789 Works

Effects of seashell aggregates in concrete properties

B. Gonzalez, D. Carro, F. Martínez-Abella, C. Martínez & S. Seara-Paz
In this project the use of mussel shell as fine and coarse aggregate in concrete is studied. Two different conventional concretes were designed, a non-structural concrete (NSC) and a plain structural one (SC). Then, the conventional fine and coarse aggregate was partially replaced with seashell. Initially, each size fraction (fine or coarse) was replaced separately using four substitution rates (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). Finally, two low percentages (5% and 12.5%) were chosen to replace...

Investigating the strain rate-dependent compressive properties of fiber-reinforced soy-based polyurethane foams

N. Obaid, M. Kortschot & M. Sain
Although conventional polyurethane foams are used in several applications; they are produced from non-renewable constituents. An alternative polyurethane foam can be produced by replacing petroleum-based polyol with one that is derived from soybean oil. Polyurethane foams are often used as the core material for sandwich panels in structural applications and as energy absorption materials in car bumpers and other applications. In order to maintain structural integrity, these foams must display acceptable properties over a wide...

Fracture analysis of wood under variable environment

N. Angellier, R. Moutou Pitti & F. Dubois
The better knowledge of crack driving forces is very important in the assessment of the reliability of timber structures. This work is part of the CLIMBOIS project related to the effects of climatic and mechanical variations on the durability of timber structures. It deals with several fracture tests performed in climatic chamber on the cracking of specimens machined in Douglas and White Fir species. Opening mode crack growth is studied with adapted specimen’s geometry. Both...

Durability studies on lightweight plaster and straw fiber based material for building thermal insulation

N. Belayachi, D. Hoxha & M. Slaimia
In this paper, the impact of freezing-thawing and wetting-drying cycles on the thermal and mechanical properties of a new straw-based composite is investigated. The material specimens used for accelerated aging were manufactured with two straw types: wheat and barley. The binder selected for the study was gypsum plaster. Only the optimized mixture was used to perform the accelerated aging tests. The durability of the insulation material was evaluated with accelerated aging through wetting-drying and freezing-thawing...

Efficiency of high performance concrete types incorporating bio-materials like rice husk ashes, cassava starch, lignosulfonate, and sisal fibres

W. Schmidt, N. S. Msinjili, S. Pirskawetz & H. C. Kühne
Over the last decades concrete has evolved from a simple mass construction material towards a sophisticated multi-component system. The design parameters for the mixture composition of concrete have significantly increased from strength based towards overall or specific performance based. As a result the variety of concrete has increased yielding a number of special concrete technologies such as Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC), High-Performance Concrete (HPC), Strain Hardening Cement Based Composites (SHCC), and many others. Due to their...

Comparing hemp composites made with mineral or organic binder on thermal, hygric and mechanical point of view

F. Collet, S. Pretot, B. Mazhoud, L. Bessette & C. Lanos
This study investigates the effect of the kind of binder on thermal, hygric and mechanical properties of hemp composites. Three binders are considered: a formulated hydraulic lime based binder, a prompt cement based binder and a peculiar bio-polymer: the Poly-Lactic Acid (PLA). The binder is coupled with hemp shiv to produce biocomposite. For each kind of binder, the specific manufacturing method is presented and discussed. The thermal properties of produced biocomposite are measured with a...

Investigation of mechanical performances of insulating building materials based on rice husk and hemp hurd

M. Chabannes, E. Garcia-Diaz, L. Clerc & J. C. Bénézet
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mechanical properties and the lime-based binder hardening of green concretes made of rice husk or hemp hurd. Concrete specimens were subjected to different curing conditions. Under natural conditions, they were cured during 10 months in a climate-controlled room (20°C ‒ 50%RH) and exposed outdoors. The work also focused on an accelerated carbonation curing (CO2 curing) aiming to improve the short term compressive strength (1-2 months) of...

Acoustical characterization and modelling of agricultural byproducts for building insulation

E. Gourdon, P. A. Chabriac, P. Glé, A. Fabbri & F. McGregor
In a general context of global warming, an increasing interest is observed on the use of biobased insulating materials. Indeed, this kind of materials ensures good thermal characteristics while drastically reducing fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions associated with their manufacture. In addition, thanks to their permeancy (ability to allow diffusion of water vapor within their porous network), these materials present an alternative option to isolate and rehabilitate buildings made with non-industrial materials (rammed...

3D X-ray tomography for the hygrothermal characterization of spruce wood

C. El Hachem, K. Abahri & R. Bennacer
The bio-based material considered in this work is spruce wood. Because of its complex morphology and high heterogeneity, this material still presents lacks of knowledge, concerning microscopic geometric changes, due to the hygrothermal solicitations. These changes lead usually to a considerable evolution of the resulting thermophysical properties of the material which constrains its use. The swelling and shrinkage phenomena, observed at the macroscopic scale, are the main witnesses reflecting such change caused by the hygric...

Bamboo panels to control moisture level of buildings

D. M. Nguyen, A. C. Grillet, J. Weiss, T. S. Phan Nguyen, M. H. Diep Thi & M. Woloszyn
The traditional use of bamboo throughout South East Asia is very diverse: fences, scaffolding, kitchen equipment, furniture, mats, blinds, toothpicks, paper pulp… Some applications use bamboo cane as such, however the current tendency is also towards an unstructured use of bamboo in the form of fibers or chips or even ashes. From strips, a wide variety of boards and plywood are made. Panels from bamboo fibers compressed in the presence of an organic resin are...

Carbon footprint of bamboo particles, rice husk and wood shavings-cement composites

L. Caldas, M. Da Gloria, D. Santos, V. Andreola, M. Pepe & R. Toledo Filho
The growing concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) increases more and more the heat trapping in the atmosphere, leading to a rise in global temperatures, also known as global warming. For these reasons, in the last decade, in order to counteract this phenomenon, a special effort has been made also in the construction sector by developing new sustainable building materials and, moreover, one of the most promising solution is the possible employment of forest waste as...

The effect of sodium hydroxide surface treatment on the tensile strength of cellulose nanofibre

R. K. Leung, S. Panthapulakkal, M. Sain & D. K. Panesar
The use of cellulose nanofibres in the reinforcement of polymers has applications in bio-based building materials. However, one problem observed when using cellulose nanofibres within composites is the difficulty of ensuring their adequate dispersion. The phenomenon of agglomeration is attributed to the high density of polarized hydroxyl groups at the surface of cellulose nanofibres. Initial observations of cellulose nanofibre agglomeration, in a cement matrix at volume fractions larger than 0.1%, are theorized to have contributed...

Effect of sheep wool fibres on thermal-insulation and mechanical properties of cement matrix

A. Valenza, V. Fiore, A. Nicolosi, G. Rizzo, G. Scaccianoce & G. Di Bella
The use of sheep wool as reinforcement of cement in order to produce mortar or plaster involves several advantages for environment and energy. Moreover, in several regions it is treated as a waste and, consequently, its employ is characterized by low cost. Aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of wool fibres on thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of cement. The samples were prepared using wool fibres, obtained from a breed of Sicilian...

3D printing of fibre cement-based materials: fresh and rheological performances

M. Rubio, M. Sonebi & S. Amziane
The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of different mix composition on fresh and rheological properties of a printable mortar. For the mix design, two binders such as fly ash (FA), and silica fume (SF) were used with cement and sand for a water/binder ratio of 0.50. Polypropylene fibres (PP), superplasticizer (SP), and viscosity modifying agents VMA (Diutan gun and nano-clay) were used in the investigation. The results show that adding 24%...

Investigation on the performance and durability of treated hemp concrete with water repellent

C. Sentenac, M. Sonebi & S. Amziane
Hemp concrete is an organic based building material. Hemp concrete principal weakness point is the mechanical performance such as the compressive strength but the lack of information concerning the durability performance of this material can also be an explanation for the professional’s reluctance to use bio-based concrete. This study focused on the effects of aggregate treatments, water repellent and two different binders. The mechanicals performance such as the compressive strength at 7, 14 and 28...

Biochar as a carbon sequestering construction material in cementitious mortar

S. Gupta & H. W. Kua
Recent efforts to attain carbon negative construction practices in Singapore and other developed countries leads to a search for construction materials that can reduce net carbon emission associated with concrete constructions. One such material is biochar which can sequester fixed carbon in its structure. Therefore, using biochar as a mixed-in component in cementitious material can reduce the net greenhouse emission associated with concrete constructions. Our study focuses on application of biochar derived from mixed-wood saw...

Biochar as a bond enhancement in fiber-reinforced mortar

H. W. Kua, S. Gupta & C. Tan
This study focuses on the evaluation of using biochar to enhance the strength performance of cement mortar reinforced with polypropylene (PP) fibers. Biochar was produced with mixed wood sawdust that was discarded from a local sawmill. It was then divided into two groups, with one group being subjected to dosage of carbon dioxide until it reached saturation. Results showed that when reinforcing PP fibers are coated with CO2-dosed biochar, the cement mortar experienced a 13%...

Cementitious material with bio-based recycled agricultural waste

B. Nepal, C. S. Chin & S. W. Jones
Fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) is a significant achievement of modern construction. Fibres increase the ductile capacity of concrete by enabling it to undergo large deformation before failure. The tensile strength of concrete is increased whereas it would otherwise only be strong in compression. Although FRC has several advantages, the use of steel fibres means it only provides a little contribution towards sustainability; therefore a shift towards new and innovative building materials is an urgent necessity....

Effect of various moisture content on the mechanical and viscoelastic properties of giant reed Arundo donax L.

F. Nicoletti, V. Fiore, R. Tavolanti, T. Scalici & A. Valenza
The giant reed Arundo donax L. is an aggressive grass widely diffused throughout warm temperate regions. Thanks to its remarkable features as fast-growing, eco friendly and high specific properties (i.e. high strength/weight and modulus/weight ratios), it is widely used in ancient and traditional buildings, especially in the realization of supports for roof cladding and paneling of walls. A better understanding and a consequent standardization of its properties could make it more suitable for general application...

Investigation of performance tests using bio-derived/chemical additives

J. Podolsky, A. Buss, R. C. Williams & E. Cochran
An industry wide emphasis on sustainable asphalt practices has given rise to increasing use of warm mix asphalt technologies. WMA reduces both binder viscosity and mixing and compaction temperatures by 20-55°C during the asphalt mix production and laydown process. This research investigates several bio-derived WMA additives that act as chemical modifiers with surfactant properties. Two established additives derived from the forest products industry are studied as well as a WMA additive in development that is...

Heat transfer of dowelled and bolted steel-to-timber connections exposed to fire: experimentation and numerical modeling

A. Samaké, P. Audebert & M. Taazount
This exploration is dedicated of the experimental and numerical studies of heat transfer in timber-to-metal connections (bolts and dowels) in a fire exposure. The study was performed experimentally by testing specimens of connections in an oven with gas burner under the action of an ISO 834 fire temperature-time curve. Then, medialization of these specimens is made under the Msc_Marc software. The numerical model is based on finite element modeling. Finally a comparative study and discussions...

Experimental study of the hygrothermal behaviour of hemp shives-based precast blocks at material and wall scales

T. L. Vu, S. Spagnol & C. Magniont
This work aims to characterize the hygrothermal behavior of precast blocks made of hemp shiv aggregates and of a pozzolanic binder. The first part of the paper consists in the determination of basic hygrothermal properties of hemp concrete at material scale: thermal conductivity, thermal effusivity, vapor sorption isotherm, and water vapor permeability were assessed. The second part aims to develop a new tool allowing hygrothermal solicitation of a whole wall made of hemp concrete blocks...

Solutions constructives hybrides structurales pour des applications planchers et façades de bâtiments neufs

Magdalini Titirla, Laurent Michel & Emmanuel Ferrier
Cet article présente une étude expérimentale de connexions innovantes entre des planchers hybrides et des colonnes en bois. Chaque panneau est composé de poutres en bois lamellé collé et/ou de béton constituant les planchers et de poutres en bois constituant l’ossature porteuse des éléments de façade. Cinq spécimens, impliquant cinq types de différentes connexions, soumis à une flexion monotone croissante, sont examinés. Le premier type de connexion incorpore une colonne de type goujon qui se...

Réparation d’un mur maçonné avec un TRM innovant

J.P. Plassiard, O. Plé & P. Perrotin
Cette étude exploratoire présente une série d’essais effectués sur un composite à destination du bâtiment, et de la protection vis-à-vis du risque sismique notamment. L’association d’un mortier de réparation et d’une grille en acier inoxydable vise notamment à favoriser le comportement ductile. Des essais de caractérisation permettent de vérifier le bon fonctionnement du composite sur son support et d’optimiser son épaisseur. L’application de cette solution à un mur maçonné, endommagé au préalable, est ensuite présentée....

Effet du mode constructif sur le comportement au séisme de portiques béton armé avec panneau de maçonnerie

J.P. Plassiard, C. Belghiat, I. Layadi, O. Plé, P. Perrotin, A. Messabhia & M. Guenfoud
Ce travail concerne les structures de type portique béton armé avec remplissage en briques de terre cuite. Ces modes de contreventement sont courants en Algérie et sont exposés au risque sismique. En effet, le remplissage en maçonnerie peut subir un endommagement important durant le séisme, pouvant aller jusqu’à son chute du cadre. La résistance latérale du portique vide est alors nettement affaiblie et présente un risque de rupture conséquent. Afin d’éviter ce phénomène, le mode...

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