budding at the invasion front is associated with lymph node (LN) and distant metastasis. Interestingly, tumour budding can also be detected in biopsies (intratumoural budding; ITB) and may have similar clinical importance. Here we investigate whether ITB in preoperative CRC biopsies can be translated into daily diagnostic practice.Methods:Preoperative biopsies from 133 CRC patients (no neoadjuvant therapy) underwent immunohistochemistry for pan-cytokeratin marker AE1/AE3. Across all biopsies for each patient, the densest...

Metabolism of nitro drugs metronidazole and nitazoxanide in Giardia lamblia: characterization of a novel nitroreductase (GlNR2).

Norbert Müller, Patricia Schildknecht & Joachim Müller
OBJECTIVES The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia causes giardiasis, a persistent diarrhoea. Nitro drugs such as the nitroimidazole metronidazole and the nitrothiazolide nitazoxanide are used for the treatment of giardiasis. Nitroreductases may play a role in activating these drugs. G. lamblia contains two nitroreductases, GlNR1 and GlNR2. The aim of this work was to elucidate the role of GlNR2. METHODS Expression of GlNR2 was analysed by reverse transcription PCR. Recombinant GlNR2 was overexpressed in G. lamblia...

Impact of a stress coping strategy on perceived stress levels and performance during a simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized controlled trial

Norbert K. Semmer, Sabina Hunziker, Katrin Fasler, Stephan Marsch, Franziska Tschan & Simona Pagani
Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) causes significant stress, which may cause deficiencies in attention and increase distractibility. This may lead to misjudgements of priorities and delays in CPR performance, which may further increase mental stress (vicious cycle). This study assessed the impact of a task-focusing strategy on perceived stress levels and performance during a simulated CPR scenario. Methods This prospective, randomized-controlled trial was conducted at the simulator-center of the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. A total of...

Ego depletion after social interference

Alex Bertrams & Sabine Pahl
The present study examines whether social interference (i.e., interference with one’s goal attainment by the bodily presence of others) depletes the limited resource of self-control strength. In an experimental laboratory study (N = 34), half the participants experienced social interference whereas the other half did not experience social interference by two confederates during a dexterity task. Afterwards, we measured participants’ momentary self-control strength applying a Stroop colour-naming task. In line with our prediction, participants’ performance...

Reviving extinct Mediterranean forest communities may improve ecosystem potential in a warmer future

Willy Tinner, Ché Elkin, Daniele Colombaroli, Salvatore Pasta, Jörg Franke, Paul Daniel Henne, Camilla Calò, Orla Dermody, Marco Conedera & Tommaso La Mantia
The Mediterranean Basin is the region of Europe most vulnerable to negative climate-change impacts, including forest decline, increased wildfire, and biodiversity loss. Because humans have affected Mediterranean ecosystems for millennia, it is unclear whether the region's native ecosystems were more resilient to climate change than current ecosystems, and whether they would provide sustainable management options if restored. We simulated vegetation with the LandClim model, using present-day climate as well as future climate-change scenarios, in three...

Domains of physical activity and all-cause mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies

Matthias Egger, Guenther Samitz & Marcel Zwahlen
Background The dose–response relation between physical activity and all-cause mortality is not well defined at present. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the association with all-cause mortality of different domains of physical activity and of defined increases in physical activity and energy expenditure. Methods MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched up to September 2010 for cohort studies examining all-cause mortality across different domains and levels of physical activity in adult...

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