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130,564 Works

Ischaemic stroke and the recanalization drug tissue plasminogen activator interfere with antibacterial phagocyte function

Antje Vogelgesang, Claudia Lange, Lara Blümke, Georg Laage, Sarah Rümpel, Sönke Langner, Barbara Bröker, Alexander Dressel & Johanna Ruhnau
Abstract Background Stroke induces immune alterations such as impaired oxidative burst and reduced release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). We hypothesised that key enzymes of these defence mechanisms may be altered in ischaemic stroke. Therefore, we analysed the intra- and extracellular amounts of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase (NE) in patient sera and granulocytes and monocytes. Because the autonomous nervous system is thought to mediate stroke-induced immune alterations, we also studied the influence of stress...

Long noncoding RNA expression profiles in sub-lethal heat-treated hepatoma carcinoma cells

Qingsong Deng, Shihan Chen, Chunchuan Fu, Jiayun Jiang, Mengda Zou, Yunhua Tan, Xiaofei Wang, Feng Xia, Kai Feng, Kuansheng Ma & Ping Bie
Abstract Background Sub-lethal heat treatment characterizes a transition zone of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) which explains hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) residual cancer occurrence in this area after RFA treatment. The biochemistry of residual cancer cell recurrence is poorly understood, but long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) may have aberrant expression that is associated with diverse cancers. Thus, we measured lncRNA gene expression in sub-lethally heat-treated HCC cells using microarray. Method Differentially expressed lncRNA and mRNA were measured with an...

Characterization of background noise in capture-based targeted sequencing data

Gahee Park, Joo Park, Seung-Ho Shin, Hyo-Jeong Jeon, Nayoung Kim, Yeon Kim, Hyun-Tae Shin, Eunjin Lee, Kwang Lee, Dae-Soon Son, Woong-Yang Park & Donghyun Park
Abstract Background Targeted deep sequencing is increasingly used to detect low-allelic fraction variants; it is therefore essential that errors that constitute baseline noise and impose a practical limit on detection are characterized. In the present study, we systematically evaluate the extent to which errors are incurred during specific steps of the capture-based targeted sequencing process. Results We removed most sequencing artifacts by filtering out low-quality bases and then analyze the remaining background noise. By recognizing...

Exploring general-purpose protein features for distinguishing enzymes and non-enzymes within the twilight zone

Yasser Ruiz-Blanco, Guillermin Agüero-Chapin, Enrique García-Hernández, Orlando Álvarez, Agostinho Antunes & James Green
Abstract Background Computational prediction of protein function constitutes one of the more complex problems in Bioinformatics, because of the diversity of functions and mechanisms in that proteins exert in nature. This issue is reinforced especially for proteins that share very low primary or tertiary structure similarity to existing annotated proteomes. In this sense, new alignment-free (AF) tools are needed to overcome the inherent limitations of classic alignment-based approaches to this issue. We have recently introduced...

Competing for space in an already crowded market: a mixed methods study of why an online community of practice (CoP) for alcohol harm reduction failed to generate interest amongst the group of public health professionals at which it was aimed

Ruth Ponsford, Jennifer Ford, Helena Korjonen, Emma Hughes, Asha Keswani, Triantafyllos Pliakas & Matt Egan
Abstract Background Improving mechanisms for knowledge translation (KT) and connecting decision-makers to each other and the information and evidence they consider relevant to their work remains a priority for public health. Virtual communities of practices (CoPs) potentially offer an affordable and flexible means of encouraging connection and sharing of evidence, information and learning among the public health community in ways that transgress traditional geographical, professional, institutional and time boundaries. The suitability of online CoPs in...

Epidemiology of taeniosis/cysticercosis in Europe, a systematic review: Western Europe

Minerva Laranjo-González, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Chiara Trevisan, Alberto Allepuz, Smaragda Sotiraki, Annette Abraham, Mariana Afonso, Joachim Blocher, Luís Cardoso, José Correia Da Costa, Pierre Dorny, Sarah Gabriël, Jacinto Gomes, María Gómez-Morales, Pikka Jokelainen, Miriam Kaminski, Brane Krt, Pascal Magnussen, Lucy Robertson, Veronika Schmidt, Erich Schmutzhard, G. Smit, Barbara Šoba, Christen Stensvold, Jože Starič … & Veronique Dermauw
Abstract Background Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are zoonotic parasites of public health importance. Data on their occurrence in humans and animals in western Europe are incomplete and fragmented. In this study, we aimed to update the current knowledge on the epidemiology of these parasites in this region. Methods We conducted a systematic review of scientific and grey literature published from 1990 to 2015 on the epidemiology of T. saginata and T. solium in humans...

Minocycline modulates NFκB phosphorylation and enhances antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus in mesenchymal stromal/stem cells

Alberto Guerra, Warren Rose, Peiman Hematti & W. Kao
Abstract Background Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated pro-healing properties due to their anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and even antibacterial properties. We have shown previously that minocycline enhances the wound healing phenotype of MSCs, and MSCs encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol) and gelatin-based hydrogels with minocycline have antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus (SA). Here, we investigated the signaling pathway that minocycline modulates in MSCs which results in their enhanced wound healing phenotype and determined whether preconditioning MSCs with...

A deep convolutional neural network approach to single-particle recognition in cryo-electron microscopy

Yanan Zhu, Qi Ouyang & Youdong Mao
Abstract Background Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has become a mainstream tool for the structural determination of biological macromolecular complexes. However, high-resolution cryo-EM reconstruction often requires hundreds of thousands of single-particle images. Particle extraction from experimental micrographs thus can be laborious and presents a major practical bottleneck in cryo-EM structural determination. Existing computational methods for particle picking often use low-resolution templates for particle matching, making them susceptible to reference-dependent bias. It is critical to develop a...

NoGOA: predicting noisy GO annotations using evidences and sparse representation

Guoxian Yu, Chang Lu & Jun Wang
Abstract Background Gene Ontology (GO) is a community effort to represent functional features of gene products. GO annotations (GOA) provide functional associations between GO terms and gene products. Due to resources limitation, only a small portion of annotations are manually checked by curators, and the others are electronically inferred. Although quality control techniques have been applied to ensure the quality of annotations, the community consistently report that there are still considerable noisy (or incorrect) annotations....

Mental health differences between German gay and bisexual men and population-based controls

Frank Sattler, Gabriele Franke & Hanna Christiansen
Abstract Background International studies have revealed that gay and bisexual men present more mental health problems than the general male population. Furthermore, there is evidence that minority stress predicts mental health problems in gay and bisexual men. The aim of the present study is to provide initial data on mental health differences in Germany and to analyze the effect of minority stress. Methods Mental health data on n = 1903 German gay and bisexual men and n = 958...

An integrated computational-experimental approach reveals Yersinia pestis genes essential across a narrow or a broad range of environmental conditions

Nicola Senior, Kalesh Sasidharan, Richard Saint, Andrew Scott, Mitali Sarkar-Tyson, Philip Ireland, Helen Bullifent, Z. Rong Yang, Karen Moore, Petra Oyston, Timothy Atkins, Helen Atkins, Orkun Soyer & Richard Titball
Abstract Background The World Health Organization has categorized plague as a re-emerging disease and the potential for Yersinia pestis to also be used as a bioweapon makes the identification of new drug targets against this pathogen a priority. Environmental temperature is a key signal which regulates virulence of the bacterium. The bacterium normally grows outside the human host at 28 °C. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that the bacterium used to adapt to a mammalian host at...

Staphylococcus aureus Prostatic abscess: a clinical case report and a review of the literature

David Carroll, Ian Marr, G Khai Lin Huang, Deborah Holt, Steven Tong & Craig Boutlis
Abstract Background Prostatic abscess is a rare complication of acute bacterial prostatitis and is most commonly caused by Enterobacteriaceae. We report on a case of prostatic abscess caused by Staphylococcus aureus and conduct a review of the literature. Case presentation We present a case of S. aureus prostatic abscess that was successfully treated with a combination of antibiotic and surgical therapy. The isolate was nonâ multidrug-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and was genotyped as clonal complex...

Estimating the cost-effectiveness of daclatasvir + sofosbuvir versus sofosbuvir + ribavirin for patients with genotype 3 hepatitis C virus

Phil McEwan, Samantha Webster, Thomas Ward, Michael Brenner, Anupama Kalsekar & Yong Yuan
Abstract Background As treatments for chronic hepatitis C are moving away from interferon-containing regimens, the most appropriate allocation of resources to higher cost, interferon-free, direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens needs to be assessed. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3 is associated with faster disease progression and has fewer treatment options, historically, than other HCV genotypes. This analysis aims to estimate the comparative cost-effectiveness of two recently licenced interferon-free regimens for the treatment of HCV genotype 3....

Gene expression patterns of chicken neuregulin 3 in association with copy number variation and frameshift deletion

Hideaki Abe, Daiki Aoya, Hiro-Aki Takeuchi & Miho Inoue-Murayama
Abstract Background Neuregulin 3 (NRG3) plays a key role in central nervous system development and is a strong candidate for human mental disorders. Thus, genetic variation in NRG3 may have some impact on a variety of phenotypes in non-mammalian vertebrates. Recently, genome-wide screening for short insertions and deletions in chicken (Gallus gallus) genomes has provided useful information about structural variation in functionally important genes. NRG3 is one such gene that has a putative frameshift deletion...

Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of daily all-over-body application of emollient during the first year of life for preventing atopic eczema in high-risk children (The BEEP trial): protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Joanne Chalmers, Rachel Haines, Eleanor Mitchell, Kim Thomas, Sara Brown, Matthew Ridd, Sandra Lawton, Eric Simpson, Michael Cork, Tracey Sach, Lucy Bradshaw, Alan Montgomery, Robert Boyle & Hywel Williams
Abstract Background Atopic eczema (AE) is a common skin problem that impairs quality of life and is associated with the development of other atopic diseases including asthma, food allergy and allergic rhinitis. AE treatment is a significant cost burden for health care providers. The purpose of the trial is to investigate whether daily application of emollients for the first year of life can prevent AE developing in high-risk infants (first-degree relative with asthma, AE or...

Impact of the change of copay policy in Medicare Part D on zoster vaccine uptake among Medicare beneficiaries in a managed care organization

Rulin Hechter, Lei Qian, Songkai Yan, Yi Luo, Girishanthy Krishnarajah & Hung-Fu Tseng
Abstract Background Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) adopted the Medicare Part D Tier-6 with zero patient copay for zoster vaccination in 2012. We assessed the impact of the implementation on zoster vaccination rate (GSK study identifier: HO-13-14,182). Methods Zoster vaccination rate was examined among an open cohort of ≥65-year-old Medicare Part D beneficiaries during 01/01/2008–06/30/2014, compared to ≥65-year-old commercial health plan members and 60–64-year-old members. The demographics, vaccination records, and insurance and benefit type were...

Evaluation of left atrial volume and function using single-beat real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in atrial fibrillation patients

Qian Zhang, Ju-Fang Wang, Qing-Qing Dong, Qing Yan, Xiang-Hong Luo, Xue-Ying Wu, Jian Liu & Ya-Ping Sun
Abstract Background This study was aimed to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT-3DE) measurement of left atrial (LA) volume and function in comparison with two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) measurements in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Methods A total of 50 pairs of AF patients and healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Indexed LA end-diastole volume (ILAEDV) and indexed LA end-systolic volume (ILAESV), as well as LA function indices such as segmental LA...

Novel efficient genome-wide SNP panels for the conservation of the highly endangered Iberian lynx

Daniel Kleinman-Ruiz, Begoña Martínez-Cruz, Laura Soriano, Maria Lucena-Perez, Fernando Cruz, Beatriz Villanueva, Jesús Fernández & José Godoy
Abstract Background The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) has been acknowledged as the most endangered felid species in the world. An intense contraction and fragmentation during the twentieth century left less than 100 individuals split in two isolated and genetically eroded populations by 2002. Genetic monitoring and management so far have been based on 36 STRs, but their limited variability and the more complex situation of current populations demand more efficient molecular markers. The recent characterization...

Comparative assessment of clinical rating scales in Wilson’s disease

Hanna Volpert, Jan Pfeiffenberger, Jan Gröner, Wolfgang Stremmel, Daniel Gotthardt, Mark Schäfer, Karl Weiss & Markus Weiler
Abstract Background Wilson’s disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism resulting in multifaceted neurological, hepatic, and psychiatric symptoms. The objective of the study was to comparatively assess two clinical rating scales for WD, the Unified Wilson’s Disease Rating Scale (UWDRS) and the Global Assessment Scale for Wilson’s disease (GAS for WD), and to test the feasibility of the patient reported part of the UWDRS neurological subscale (termed the “minimal UWDRS”). Methods In...

Low cigarette smoking prevalence in peri-urban Peru: results from a population-based study of tobacco use by self-report and urine cotinine

Brooks Morgan, Kathryn Leifheit, Karina Romero, Robert Gilman, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, J. Jaime Miranda, Harold Feldman, John Lima & William Checkley
Abstract Background A recent study found lower self-reported prevalence of tobacco smoking in a peri-urban area of Lima, Peru than previously reported in urban samples. These regions encompass substantial proportions of Peru’s population – ones at greater risk of disease due to reduced healthcare access – but have been less often studied. We validate low smoking prevalence with urine cotinine and characterize chronic disease and lung function outcomes between non-, occasional, and daily smokers. Methods...

Elucidating the role of highly homologous Nicotiana benthamiana ubiquitin E2 gene family members in plant immunity through an improved virus-induced gene silencing approach

Bangjun Zhou & Lirong Zeng
Abstract Background Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been used in many plant species as an attractive post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) method for studying gene function either individually or at large-scale in a high-throughput manner. However, the specificity and efficiency for knocking down members of a highly homologous gene family have remained to date a significant challenge in VIGS due to silencing of off-targets. Results Here we present an improved method for the selection and...

Estimation of linkage disequilibrium and effective population size in New Zealand sheep using three different methods to create genetic maps

Vincent Prieur, Shannon Clarke, Luiz Brito, John McEwan, Michael Lee, Rudiger Brauning, Ken Dodds & BenoĂŽt Auvray
Abstract Background Investments in genetic selection have played a major role in the New Zealand sheep industry competitiveness. Selection may erode genetic diversity, which is a crucial factor for the success of breeding programs. Better understanding of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and ancestral effective population size (Ne) through quantifying this diversity and comparison between populations allows for more informed decisions with regards to selective breeding taking population genetic diversity into account. The estimation of N e...

Spatial and temporal patterns of diarrhoea in Bhutan 2003–2013

Kinley Wangdi & Archie Clements
Abstract Background To describe spatiotemporal patterns of diarrhoea in Bhutan, and quantify the association between climatic factors and the distribution and dynamics of the disease. Methods Nationwide data on diarrhoea were obtained for 2003 to 2013 from the Health Information and Management System (HIMS), Ministry of Health, Bhutan. Climatic variables were obtained from the Department of Hydro Met Services, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Bhutan. Seasonal trend decomposition was used to examine secular trends and seasonal...

Treatment outcomes in schizophrenia: qualitative study of the views of family carers

Joanne Lloyd, Helen Lloyd, Ray Fitzpatrick & Michele Peters
Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a complex, heterogeneous disorder, with highly variable treatment outcomes, and relatively little is known about what is important to patients. The aim of the study was to understand treatment outcomes informal carers perceive to be important to people with schizophrenia. Method Qualitative interview study with 34 individuals and 8 couples who care for a person with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed by a thematic framework based approach. Results...

Ambulatory monitoring demonstrates an acute association between cookstove-related carbon monoxide and blood pressure in a Ghanaian cohort

Ashlinn Quinn, Kenneth Ae-Ngibise, Patrick Kinney, Seyram Kaali, Blair Wylie, Ellen Boamah, Daichi Shimbo, Oscar Agyei, Steven Chillrud, Mohammed Mujtaba, Joseph Schwartz, Marwah Abdalla, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Darby Jack & Kwaku Asante
Abstract Background Repeated exposure to household air pollution may intermittently raise blood pressure (BP) and affect cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated whether hourly carbon monoxide (CO) exposures were associated with acute increases in ambulatory blood pressure (ABP); and secondarily, if switching to an improved cookstove was associated with BP changes. We also evaluated the feasibility of using 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a cohort of pregnant women in Ghana. Methods Participants were 44 women...

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