212 Works

Heritability of nested hierarchical structural brain network.

Harold Hill Goldsmith & Nicole Schmidt
When a brain network is constructed by an existing parcellation method, the topological structure of the network changes depending on the scale of the parcellation. To avoid the scale dependency, we propose to construct a nested hierarchical structural brain network by subdividing the existing parcellation hierarchically. The method is applied in diffusion tensor imaging study of 111 twins in characterizing the topology of the brain network. The genetic contribution of the whole brain structural connectivity...

Sexual dimorphism and laterality in neurostructural development from late childhood to early adulthood: A cross-sectional voxel based morphometry study

Andrey Anokhin & James Kennedy
Intro: Adolescence is a sensitive period for social, emotional, risk, and reward behavior and is an onset period for serious psychiatric disorders. Changes in behavior in adolescence may be mediated by the rapid changes in brain structure observed during this time period. While adolescent structural development has been extensively analyzed, less is known about the developmental effects of sex or lateralized differences. Understanding how the brain typically develops during these critical periods may give insight...

ABCD Neurocognitive Prediction Challenge 2019: Test Set

Kilian Pohl & Kilian Pohl
The test data set for the ABCD Neurocognitive Prediction Challenge 2019 contains skull stripped and segmented T1-weighted MRIs, and volumetric brain measures of 3648 participants of the ABCD study. https://sibis.sri.com/abcd-np-challenge provides a detailed description about the processing. When using the data in publications, the Data Supplement of "Pfefferbaum et al., Altered Brain Developmental Trajectories in Adolescents After Initiating Drinking. Am J Psychiatry, 175(4), pp. 370-380, 2018" for should be cited as description of the processing...

The Diagnostic Efficacy of a Facial Recognition Screening Tool for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and by restrictive and repetitive patterns of behavior. An important quantitative social deficit, which is oftentimes not discussed but seen in those with ASD is impaired facial recognition, or the ability to identify and discriminate faces based on memory of one’s unique facial features. Despite the absence of this impairment in the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental...

Developmental and environmental influences on memory systems

Donald Mabbott & Alexandra Decker
Children with low socioeconomic status consistently show reduced memory ability and smaller hippocampal volumes. These findings have motivated a theory that the hippocampus underlies income-related cognitive gaps. However, income-related differences in hippocampal structure do not seems to mediate cognitive gaps, possibly because past studies do not distinguish between anterior and posterior hippocampus. We investigate anterior and posterior hippocampal volumes in children and adolescents from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds.

T1 white/gray contrast as a predictor of chronological age, and an index of cognitive performance

John David Lewis & Alan C. Evans
Knowing the maturational schedule of typical brain development is critical to our ability to identify deviations from it; such deviations have been related to cognitive performance and even developmental disorders. Chronological age can be predicted from brain images with considerable accuracy, but with limited spatial specificity, particularly in the case of the cerebral cortex. Methods using multi-modal data have shown the greatest accuracy, but have made limited use of cortical measures. Methods using complex measures...

Osteoarthritis Imitative (OAI) 48-Month Follow-up Visit (V08)

This NDA Study contains all images collected as part of the OAI 48-Month Follow-up visit. The Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) is a multi-center, ten-year observational study of men and women, sponsored by the NIH. The goals of the OAI are to provide resources to enable a better understanding of prevention and treatment of knee osteoarthritis, one of the most common causes of disability in adults.

Attentional bias modification treatment for depression: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Christopher Beevers & Christopher Beevers
Theoretical models and empirical research point to negatively biased attention as a maintaining factor in depression. Although preliminary studies suggest experimentally modifying attentional biases (i.e., attentional bias modification; ABM) reduces depression symptoms and depression risk, relatively few rigorous studies with clinical samples have been completed. This clinical trial examines the impact of ABM on a sample of adults (N = 123) with elevated depression severity who also exhibit at least modest levels of negatively biased attention prior...

Human Connectome Project-Development (HCP-D): Initial Release

Eileen Cler & David Van Essen Deanna Barch
Initial release of unprocessed data and preprocessed structural data for 100+ subjects.

Age attenuates noise and increases symmetry of head movements during sleep resting-state fMRI in healthy neonates, infants, and toddlers

Kristina Denisova & Kristina Denisova
Newborns produce spontaneous movements during sleep that are functionally important for their future development. This nuance has been previously studied using animal models and more recently using movement data from sleep resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scans. Age-related trajectory of statistical features of spontaneous movements of the head is under-examined. This study quantitatively mapped a developmental trajectory of spontaneous head movements during an rs-fMRI scan acquired during natural sleep in 91 datasets from healthy children from ~birth...

Screen media activity and brain structure in youth: Evidence for diverse structural correlation networks from the ABCD study

Martin P Paulus & Florence Breslin
The adolescent brain undergoes profound structural changes which is influenced by many factors. Screen media activity (SMA; e.g., watching television or videos, playing video games, or using social media) is a common recreational activity in children and adolescents; however, its effect on brain structure is not well understood. A multivariate approach with the first cross-sectional data release from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study was used to test the maturational coupling hypothesis, i.e. the...

The Landscape of Somatic Mutation in Human Cerebral Cortex

Walsh, CA; Park, P & Minseok Kwon
Although roles of somatic mutations-- acquired post-fertilization and present in only a subset of an individual’s cells1-- in cancer and certain focal epilepsies are well established2, the extent to which such mutations shape the normally developing human brain or affect risk of neuropsychiatric disease is poorly understood3,4. Here we characterize the landscape of developmental somatic mutations in the human brain by identifying those somatic mutations present in ≥2-3% of cells using ultra-deep (~250X) whole-genome sequencing...

Cognitive remediation for individuals with psychosis: Efficacy and mechanisms of treatment effects

Steven Silverstein, Jimmy Choi, Morris Bell, Kee-Hong Choi & Joanna Fiszdon
The popularity of cognitive remediation (CR) interventions for individuals with psychosis is in part based on the well-established link between cognition and functioning and the assumption that by targeting cognition, function can improve. While numerous trials have reported CR's efficacy, it is still not considered an evidencebased treatment. Importantly, little is known about the mechanisms through which it may affect functioning. Method: In this study, we evaluated CR's proximal and distal effects, and examined potential...

Hippocampal Growth after Febrile Status: FEBSTAT Five Year Follow-Up

e Mosh, M Frank, J Bello, S Chan, S Sun, L Epstein, Y Xu, R Shinnar, D Nordli, DC Hesdorffer, E Bagiella, D Masur, J Pellock, S Shinnar & DV Lewis
The FEBSTAT study (Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood) is prospectively examining long term outcomes of febrile status epilepticus ( FSE). We have previously reported the results of the acute2 and 1 year follow-up3 MRIs in the FEBSTAT cohort. This report describes the results of the 5 year follow-up MRIs on the FEBSTAT cohort. In this analysis we have integrated brain growth data from a large group of older normal control subjects obtained from...

Construction of the Design Matrix for Generalized Linear Mixed-Effects Models in the Context of Clinical Trials of Treatment Sequences

Francisco Diaz & Francisco J. Diaz
The estimation of carry-over effects is a difficult problem in the design and analysis of clinical trials of treatment sequences including cross-over trials. Except for simple designs, carry-over effects are usually unidentifiable and therefore nonestimable. Solutions such as imposing parameter constraints are often unjustified and produce differing carry-over estimates depending on the constraint imposed. Generalized inverses or treatment-balancing often allow estimating main treatment effects, but the problem of estimating the carry-over contribution of a treatment...

Reward System Function as a Potential Mediator of the Impact of Stress on Psychopathology: A Computational Neuroimaging Study

M Lindquist, S Chen, P Kochunov, J Gold, J Waltz & I Myin-Germeys
Despite the fact that both early-life and acute stress are known to bring about and worsen the symptoms of psychotic illness, the neural mechanisms by which this happens remain unclear. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate 1) how cumulative stress exposure impacts the function of fronto-striatal and limbic circuits involved in the processing of rewards and other salient stimuli and events, and 2) how these brain responses affect the symptoms of psychotic...

The relationship between functional brain organization and self-reported digital screen engagement in late childhood

Kathryn L Mills & Kathryn Mills
The idea that the increased ubiquity of digital devices negatively impacts neurodevelopment is as compelling as it is disturbing. The proposed study will investigate this concern by systematically evaluating how different profiles of screen-based engagement relate to functional brain organization in late childhood. Participants will be drawn from a large and representative sample of young people participating in the first wave of the ABCD study (ages 9-12 years). Of interest are the relations between self-reported...

Individual differences in valence bias: fMRI evidence of the initial negativity hypothesis

Maital Neta & Nathan Petro
Facial expressions offer an ecologically valid model for examining individual differences in affective decision-making. They convey an emotional signal from a social agent and provide important predictive information about one’s environment (presence of potential rewards or threats). Although some expressions provide clear predictive information (angry, happy), others (surprised) are ambiguous in that they predict both positive and negative outcomes. Thus, surprised faces can delineate an individual’s valence bias, or the tendency to interpret ambiguity as...

Maternal whole blood serotonin levels are associated with cognitive ability and core symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder

Mosconi MW, Guter SJ, Veenstra-VanderWeele J, Sutcliffe JS, Anderson GM, Shuffrey LC, Montgomery AK, Turner JB & Jacob S
Background: Biomarker and neuroimaging findings implicate the serotonin (5-HT) system in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent findings in mice indicate that the maternal 5-HT system influences embryonic neurodevelopment. Methods. Whole blood serotonin (WB5-HT) levels were obtained from 181 children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, 93 of their fathers and 106 of their mothers. Standardized assessements were used to evaluate cognitive, behavioral, and language phenotypes. Results. After correcting for proband age, multiple regression demonstrated a significant...

Dysregulated Brain Dynamics in a Triple-Network Saliency Model of Schizophrenia and Its Relation to Psychosis.

Vinod Menon & Vinod Menon
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a highly disabling psychiatric disorder characterized by a range of positive "psychosis" symptoms. However, the neurobiology of psychosis and associated systems-level disruptions in the brain remain poorly understood. Here, we test an aberrant saliency model of psychosis, which posits that dysregulated dynamic cross-network interactions among the salience network (SN), central executive network, and default mode network contribute to positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Using task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data...

Couple Conflict in Parents of Children with versus without Autism: Self-Reported and Observed Findings.

I Mihaila, P.M. Bussanich, E.J. Hickey, S.L. Hartley, G Goetz & L.M. Papp
We compared the couple conflict of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to a comparison group of parents of children without disabilities using self-reported and observational measures. In total, 178 couples who had a child with ASD (aged 5-12 years) and 174 couples who had children without disabilities (aged 5-12 years), recruited from a Midwestern state in the United States, reported on couple conflict in everyday life and engaged in an observed couple...

An Examination of Heterogeneity in Treatment Response to Antipsychotic Medications

Natalie Bareis & Natalie Bareis
Objective: To examine treatment heterogeneity in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE); a large RCT comparing effectiveness of several oral second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and a first-generation antipsychotic. We tested whether subgroup characteristics modified treatment effects on time to all-cause treatment discontinuation and change in neurocognition measured by the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Methods: Data is from the intent-to-treat cohort without tardive dyskinesia (N=1206). Participants aged 18-65 years, with a DSM-IV diagnosis of...

Osteoarthritis Imitative (OAI) Baseline Visit (V00)

This NDA Study contains all images collected as part of the OAI Baseline visit. The Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) is a multi-center, ten-year observational study of men and women, sponsored by the NIH. The goals of the OAI are to provide resources to enable a better understanding of prevention and treatment of knee osteoarthritis, one of the most common causes of disability in adults.

Relationship Between Impulsivity, Self-Harm Behavior, and Suicidal Ideation in a Preadolescent Sample From the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study

Susan Bookheimer & Susan Bookheimer
Background: When assessing for suicide risk, research has shown that individual propensity to act impulsively is a predictive factor in adolescent clinical samples. To determine whether this relationship is also present in younger children, this study aims to identify the relationship between motivational systems and suicidal ideation (SI) with/without non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among preadolescents. Methods: The BIS/BAS questionnaire and K-SADS interview were used to examine the interaction between motivational systems and suicidal behavior in children...

Estimating patient-specific treatment advantages in the ‘Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study’

Simon Foster & Simon Foster
The ‘Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study’ (TADS, ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT00006286) was a cornerstone, randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of standard treatment options for major depression in adolescents. Whereas previous TADS analyses examined primarily effect modifications of treatment-placebo differences by various patient characteristics, less is known about the modification of inter-treatment differences, and hence, patient characteristics that might guide treatment selection. We sought to fill this gap by estimating patient-specific inter-treatment differences as a...

Registration Year

  • 2014
  • 2015
  • 2016
  • 2017
  • 2018
  • 2019

Resource Types

  • Dataset

Data Centers

  • National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health