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ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Ancillary Vegetation Measurements in Croplands

Bert Gielen, Maarten Op De Beeck & Dario Papale
This document describes the measurement of ancillary vegetation variables at ICOS ecosystem stations in croplands. These variables are Green Area Index (GAI), Aboveground Biomass (AGB), and litter biomass. In summary, they are measured for the following aims and with the following methods: - GAI is measured to explain seasonal variation in ecosystem-atmosphere fluxes and is measured either directly by destructive sampling or indirectly with a linear ceptometer. Indirect measurements are compared against direct measurements from...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Field-Map Instrument Use

Maarten Op De Beeck & Dario Papale
This document describes the use of the Field-Map instrument for mapping trees and sensors in the ICOS forest sites

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Plant Species Reporting

Guido Pellis & Dario Papale
This Instruction document describes the procedure to report plant species present in the ICOS stations to the ETC. The species classification (to be done in the field or in the lab) is not discussed here because it is a standard procedure that must be done by experts in the station team. The reference nomenclature has to follow the approach of The Plant List database (http://www.theplantlist.org), where multiple taxonomic data sources were merged taking into consideration...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Foliar Samples Collection and LMA Ratio Determination

Denis Loustau, Christelle Aluome & Dario Papale
The nutritional status of the canopy foliage in terms of macronutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn) has a strong influence on the carbon cycle and energy balance of terrestrial ecosystems and therefore on the energy, water and greenhouse gas fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The leaf mass to area ratio, LMA, is also a widely used leaf functional trait the spatial and temporal variations of which are essential...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Use the ICOS BADM

Dario Papale, Eleonora Canfora & Diego Polidori
The ICOS BADM (Biological, Ancillary, Disturbance and Metadata) is the system used to submit non-continuous data, metadata and information to the ICOS ETC. It is based on an international system agreed across the flux networks globally (in particular between AmeriFlux and the European Database) but adapted to the specific needs of ICOS. In this document the general structure of the ICOS BADM, the different type of variables and the options are described. Then instructions on...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for AccuPAR LP-80 Ceptometer Instrument Use

Maarten Op De Beeck, Simone Sabbatini & Dario Papale
This document explains Green Area Index measurements with the AccuPAR LP-80 PAR/LAI Ceptometer, here simply called AccuPAR, at ICOS ecosystem stations. It describes how to set up the instrument and how to carry out the measurements at each measurement plot following the spatial scheme explained in the Instructions documents for Ancillary Vegetation Measurements. It also explains how output files from the instrument are structured.

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Station Team Description

Dario Papale, Eleonora Canfora & Diego Polidori
This document describes the reporting of the ICOS Ecosystem station team and how the communication between ETC and different station team members will be organized. The aim is to have a clear definition of the people working at the station in order to optimize the exchange of information. The document is structured in six different sections with the aim to facilitate the use and application: - Station Team Roles, where it is described which are...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Raw Data Format for CO2 Storage Measurements

Simone Sabbatini, Giacomo Nicolini & Dario Papale
The following document describes the accepted formatting and file structure and name for the submission of 1 Hz storage raw data in ICOS. This group of variables includes the whole storage system (gas concentrations, including water vapour, air temperature and air humidity) installed following the respective ICOS protocols and instruction documents.

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Setting Up the Spatial Sampling Scheme

Dario Papale & Giacomo Nicolini
The ecosystem stations in ICOS have a number of sampling points and plots that are used to perform repeated measurements in time and to characterize the soil and vegetation of the monitored ecosystem. This document describes the selection and identification of the different sampling locations that are then used and recalled in the ICOS-Ecosystem Protocols and Instructions (e.g. soil sampling, ecosystem characterization, repeated ancillary vegetation measurements). It is structured in different sections with the aim...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Soil Samples Collection and Preparation

Denis Loustau, Claudy Jolivet, Sébastien Lafont, Katja Klumpp, Dario Papale & Dominique Arrouays
This document describes how to collect and prepare soil samples to monitor the soil organic Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks (CNS) within the target area of an EC flux tower. The stocks are calculated for the first meter (0 to 100 cm). The CNS will be determined from simultaneous measurements of soil organic carbon and nitrogen contents and bulk density. Whereas the C and N contents of soil samples are determined by the ETC central laboratory,...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Station and Site Description

Dario Papale, Giacomo Nicolini & Eleonora Canfora
The “Station description and historical information” instruction document contains guidelines to acquire and report all the descriptive information required to characterize the station at the beginning of the ICOS period. Such information concerns mainly the station location and organization, the average climate conditions (temperature, precipitation, wind direction, radiation), and the history of disturbances and management. The document is structured in three different sections: - Measurements: in this section it is described how and where collect...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for SS1 SunScan Canopy Analysis Ceptometer Use

Maarten Op De Beeck, Simone Sabbatini & Dario Papale
This document explains Green Area Index measurements with the SS1 SunScan Canopy Analysis System, here simply called Sunscan, at ICOS ecosystem stations. It describes how to set up the instrument and how to carry out the measurements at each measurement plot following the spatial scheme explained in the Instructions documents for Ancillary Vegetation Measurements. It also explains how output files from the instrument are structured.

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Raw Data Format for Meteorological Measurements

Simone Sabbatini, Maarten Op De Beeck & Dario Papale
The following document describes the accepted formatting and file structure and name for the submission of continuous low-frequency (seconds to minute) meteorological raw data in ICOS. This group of variables includes all the meteo and soil climate sensors installed following the ICOS protocols.

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Raw Data Format for CO2 Eddy Covariance Measurements

Simone Sabbatini & Dario Papale
The following document describes the accepted formatting and file structure and name for the submission of continuous eddy covariance raw data in ICOS. This group of variables includes high-frequency measurements of wind speed, sonic temperature and gas concentrations collected by the sonic anemometer Gill HS-50 or HS-100 and the IRGA LICOR LI-7200 or LI-7200RS. Non-CO2 gases are not included in this section.

V-Dem Country-Year Dataset 2018

Michael Coppedge, John Gerring, Carl Henrik Knutsen, Staffan I. Lindberg, Svend-Erik Skaaning, Jan Teorell, David Altman, Michael Bernhard, M. Steven Fish, Agnes Cornell, Sirianne Dahlum, Haakon Gjerløw, Adam Glynn, Allen Hicken, Joshua Krusell, Anna Lührmann, Kyle L. Marquardt, Kelly McMann, Valeriya Mechkova, Juraj Medzihorsky, Moa Olin, Pamela Paxton, Daniel Pemstein, Josefine Pernes, Johannes Von Römer … & Daniel Ziblatt

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Radiation Measurements

Giacomo Nicolini, Simone Sabbatini & Dario Papale
at the ICOS Ecosystem Stations. The following variables are included: - Incoming short-wave radiation (SW_IN) - Outgoing short-wave radiation (SW_OUT) - Diffuse short-wave radiation (SW_DIF) - Incoming long-wave radiation (LW_IN) - Outgoing long-wave radiation (LW_OUT) - Incoming photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD_IN) - Outgoing photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD_OUT) - Diffuse photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD_DIF) - Below canopy photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD_BC_IN) All the following requirements and specifications apply to Class 1 and...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Site Characterization Measurements in Mires

Maarten Op De Beeck, Bert Gielen & Dario Papale
This document describes the measurements to perform at mire stations for the characterization of the site investigated. These measurements are performed at the beginning of the ICOS operation of the station and are aimed at assessing the spatial heterogeneity of the mire vegetation. More specifically, they are done (i) to identify the main plant community types that make up the target area and (ii) to evaluate the representativeness of Continuous Measurements Plots (CPs). The methodology...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Site Characterization Measurements in Grasslands

Maarten Op De Beeck & Dario Papale
This document describes the measurements to perform at the beginning of the ICOS grassland station operation in order to characterize the site investigated. These characterization measurements are twofold: they include (i) measurements of species presence to characterize the grassland in terms of botanical composition, and (ii) measurements of Aboveground Biomass (AGB) in order to define the station characteristic needed for the design of the ancillary vegetation measurements.

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Ancillary Vegetation Measurements in Grasslands

Maarten Op De Beeck, Simone Sabbatini & Dario Papale
This document describes the measurement of ancillary vegetation variables at ICOS ecosystem stations in grasslands. These variables include Green Area Index (GAI), Aboveground Biomass (AGB), and litter biomass, and are in summary measured with the following methods: - GAI and AGB are assessed from direct measurements by destructive sampling and from plate meter measurements of bulk vegetation height, which are combined in a double sampling design. Destructive sampling involves clipping vegetation to a site-specific stubble...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Water Table Depth Measurements

Maarten Op De Beeck, Simone Sabbatini & Dario Papale
This document describes how to organize, set up, and collect the measurements of water table depth at ICOS ecosystem stations. The document is structured in four different sections with the aim to facilitate the use and application: - Measurements: in this section the sensors and material needed, the setup and methods to correctly collect the data and info are described. It includes sub-sections on sensor characteristics, practical indication for the setup/collection, info on the sampling...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Precipitation Measurements

Giacomo Nicolini & Dario Papale
Precipitation is one of the most important abiotic variables related to plant growth. Considering the spatial variability of precipitation in relation to the area of interest (Eddy covariance system footprint), a single point measurement would satisfy the requirement as ancillary variable in ICOS. This measurement includes all precipitation in liquid and solid form: rain, snowfall (water content where applicable) sleet, graupel and hail. When the snow cumulates on the soil, also the snow depth has...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Air Meteorological Measurements (TA, RH, PA, WS, WD)

Simone Sabbatini, Giacomo Nicolini, Maarten Op De Beeck & Dario Papale
Several meteorological variables need to be measured at ICOS monitoring stations in order to characterize them, analyse the drivers explaining GHG fluxes, and properly calculate, partition and aggregate these fluxes and their seasonal budgets from eddy covariance (EC) measurements, the storage profile, automatic chambers, etc. This Instruction document deals with all the relevant air characteristics to be measured at ICOS stations, i.e. air temperature (TA), air relative humidity (RH), air pressure (PA), wind speed (WS)...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Ancillary Vegetation Measurements in Mires

Maarten Op De Beeck, Simone Sabbatini & Dario Papale
This Instruction document describes the measurement of Green Area Index (GAI) and Aboveground Biomass (AGB) at ICOS ecosystem stations in mires. The focus of these Instructions is skewed towards rather sparsely vegetated fen and bog mires, as found in boreal and subarctic Europe and with vegetation primarily made up of mosses, herbaceous vascular plants, and dwarf shrubs. Only measurements on mire vegetation comprising one or more of these three plant functional types (PFTs) are hence...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Soil Meteorological Measurements (TS, SWC, G)

Maarten Op De Beeck, Simone Sabbatini & Dario Papale
This document describes how to organize, set up, and collect the measurements of soil-meteorological variables at ICOS ecosystem stations. These variables are soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, and soil heat flux density. Measurements of water table depth, another soil-meteorological variable, are explained in a separate Instructions document. This document is structured in four different sections with the aim to facilitate the use and application: - Measurements: in this section the sensors, setup and methods...

GIS data set over archaeological remains on Samoa

Olof Håkansson
Data set that contains information on archaeological remains of the pre historic settlement of the Letolo valley on Savaii on Samoa. It is built in ArcMap from ESRI and is based on previously unpublished surveys made by the Peace Corps Volonteer Gregory Jackmond in 1976-78, and in a lesser degree on excavations made by Helene Martinsson Wallin and Paul Wallin. The settlement was in use from at least 1000 AD to about 1700- 1800. Since...

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