217 Works

Borderline personality disorder symptoms and affective responding to perceptions of rejection and acceptance from romantic versus nonromantic partners.

Paul Pilkonis & Kelly Johnston
We examined event-contingent recording of daily interpersonal interactions in a diagnostically diverse sample of 101 psychiatric outpatients who were involved in a romantic relationship. We tested whether the unique effect of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms on affective responses (i.e., hostility, sadness, guilt, fear, and positive affect) to perceptions of rejection or acceptance differed with one's romantic partner compared with nonromantic partners. BPD symptoms were associated with more frequent perceptions of rejection and less frequent...

Attachment, borderline personality, and romantic relationship dysfunction.

Kelly Johnston & Paul Pilkonis
Previous studies have implicated attachment and disturbances in romantic relationships as important indicators for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The current research extends our current knowledge by examining the specific associations among attachment, romantic relationship dysfunction, and BPD, above and beyond the contribution of emotional distress and nonromantic interpersonal functioning in two distinct samples. Study 1 comprised a community sample of women (N = 58) aged 25-36. Study 2 consisted of a psychiatric sample (N =...

NIMH NHGRI data-sharing project

Adam Thomas & Philip Shaw
An MRI dataset of 441 individuals from 321 nuclear families, containing a T1w anatomical scan for each subject. At the time of the scan are individuals did not have any psychiatric disorders, as assessed by clinician-administered interviews. High resolution (1.07 x 1.07 x 1.2mm) T1 weighted volumetric structural imaging data were collected on a 3-T GE Signa scanner with an eight-channel head coil. Magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE) sequences were obtained with ASSET preparation...

Heterogeneity of Treatment Effects of Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotic Medications

Natalie Bareis & T. Scott Stroup
OBJECTIVE: To investigate subgroup responses to long-acting injectable (LAI) medications haloperidol decanoate (HD) and paliperidone palmitate (PP) in a randomized controlled trial that found no difference between the treatments on the primary outcome of efficacy failure. METHODS: A Comparison of Long-Acting Injectable Medications for Schizophrenia (ACLAIMS) enrolled 311 participants from March 2011 to July 2013 meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder at risk of relapse due to medication nonadherence or substance...

Rare Inherited and De Novo CNVs Reveal Complex Contributions to ASD Risk in Multiplex families

Daniel H. Geshwind & Doxa Chatzopoulou
NOTE: NOT ALL DATA HAS BEEN UPLOADED FOR THIS STUDY. Rare mutations, including copy-number variants (CNVs), contribute significantly to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk. Although their importance has been established in families with only one affected child (simplex families), the contribution of both de novo and inherited CNVs to ASD in families with multiple affected individuals (multiplex families) is less well understood. We analyzed 1,532 families from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) to assess...

Complete Realignment of Whole Exome Sequencing data from 2415 families in SSC Collection

E Eichler & N Krumm
Whole Exome Sequencing has been completed for ~ 2500 families from the Simons Simplex Collection. Sequencing was performed at three individual sequencing centers with original data submitted to NDAR Collections 1878, 1895, and 1936; subsets of these data have been analyzed by various methods and published. This study represents an effort to realign sequencing data from all three collection sin a uniform manner using the latest toolchains and algorithms available, which can be used as...

Identification of Infants at High-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Multiparameter Multiscale White Matter Connectivity Networks

Pew-Thian Yap, Dong Ni, Kim-Han Thung, Feng Shi, Chong-Yaw Wee, Yan Jin & Dinggang Shen
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a wide range of disabilities that cause life-long cognitive impairment and social, communication, and behavioral challenges. Early diagnosis and medical intervention are important for improving the life quality of autistic patients. However, in the current practice, diagnosis often has to be delayed until the behavioral symptoms become evident during childhood. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of using machine learning techniques for identifying high-risk ASD infants at as early...

Frequency and Complexity of De Novo Structural Mutation in Autism

Eric Courchesne, Lilia Iakoucheva, Christina Corsello & Jonathan Sebat
Genetic studies of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have established that de novo duplications and deletions contribute to risk. However, ascertainment of structural variants (SVs) has been restricted by the coarse resolution of current approaches. By applying a custom pipeline for SV discovery, genotyping, and de novo assembly to genome sequencing of 235 subjects (71 affected individuals, 26 healthy siblings, and their parents), we compiled an atlas of 29,719 SV loci (5,213/genome), comprising 11 different classes....

Demographic, Psychological, Behavioral, and Cognitive Correlates of BMI in Youth: Findings from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study

Joshua Gray & Joshua C. Gray
Background: Previous research has implicated demographic, psychological, behavioral, and cognitive variables in the onset and maintenance of pediatric overweight/obesity. No adequately-powered study has simultaneously modeled these variables to assess their relative associations with body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) in a nationally representative sample of youth. Methods: Multiple machine learning regression approaches were employed to estimate the relative importance of 43 demographic, psychological, behavioral, and cognitive variables previously associated with BMI in youth to elucidate the...

When does the youthfulness of the female brain emerge?

N Maleki & Nasim Maleki
Goyal et al., report in the February issue of PNAS that the female adult brain has a persistently lower metabolic brain age compared with the male brain at the same chronological age (1). In interpreting this remarkable finding, the authors propose that sex-related differences in brain development may in part play a role in “setting” the female brain at a younger initial brain age at puberty, allowing them to maintain a younger brain throughout adulthood....

Estimating patient-specific treatment advantages in the ‘Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study’

Simon Foster & Simon Foster
The ‘Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study’ (TADS, ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT00006286) was a cornerstone, randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of standard treatment options for major depression in adolescents. Whereas previous TADS analyses examined primarily effect modifications of treatment-placebo differences by various patient characteristics, less is known about the modification of inter-treatment differences, and hence, patient characteristics that might guide treatment selection. We sought to fill this gap by estimating patient-specific inter-treatment differences as a...

Measuring theory of mind in schizophrenia research: Cross-cultural validation.

Lee HS, Corbera S, Poltorak A, Park K, Assaf M, Bell MD, Wexler BE, Cho YI, Jung S, Brocke S & Choi KH
Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to understand mental states of others and it is crucial for building sensitivity to other persons or events. Measuring ToM is important for understanding and rehabilitating social cognitive impairments in persons with schizophrenia. The Social Attribution Task-Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) has been successfully employed to measure ToM between individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HC) in North America. Given that the SAT-MC uses geometric shapes, is nonverbal and...

Derivation of Brain Structure Volumes from MRI Neuroimages hosted by NDAR using LONI Workflows

John Van Horn
LONI used de-identified data from NDAR's cloud and a LONI image processing pipeline to perform a secondary structural MRI study. The workflow used in this study pulls data from and provided by NDAR to an instance on a LONI cloud, aligns data to a standard orientation using FSLreorient2stsd, and undergoes further image processing to eventually identify, extract, and analyze cortical and sub-cortical structures in different MRI brain volumes. Two methods were used for this image...

Age- and performance-related differences in hippocampal contributions to episodic retrieval.

S. Ghetti, S. Bunge, J. Lee, C. Wendelken & M. Sastre
The goal of the present study was to investigate whether hippocampal contribution to episodic memory retrieval varies as a function of age (8-9 versus 10-11 versus adults), performance levels (high versus low) and hippocampal sub-region (head, body, tail). We examined fMRI data collected during episodic retrieval from a large sample (N=126). Participants judged whether a stimulus had been encoded previously, and, if so, which of three scenes it had been paired with (i.e., source judgment)....

Representation of real-world event schemas during narrative perception

C Baldassano & U Hasson
Understanding movies and stories requires maintaining a high-level situation model that abstracts away from perceptual details to describe the location, characters, actions, and causal relationships of the currently unfolding event. These models are built not only from information present in the current narrative, but also from prior knowledge about schematic event scripts, which describe typical event sequences encountered throughout a lifetime. We analyzed fMRI data from 44 human subjects presented with sixteen three-minute stories, consisting...

Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Multiple Continuous Treatments: An Application to Antipsychotic Drugs

S-L. Normand, M. Horvitz-Lennon, J. Spertus, Marcela Horvitz-Lennon & Sharon-Lise Normand
Modeling dose-response relationships of drugs is essential to understanding their eect on patient outcomes under realistic circumstances. While intention-to-treat analyses of clinical trials provide the eect of assignment to a particular drug and dose, they do not capture observed exposure after factoring in non-adherence and dropout. We develop Bayesian methods to exibly model dose-response relationships of binary outcomes with continuous treatment, allowing for treatment eect heterogeneity and a non-linear response surface. We use a hierarchical...

Prediction of brain maturity based on cortical thickness at different spatial resolutions

And The Brain Development Cooperative Group, Alan Evans, Jussi Tohka & Budhachandra Khundrakpam
Several studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have shown developmental trajectories of cortical thickness. Cognitive milestones happen concurrently with these structural changes, and a delay in such changes has been implicated in developmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accurate estimation of individuals' brain maturity, therefore, is critical in establishing a baseline for normal brain development against which neurodevelopmental disorders can be assessed. In this study, cortical thickness derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging...

Targeted DNA Sequencing from Autism Spectrum Disorder Brains Implicates Multiple Genetic Mechanisms

N Sestan, A Lam, RE Reiff, S Jamuar, M Li, S Pochareddy, I D’Gama & CA Walsh
Single nucleotide variants (SNVs), particularly loss-of-function mutations, are significant contributors to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk. Here we report the first systematic deep sequencing study of 55 postmortem ASD brains for SNVs in 78 known ASD candidate genes. Remarkably, even without parental samples, we find more ASD brains with mutations that are protein-altering (26/55 cases versus 12/50 controls, p = 0.015), deleterious (16/55 versus 5/50, p = 0.016), or loss-of-function (6/55 versus 0/50, p =...

Heritability of nested hierarchical structural brain network.

Harold Hill Goldsmith & Nicole Schmidt
When a brain network is constructed by an existing parcellation method, the topological structure of the network changes depending on the scale of the parcellation. To avoid the scale dependency, we propose to construct a nested hierarchical structural brain network by subdividing the existing parcellation hierarchically. The method is applied in diffusion tensor imaging study of 111 twins in characterizing the topology of the brain network. The genetic contribution of the whole brain structural connectivity...

Sexual dimorphism and laterality in neurostructural development from late childhood to early adulthood: A cross-sectional voxel based morphometry study

Andrey Anokhin & James Kennedy
Intro: Adolescence is a sensitive period for social, emotional, risk, and reward behavior and is an onset period for serious psychiatric disorders. Changes in behavior in adolescence may be mediated by the rapid changes in brain structure observed during this time period. While adolescent structural development has been extensively analyzed, less is known about the developmental effects of sex or lateralized differences. Understanding how the brain typically develops during these critical periods may give insight...

ABCD Neurocognitive Prediction Challenge 2019: Test Set

Kilian Pohl & Kilian Pohl
The test data set for the ABCD Neurocognitive Prediction Challenge 2019 contains skull stripped and segmented T1-weighted MRIs, and volumetric brain measures of 3648 participants of the ABCD study. https://sibis.sri.com/abcd-np-challenge provides a detailed description about the processing. When using the data in publications, the Data Supplement of "Pfefferbaum et al., Altered Brain Developmental Trajectories in Adolescents After Initiating Drinking. Am J Psychiatry, 175(4), pp. 370-380, 2018" for should be cited as description of the processing...

The Diagnostic Efficacy of a Facial Recognition Screening Tool for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

NDAR
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and by restrictive and repetitive patterns of behavior. An important quantitative social deficit, which is oftentimes not discussed but seen in those with ASD is impaired facial recognition, or the ability to identify and discriminate faces based on memory of one’s unique facial features. Despite the absence of this impairment in the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental...

Developmental and environmental influences on memory systems

Donald Mabbott & Alexandra Decker
Children with low socioeconomic status consistently show reduced memory ability and smaller hippocampal volumes. These findings have motivated a theory that the hippocampus underlies income-related cognitive gaps. However, income-related differences in hippocampal structure do not seems to mediate cognitive gaps, possibly because past studies do not distinguish between anterior and posterior hippocampus. We investigate anterior and posterior hippocampal volumes in children and adolescents from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds.

T1 white/gray contrast as a predictor of chronological age, and an index of cognitive performance

John David Lewis & Alan C. Evans
Knowing the maturational schedule of typical brain development is critical to our ability to identify deviations from it; such deviations have been related to cognitive performance and even developmental disorders. Chronological age can be predicted from brain images with considerable accuracy, but with limited spatial specificity, particularly in the case of the cerebral cortex. Methods using multi-modal data have shown the greatest accuracy, but have made limited use of cortical measures. Methods using complex measures...

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