102 Works

Comparing mural art policies and regulations (MAPRs):

Eynat Mendelson Shwartz & Nir Mualam
In recent decades, public murals have become a common phenomenon in urban landscapes around the world. This has encouraged local governments to establish Mural Art Policies and Regulations (MAPRs) that employ murals as an acceptable (and even desired) element in the municipal toolkit, while balancing a variety of interests. This paper discusses why and how municipalities regulate and facilitate the creation of murals. It advocates a better understanding of mural art strategies, through comparative analysis...

Walls of Freedom:

Basma Hamdy
The Egyptian revolution of 2011 produced a massive transformation in the perception of urban space and the interrelated dynamic of people, their bodies, and the language within that space. Cultural expressions such as caricature galleries, makeshift exhibitions, chants, poetry readings, and memorial spaces defined the square as a place where activism and art intersected weaving a lyrical tapestry of the revolution. The most prominent of these expressions was the street art of the revolution where...

Walk the Line project in Genoa:

Gabriele Boero
The Walk the Line Street Art project, organized in the north-western Italian city of Genoa, starting from summer 2016 has brought a new face to the skyway of the city, mostly hated by both residents and tourists but strictly necessary for the city’s fluid control of the traffic flow. Working on the surface of the pillars of the skyway, the artists called by the curators have been participating in a project that not only wants...

Street art conservation

Elena García Gayo
There is a need to create a documentation system adapted to facilitate the conservation and restoration of Street Art and Graffiti. Even though they are ephemeral manifestations of art, there have been some signs of the need for preservation mechanisms that would respect their own special features. For selected works we must establish a procedure that enables their preservation with the highest guarantee.

Letting the walls of the city speak:

Ágata Dourado Sequeira
This article sets out to show how a sociological research project on the production of street art in Lisbon was built, from the construction of an object of research to the development of a methodological approach that enabled the collection of a diverse set of expressive data. The notion of ‘route’ serves not only as a valuable instrument of research in the first stages of an investigation in urban sociology, but also as a powerful...

Curating urban memories in connecting communities

Tuba Doğu & Sevcan Sönmez
There is a worldwide growing attention on user participation in shaping urban environments in recent years. With the involvement of local authorities, civil initiatives and neighborhood organizations, it is possible to observe a similar attention in the formation of urban spaces in Turkey. Driven from this approach, this study examines the bottom-up transformation of a cultural space existing since 1960s in Izmir, Güzelyalı. To reveal the process of how civic empowerment operated, we simulate a...

Strategies for creating village identity symbols using street art tactics:

Katarzyna Piriankov
Over the last few years, various projects in the village of Staro Zhelezare have been undertaken aiming to involve and collaborate with the residents in order to directly improve the quality of social life and the image of the depressed neighbourhood. The purpose of the paper is to examine how different strategies of specific bottom-up activities in a public space address various problems in such a small community. Following the Fourth Street Art Festival in...

Aesthetics of Change Multiculturalism and the street art of Footscray

Christie Widiarto
Street art is considered by many as a cultural practice, which like all cultures, has its diversity within it. Through the analysis of three case studies, this article demonstrates the value in using multiculturalism as a framework for developing street art. This study is situated in the Melbourne suburb of Footscray in Australia, from 2014 – 2018 which has been undergoing urban development and gentri cation. Each case study features artists that have created a...

Graffiti, Street Art, and Culture in the era of the Global City

Luis Menor
What is the role of art in the reinforcement or rejection of current models of public space management in our cities? To answer this question, we must attend to the ties of all artwork with public institutions, and whether or not it questions the dominant order. In this article, I will focus on the works of the Ana Botella Crew, a group of artists from Madrid, as an example of “artivism” that challenges the City...

Cultural heritage and the ficto-critical method:

Lachlan MacDowall
Once dubbed “the Bonnie and Clyde of graffiti”, the globe-trotting, train-painting duo of Utah and Ether occupy a central place in contemporary graffiti folklore. Having both served jail time in the US for graffiti offenses, the couple skipped parole and embarked on a long term “probation vacation”, painting subway networks across Europe and Asia. Their exploits were carefully documented through photographs and web videos, including a collaboration with The Grifters, a ground-breaking video series. In...

Graffiti as a Palimpsest

Mari Myllylä
Graffiti can be viewed as stories about embodied identities of the self and others which can be shared in intersubjective discourse, visual communication of varying content and motives, and utilizing specific technology and mediums. Graffiti’s palimpestuous nature, in its physical and symbolic forms of layering information, is present in production and perceiving graffiti. A creator and a reader of graffiti are both palimpsesting the work, acting as narrators of their own mental sheets. The concept...

Surveying New Muralism in Italy:

Giovanni Caffio
The phenomenon of urban art is one of the forces shaping contemporary urban spaces. Historically fought as vandalism in its “writing” component (the “black sheep” of the urban actors performing in the contemporary city), urban art has recently become more appreciated as an artistic expression, especially when regarded as a stage in the historical evolution of muralism. As several examples worldwide have shown, in the context of urban renewal, urban art can set off positive...

Curating street art

Javier Abarca
After being largely ignored for decades, street art has in the last ten years been increasingly assimilated by society and the art system. Numerous artists who started their careers producing street work on their own initiative and without seeking permission are now being commissioned to create official public art – mostly murals – and pieces for galleries, museums and collections. This paper looks at the differences between producing art in public space without permission and...

Direzioni Coraggiose - Brave Paths

Costantino Casella & Nicola Schiavottiello
In order to renew the subversive gesture of the first writers (such as Zephyr, Lee, Taki 109, Dondi ) it is crucial to develop the one’s practice within a constructive discourse of the common (Pani et al., 2008). Sometimes it becomes essential to intervene, to redevelop and to implement decorating paths in places where the old modules have evidently failed. Since street art has been legally recognized, the artist-spectator relationship has become more intimate; direct,...

Mind the trap:

Lisa Bogerts
Street art is used in political contexts by both powerful players and resistance movements. To understand how images make meaning and are constantly being negotiated between rule and resistance, a visual literacy must be fostered. I have therefore introduced an interdisciplinary methodology for critical visual analysis that allows for the differentiated examination of images in the interplay of rule and resistance and considers the specific features of street art. This analytical framework aims to foster...

Creative city practices in the Lusophone space

Kata Murányi
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the creative city, and thus urban creativity in the Portuguese-speaking world, through eight in-depth interviews with leading figures of creative city practices in São Paulo and Lisbon. Both cities share a common language, similarities in history and culture, and in recent years they have been facing serious economic, political and social problems. Over the last few decades, various initiatives have been created with aims of involving and...

Depicting Physical And Social Fears:

Danny Flynn & Marina Carter
This short paper focuses on graffiti depicting desperate warnings over the increase in shark attacks, the threat of which has been encouraged by the idyllic feeding climate on the Indian Ocean island, and suggests a metaphorical simile of the threatening invisible and ever present malevolent force felt in the social climate of expanding inner cities through greed within capital investment.

Framing Poetical Expression in Urban Art:

Burghard Baltrusch
This study aims to revisit some hermeneutical aspects which are essential for a theoretical approach to the interrelated notions of the poetic and poeticity in public space. I will use examples of ephemeral poetic forms such as graffito or performance, but also some examples of poetic objects from linguistic fields such as English, Portuguese, Spanish and German. These reflections on a theoretical and methodological framework for poetry and translation in public space can be subsumed...

Graffiti, street art and copyright

Enrico Bonadio
This short note examines whether street and gra ti art can and should be protected by copyright. Indeed, cases where corpo- rations have used these forms of art to promote their products are increasingly common, which shows that these artworks are particularly vulnerable to misappropriation. In addition to expanding on whether tags and throw-ups can be considered original enough to attract copyright, I will focus on whether unsanctioned street and gra ti art deserve such...

From street art to murals: what have we lost?

Javier Abarca
The mural festivals that have become common all over the world in the last five years are often called street art festivals, and the murals produced in those festivals are often referred to as street art. This use of the term creates confusion, since there are clear and fundamental differences between the smaller, unsanctioned works we used to call street art in the past decade and the huge institutional murals of today. The aim of...

Approaching the White Cube or Approximating the Streets

Theodore Kuttner
The work of OSGEMEOS is used to shed light on the issues arising from the intersection between the realms of street art and high art. The paradox of displacing street art into a gallery or museum setting is discussed, with a particular focus on the transitional period for OSGEMEOS from 2005 to 2010, during which they established their position as artists spanning the gap between the street art scene and the institutional art world. In...

The “black-and-white mural” in Polytechneio :

Georgios Stampoulidis, Tina Bitouni & Paris Xyntarianos-Tsiropinas
The campus of the National Metsovian Polytechnic in central Athens has been a significant cornerstone in the socio-political landscape of the city. Within the history of modern Greece, Polytechneio is regarded as a symbol of resistance against the Greek military dictatorship (junta) in 1973. In March 2015 and during times of austerity politics, the west façades of the Polytechneio were covered by a “black-and-white mural” (Tziovas 2017: 45). This paper examines how and why this...

A brief history of street art as a term up to 2000

Egidio Emiliano Bianco
This working paper gathers the different understandings of the term “street art” found in books up to the turn of the millennium. Several opinions and theories about street art are nowadays proposed, often depending on working, cultural or geographical contexts. The idea of street art has also changed in the course of time. By a chronological analysis of the most important meanings referencing the word, the study outlines street art as a continuously changing term,...

Graffiti or “getting–up”:

Maria Da Luz Nolasco Cardoso
Leitemotive - Aveiro, a Portuguese coastal city, has these marks of our contemporaneity idealized under an apex of thought and artistic graffiti gestures that cover walls, tunnels, viaducts, ceilings, arches, carriages and clusters dispersed and that carry colors and “signs” difficult to decipher, but, graffiti is also the reflection of the active life of our city. It is important to clarify the connections between public art and the artistic dimensions of graffiti in the current...

Unfolding Spaces of My Memory

Johanna Steindorf
This article focuses on the possibilities of using the audio walk as a method for artistic research. First, the decisive characteristics of the format will be outlined, followed by a detailed description of an example case: my artistic research project that focuses on the subject of female migration. Several elements of the audio walk were used in a series of exercises with a group of recently migrated women, with the intention of investigating how the...

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