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107,805 Works

Effectiveness of an individual, online e-learning program about sexually transmitted infections: a prospective cohort study

Linda Bos-Bonnie, Jan Van Bergen, Ellen Te Pas, Michael Kijser & Nynke Van Dijk
Abstract Background Primary health-care professionals play an important role in the treatment and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI). Continuing Medical Education (CME)-courses can influence the knowledge and behavior of health-care professionals concerning STI. We performed a prospective cohort study to evaluate if the individual and online e-learning program “The STI-consultation”, which uses the Commitment-to-Change (CtC)-method, is able to improve the knowledge, attitude and behavior of Dutch General Practitioners (GPs), concerning the STI-consultation. This e-learning...

Insertion and deletion polymorphisms of the ancient AluS family in the human genome

Maria Kryatova, Jared Steranka, Kathleen Burns & Lindsay Payer
Abstract Background Polymorphic Alu elements account for 17% of structural variants in the human genome. The majority of these belong to the youngest AluY subfamilies, and most structural variant discovery efforts have focused on identifying Alu polymorphisms from these currently retrotranspositionally active subfamilies. In this report we analyze polymorphisms from the evolutionarily older AluS subfamily, whose peak activity was tens of millions of years ago. We annotate the AluS polymorphisms, assess their likely mechanism of...

Amelioration of amyloid-β-induced deficits by DcR3 in an Alzheimer’s disease model

Yi-Ling Liu, Wei-Ting Chen, Yu-Yi Lin, Po-Hung Lu, Shie-Liang Hsieh & Irene Cheng
Abstract Background Microglia mediate amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ)-induced neuroinflammation, which is one of the key events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3)/TNFRSF6B is a pleiotropic immunomodulator that promotes macrophage differentiation toward the M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype. Based on its role as an immunosupressor, we examined whether DcR3 could alleviate neuroinflammation and AD-like deficits in the central nervous system. Method We crossed human APP transgenic mice (line J20) with human DcR3 transgenic mice...

Process relevant screening of cellulolytic organisms for consolidated bioprocessing

Elena Antonov, Ivan Schlembach, Lars Regestein, Miriam Rosenbaum & Jochen Büchs
Abstract Background Although the biocatalytic conversion of cellulosic biomass could replace fossil oil for the production of various compounds, it is often not economically viable due to the high costs of cellulolytic enzymes. One possibility to reduce costs is consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), integrating cellulase production, hydrolysis of cellulose, and the fermentation of the released sugars to the desired product into one process step. To establish such a process, the most suitable cellulase-producing organism has to...

Identification of anti-HBV activities in Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. using GRP78 as a drug target on Herbochip®

Iao-Fai Lam, Min Huang, Margaret Chang, Pei-Wun Yao, Yu-Ting Chou, Sim-Kun Ng, Ying-Lin Tsai, Yu-Chang Lin, Yun-Feng Zhang, Xiao-Yuan Yang & Yiu-Kay Lai
Abstract Background Herbochip® technology is a high throughput drug screening platform in a reverse screening manner, in which potential chemical leads in herbal extracts are immobilized and drug target proteins can be used as probes for screening process [BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2015) 15:146]. While herbal medicines represent an ideal reservoir for drug screenings, here a molecular chaperone GRP78 is demonstrated to serve as a potential target for antiviral drug discovery. Methods We cloned...

Predictors of delayed culture conversion among Ugandan patients

Daniel Atwine, Patrick Orikiriza, Ivan Taremwa, Arnold Ayebare, Suzan Logoose, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Amina Jindani & Maryline Bonnet
Abstract Background Estimates of month-2 culture conversion, a proxy indicator of tuberculosis (TB) treatment efficacy in phase-2 trials can vary by culture-type and geographically with lower rates reported among African sites. The sub-study aimed at comparing TB detection rates of different culture media, within and across rifampicin-based regimens (R10, 15 and 20 mg/Kg) over a 6-month treatment follow-up period, and to establish predictors of month-2 culture non-conversion among HIV-negative TB patients enrolled at RIFATOX trial site...

Severe type 1 upgrading leprosy reaction in a renal transplant recipient: a paradoxical manifestation associated with deficiency of antigen-specific regulatory T-cells?

Ana Vieira, Maria Trindade, FlĂĄvio De Paula, Neusa Sakai-Valente, Alberto JosĂŠ Da Silva Duarte, Francine Lemos & Gil Benard
Abstract Background Due to its chronic subclinical course and large spectrum of manifestations, leprosy often represents a diagnostic challenge. Even with proper anti-mycobacteria treatment, leprosy follow up remains challenging: almost half of leprosy patients may develop reaction episodes. Leprosy is an infrequent complication of solid organ transplant recipients. This case report illustrates the challenges in diagnosing and managing leprosy and its reactional states in a transplant recipient. Case presentation A 53-year-old man presented 34 months after...

Semaphorin-Plexin signaling influences early ventral telencephalic development and thalamocortical axon guidance

Manuela Mitsogiannis, Graham Little & Kevin Mitchell
Abstract Background Sensory processing relies on projections from the thalamus to the neocortex being established during development. Information from different sensory modalities reaching the thalamus is segregated into specialized nuclei, whose neurons then send inputs to cognate cortical areas through topographically defined axonal connections. Developing thalamocortical axons (TCAs) normally approach the cortex by extending through the subpallium; here, axonal navigation is aided by distributed guidance cues and discrete cell populations, such as the corridor neurons...

Prevention of cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women from developing countries: a systematic review protocol

Witness Mapanga, Ahmed Elhakeem, Shingairai Feresu, Fresier Maseko & Tsungai Chipato
Abstract Background Over 85% of cervical cancer cases and deaths occur in developing countries. HIV-seropositive women are more likely to develop precancerous lesions that lead to cervical cancer than HIV-negative women. However, the literature on cervical cancer prevention in seropositive women in developing countries has not been reviewed. The aim of this study is to systematically review cervical cancer prevention modalities available for HIV-seropositive women in developing countries. Methods/design This protocol was developed by following...

Microbiota-activated CD103+ DCs stemming from microbiota adaptation specifically drive γδT17 proliferation and activation

Chris Fleming, Yihua Cai, Xuan Sun, Venkatakrishna Jala, Feng Xue, Samantha Morrissey, Yu-Ling Wei, Yueh-Hsiu Chien, Huang-Ge Zhang, Bodduluri Haribabu, Jian Huang & Jun Yan
Abstract Background IL-17-producing γδT cells (γδT17) promote autoinflammatory diseases and cancers. Yet, γδT17 peripheral regulation has not been thoroughly explored especially in the context of microbiota-host interaction. The potent antigen-presenting CD103+ dendritic cell (DC) is a key immune player in close contact with both γδT17 cells and microbiota. This study presents a novel cellular network among microbiota, CD103+ DCs, and γδT17 cells. Methods Immunophenotyping of IL-17r−/− mice and IL-17r−/− IRF8−/− mice were performed by ex...

The PINK1 p.I368N mutation affects protein stability and ubiquitin kinase activity

Maya Ando, Fabienne Fiesel, Roman Hudec, Thomas Caulfield, Kotaro Ogaki, Paulina Górka-Skoczylas, Dariusz Koziorowski, Andrzej Friedman, Li Chen, Valina Dawson, Ted Dawson, Guojun Bu, Owen Ross, Zbigniew Wszolek & Wolfdieter Springer
Abstract Background Mutations in PINK1 and PARKIN are the most common causes of recessive early-onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD). Together, the mitochondrial ubiquitin (Ub) kinase PINK1 and the cytosolic E3 Ub ligase PARKIN direct a complex regulated, sequential mitochondrial quality control. Thereby, damaged mitochondria are identified and targeted to degradation in order to prevent their accumulation and eventually cell death. Homozygous or compound heterozygous loss of either gene function disrupts this protective pathway, though at different...

Moderate alkali-thermophilic ethanologenesis by locally isolated Bacillus licheniformis from Pakistan employing sugarcane bagasse: a comparative aspect of aseptic and non-aseptic fermentations

Qurat-Ul-Ain Ahmad, Shang-Tian Yang, Maleeha Manzoor & Javed Qazi
Abstract Background Biofuels obtained from first-generation (1G) sugars-starch streams have been proven unsustainable as their constant consumption is not only significantly costly for commercial scale production systems, but it could potentially lead to problems associated with extortionate food items for human usage. In this regard, biofuelsâ production in alkali-thermophilic environs from second-generation (2G) bio-waste would not only be markedly feasible, but these extreme conditions might be able to sustain aseptic fermentations without spending much for...

DFI-seq identification of environment-specific gene expression in uropathogenic Escherichia coli

Michelle Madelung, Tina Kronborg, Thomas Doktor, Carsten Struve, Karen Krogfelt & Jakob MøLler-Jensen
Abstract Background During infection of the urinary tract, uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are exposed to different environments, such as human urine and the intracellular environments of bladder epithelial cells. Each environment elicits a distinct bacterial environment-specific transcriptional response. We combined differential fluorescence induction (DFI) with next-generation sequencing, collectively termed DFI-seq, to identify differentially expressed genes in UPEC strain UTI89 during growth in human urine and bladder cells. Results DFI-seq eliminates the need for iterative cell...

Metformin exhibits the anti-proliferation and anti-invasion effects in hepatocellular carcinoma cells after insufficient radiofrequency ablation

Qingyun Zhang, Jian Kong, Shuying Dong, Wenlei Xu & Wenbing Sun
Abstract Background The mechanisms and prevention of progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after insufficient radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been preliminarily investigated, therefore, new strategy needs to be investigated to prevent the process. Whether metformin could be used to inhibit the growth of HCC after insufficient RFA and further prevent the progression of residual HCC remains unclearly. Methods MTT assay, colony formation assay and transwell assay were used to observe the cell viability, migration and invasion....

The malaria testing and treatment landscape in the southern Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR)

Saysana Phanalasy
Abstract Background In the context of national and regional goals to eliminate malaria by 2030, the Center for Malaria Parasitology and Entomology in the Lao PDR is implementing strategies to ensure all malaria cases are detected and appropriately treated with first-line artemisinin combination therapy, artemether–lumefantrine (AL). Timely and relevant evidence to inform policies and strategies is needed to ensure the most effective and efficient use of resources, and to accelerate progress towards elimination goals. A...

Evidence on anti-malarial and diagnostic markets in Cambodia to guide malaria elimination strategies and policies

Sochea Phok & Dysoley Lek
Abstract Background Understanding Cambodiaâ s anti-malarial and diagnostic landscape in 2015 is critical for informing and monitoring strategies and policies as Cambodia moves forward with national efforts to eliminate malaria. The aim of this paper is to present timely and key findings on the public and private sector anti-malarial and diagnostic landscape in Cambodia. This evidence can serve as a baseline benchmark for guiding implementation of national strategies as well as other regional initiatives to...

N of 1 trials and the optimal individualisation of drug treatments: a systematic review protocol

Weyinmi Demeyin, Julia Frost, Obioha Ukoumunne, Simon Briscoe & Nicky Britten
Abstract Background Guidelines and evidence-based drug treatment recommendations are usually based on the results of clinical trials, which have limited generalisability in routine clinical settings due to their restrictive eligibility criteria. These trials are also conducted in ideal and rigorously controlled settings. N of 1 trials, which are single patient multiple crossover studies, offer a means of increasing the evidence base and individualising care for individuals in clinical practice. This systematic review of the N...

Evaluation of the enhanced meningitis surveillance system, Yendi municipality, northern Ghana, 2010â 2015

Basil Kaburi, Chrysantus Kubio, Ernest Kenu, Kofi Nyarko, Jacob Mahama, Samuel Sackey & Edwin Afari
Abstract Background Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges of the brain and or spinal cord. Global mortality rates vary from 2% to 30%. Epidemic meningitis remains a public health concern along the meningitis belt of Africa. Despite the operation of an enhanced meningitis surveillance system in Ghana, institutional mortality rates are estimated to range from 36% to 50%. In 2014, Yendi recorded 83 confirmed cases; with focal epidemics in some sub-municipals. We evaluated the system...

Feeding practices and growth among young children during two seasons in rural Ethiopia

Mekitie Wondafrash, Lieven Huybregts, Carl Lachat, Kimberley Bouckaert & Patrick Kolsteren
Abstract Background The use of indices of infant and young child feeding practices to predict growth has generated inconsistent results, possibly through age and seasonal confounding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of a dietary diversity score (DDS) and infant and child feeding index (ICFI) with growth among young children in a repeated cross-sectional and a follow-up study in two distinct seasons in rural southwest Ethiopia. Methods We used a repeated...

A powerful microbiome-based association test and a microbial taxa discovery framework for comprehensive association mapping

Hyunwook Koh, Martin Blaser & Huilin Li
Abstract Background The role of the microbiota in human health and disease has been increasingly studied, gathering momentum through the use of high-throughput technologies. Further identification of the roles of specific microbes is necessary to better understand the mechanisms involved in diseases related to microbiome perturbations. Methods Here, we introduce a new microbiome-based group association testing method, optimal microbiome-based association test (OMiAT). OMiAT is a data-driven testing method which takes an optimal test throughout different...

A systematic review and meta-analysis of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels in secondary school physical education lessons

Jenna Hollis, Rachel Sutherland, Amanda Williams, Elizabeth Campbell, Nicole Nathan, Luke Wolfenden, Philip Morgan, David Lubans, Karen Gillham & John Wiggers
Abstract Background Schools play an important role in physical activity promotion for adolescents. The systematic review aimed to determine the proportion of secondary (middle and high) school physical education (PE) lesson time that students spend in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and to assess if MVPA was moderated by school level (middle and high school), type of physical activity measurement and type of PE activities. Methods A systematic search of nine electronic databases was...

Correlates associated with participation in physical activity among adults: a systematic review of reviews and update

Jaesung Choi, Miyoung Lee, Jong-Koo Lee, Daehee Kang & Ji-Yeob Choi
Abstract Background Understanding which factors influence participation in physical activity is important to improve the public health. The aim of the present review of reviews was to summarize and present updated evidence on personal and environmental factors associated with physical activity. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for reviews published up to 31 Jan. 2017 reporting on potential factors of physical activity in adults aged over 18 years. The quality of each review was appraised with...

Network-based analysis reveals novel gene signatures in peripheral blood of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Ma’En Obeidat, Yunlong Nie, Virginia Chen, Casey Shannon, Anand Andiappan, Bernett Lee, Olaf Rotzschke, Peter Castaldi, Craig Hersh, Nick Fishbane, Raymond Ng, Bruce McManus, Bruce Miller, Stephen Rennard, Peter Paré & Don Sin
Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the third leading cause of death and there is a huge unmet clinical need to identify disease biomarkers in peripheral blood. Compared to gene level differential expression approaches to identify gene signatures, network analyses provide a biologically intuitive approach which leverages the co-expression patterns in the transcriptome to identify modules of co-expressed genes. Methods A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was applied to peripheral blood...

A universal genome sequencing method for rotavirus A from human fecal samples which identifies segment reassortment and multi-genotype mixed infection

Tran Dung, Pham Duy, October Sessions, Uma Sangumathi, Voong Phat, Pham Tam, Nguyen To, Tran Phuc, Tran Hong Chau, Nguyen Chau, Ngoc Minh, Guy Thwaites, Maia Rabaa & Stephen Baker
Abstract Background Genomic characterization of rotavirus (RoV) has not been adopted at large-scale due to the complexity of obtaining sequences for all 11 segments, particularly when feces are used as starting material. Methods To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel RoV capture and genome sequencing method combining commercial enzyme immunoassay plates and a set of routinely used reagents. Results Our approach had a 100% success rate, producing >90% genome coverage for diverse RoV present...

Aberrant DNA methylation and expression of SPDEF and FOXA2 in airway epithelium of patients with COPD

J. Song, I. Heijink, L. Kistemaker, M. Reinders-Luinge, W. Kooistra, J. Noordhoek, R. Gosens, C. Brandsma, W. Timens, P. Hiemstra, M. Rots & M. Hylkema
Abstract Background Goblet cell metaplasia, a common feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is associated with mucus hypersecretion which contributes to the morbidity and mortality among patients. Transcription factors SAM-pointed domain-containing Ets-like factor (SPDEF) and forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2) regulate goblet cell differentiation. This study aimed to (1) investigate DNA methylation and expression of SPDEF and FOXA2 during goblet cell differentiation and (2) compare this in airway epithelial cells from patients with COPD...

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