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Konzentrationen und Emissionen von PM10 aus sechs freigelüfteten Milchviehställen mit Liegeboxen und Laufhof

Sabine Schrade, Kerstin Zeyer, Lukas Emmenegger & Margret Keck
Um die Datengrundlage für Emissionsinventare zu verbessern, wurden PM10-Emissionen in der am weitesten verbreiteten Laufstallhaltung der Schweiz bestimmt. Dazu wurden in sechs freigelüfteten Liegeboxen-Laufställen für Milchvieh mit planbefestigten Laufflächen und Laufhof jeweils in zwei von drei Jahreszeiten (Sommer, Übergangszeit, Winter) Emissionsmessungen durchgeführt. Die Beprobung von PM10 erfolgte über 72 h anreichernd mit Impaktoren an 9 bis 14 Positionen im Stall, Laufhof und Hintergrund. Die Emissionen wurden mit einer Tracer-Ratio-Methode mit zwei Tracergasen (SF6, SF5CF3) bestimmt....

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Compression neuropathies of the radial nerve

Anthony Barabas & Mark Pickford
The commonest cause of radial nerve dysfunction is from extrinsic compressions of the radial nerve, such as against the shaft of the humerus in “Saturday night palsy”. However, this chapter focuses on the less common intrinsic compression neuropathies of the radial nerve. Intrinsic radial nerve compression neuropathies occur much less frequently than those of the median or ulnar nerves. The combined annual incidence of compressive neuropathies of the posterior interosseous nerve and the superficial radial...

Lung Tumors following Low-level Radon Exposure at Different Exposure Rates

Michael Gruenberger
Purpose: To study lung cancer risks under conditions simulating the situation in mines and highly exposed homes. Status: 1996-2002, data in ERA. Treatment: Inhalation of radon (0.1-0.3 μm AMAD 6.2% unattached) daily exposure for 6 hours 5 times per week as indicated under experimental groups. Endpoints: Life-span study (spontaneous death, some animals sacrificed) with macroscopic/microscopic pathology of the lung. Animal: Male Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages

Lung Tumors following Low-level Radon Exposure at Different Exposure Rates

Michael Gruenberger
Purpose: To study lung cancer risks under conditions simulating the situation in mines and highly exposed homes. Status: 1996-2002, data in ERA. Treatment: Inhalation of radon (0.1-0.3 μm AMAD 6.2% unattached) daily exposure for 6 hours 5 times per week as indicated under experimental groups. Endpoints: Life-span study (spontaneous death, some animals sacrificed) with macroscopic/microscopic pathology of the lung. Animal: Male Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages

Early and Delayed Radiation Effects After Localised Irradiation of Pigs and Rabbits

Michael Gruenberger
Purpose: To study the early radiation-induced necrosis and late radiation-induced fibrosis of skin and underlying tissues after acute localized irradiation with a view to the management of accidental over-exposure of man Status: 1981 - Treatment: 1) Single collimated gamma exposure (Ir-192) (diameter 2 cm) of the outer side of the thigh and the back of pigs with skin surface doses from 0 to 140 Gy; 2) Single collimated gamma exposure (Ir-192) (diameter 2 cm) of...

Early and Delayed Radiation Effects After Localised Irradiation of Pigs and Rabbits

Michael Gruenberger
Purpose: To study the early radiation-induced necrosis and late radiation-induced fibrosis of skin and underlying tissues after acute localized irradiation with a view to the management of accidental over-exposure of man Status: 1981 - Treatment: 1) Single collimated gamma exposure (Ir-192) (diameter 2 cm) of the outer side of the thigh and the back of pigs with skin surface doses from 0 to 140 Gy; 2) Single collimated gamma exposure (Ir-192) (diameter 2 cm) of...

Regional Gamma Irradiation of Pigs

Michael Gruenberger
Purpose: To study the gastro-intestinal syndrome in pigs exposed to the posterior part of the body with the aim to improve the management of accidental over-exposure in man. Status: 1970 - 1978, terminated Treatment: Single partial body irradiation of the posterior half part of the body of pigs from the xyphoid appendix downwards; the upper part of the body was shielded with lead plates. The midplane dose from eight Co-60 sources delivered at dose rates...

Regional Gamma Irradiation of Pigs

Michael Gruenberger
Purpose: To study the gastro-intestinal syndrome in pigs exposed to the posterior part of the body with the aim to improve the management of accidental over-exposure in man. Status: 1970 - 1978, terminated Treatment: Single partial body irradiation of the posterior half part of the body of pigs from the xyphoid appendix downwards; the upper part of the body was shielded with lead plates. The midplane dose from eight Co-60 sources delivered at dose rates...

Brain Damage in 120 Day Old Rats After Single Doses of Co-60 Gamma Irradiation

Michael Gruenberger
Purpose: To study radiation-induced necrosis of the brain and glucose metabolism Status: 1990 - 1992, terminated Treatment: Single exposure of the brain to doses from 0 to 40 Gy of Co-60 gamma irradiation collimated at a 20 mm diameter circular (whole brain) or a 8x3 mm quadratic field (left hemisphere) Dosimetry: Ionization chamber Endpoints: Lifespan, brain and body weight, histology, immuno-cytochemistry, C-14 glucose metabolism Animal: Sprague-Dawley rats aged 120 days,

Brain Damage in 120 Day Old Rats After Single Doses of Co-60 Gamma Irradiation

Michael Gruenberger
Purpose: To study radiation-induced necrosis of the brain and glucose metabolism Status: 1990 - 1992, terminated Treatment: Single exposure of the brain to doses from 0 to 40 Gy of Co-60 gamma irradiation collimated at a 20 mm diameter circular (whole brain) or a 8x3 mm quadratic field (left hemisphere) Dosimetry: Ionization chamber Endpoints: Lifespan, brain and body weight, histology, immuno-cytochemistry, C-14 glucose metabolism Animal: Sprague-Dawley rats aged 120 days,

Comparative Radiosensitivity of Developing Brain Structures in the Rat After Gamma Irradiation

Michael Gruenberger
Purpose: To compare the radiosensitivities of proliferative layers of the olfactory bulb (OB), the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and the cerebellum (C) Status: 1990 - 1992, terminated Treatment: Single whole body gamma irradiation with doses from 0.1 to 12 Gy (dose rate 0.19 Gy/min) from a Co-60 gamma source irradiation. Animals sacrificed and brains removed 3, 6 or 9 h after exposure Dosimetry: Ionization chamber Endpoints: Quantification of radiation-induced apoptosis in semi-thin sections,...

Comparative Radiosensitivity of Developing Brain Structures in the Rat After Gamma Irradiation

Michael Gruenberger
Purpose: To compare the radiosensitivities of proliferative layers of the olfactory bulb (OB), the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and the cerebellum (C) Status: 1990 - 1992, terminated Treatment: Single whole body gamma irradiation with doses from 0.1 to 12 Gy (dose rate 0.19 Gy/min) from a Co-60 gamma source irradiation. Animals sacrificed and brains removed 3, 6 or 9 h after exposure Dosimetry: Ionization chamber Endpoints: Quantification of radiation-induced apoptosis in semi-thin sections,...

Brain Damage in 90 Day-old Rats Exposed During the Entire Gestation to Co-90 Gamma Rays or Cf-252 Neutrons At Different Dose Rates

Michael Gruenberger
Purpose: To determine the effect of dose rate and relative biological efficiency of neutron vs gamma irradiation for protracted, in utero exposure Status: 1989 - 1992, terminated Treatment: Protracted Co-60 gamma irradiation and Cf-252 neutrons plus gamma (ratio 2/1) irradiation at different dose rates delivered over the entire gestation Dosimetry: Gamma: ionization chamber; neutrons: ionization chamber filled with circulating tissue-equivalent gas Endpoints: Early and late effects on brain weight and late effects on brain histology...

Brain Damage in 90 Day-old Rats Exposed During the Entire Gestation to Co-90 Gamma Rays or Cf-252 Neutrons At Different Dose Rates

Michael Gruenberger
Purpose: To determine the effect of dose rate and relative biological efficiency of neutron vs gamma irradiation for protracted, in utero exposure Status: 1989 - 1992, terminated Treatment: Protracted Co-60 gamma irradiation and Cf-252 neutrons plus gamma (ratio 2/1) irradiation at different dose rates delivered over the entire gestation Dosimetry: Gamma: ionization chamber; neutrons: ionization chamber filled with circulating tissue-equivalent gas Endpoints: Early and late effects on brain weight and late effects on brain histology...

Effects of Prenatal and Postnatal Gamma Irradiation on the Rat Testis

Michael Gruenberger
Purpose: To determine the effect of acute irradiation during gestation and the neonatal period and of protracted exposure during the entire intra-uterine life on adult rat testis: influence of dose rate and threshold values. Status: 1977 - 1988, terminated Treatment: Acute and protracted Co-60 gamma irradiation: acute exposure to doses from 0 to 1.5 Gy at different dose rates on day 15 and 21 of gestation and day 0 and 2 of postnatal life. A)...

Effects of Prenatal and Postnatal Gamma Irradiation on the Rat Testis

Michael Gruenberger
Purpose: To determine the effect of acute irradiation during gestation and the neonatal period and of protracted exposure during the entire intra-uterine life on adult rat testis: influence of dose rate and threshold values. Status: 1977 - 1988, terminated Treatment: Acute and protracted Co-60 gamma irradiation: acute exposure to doses from 0 to 1.5 Gy at different dose rates on day 15 and 21 of gestation and day 0 and 2 of postnatal life. A)...

Tumours and Lifespan in Rats After Treatment with Chemicals

Michael Gruenberger
Purpose: To evaluate the induction or promotion effect of inhalation (or injection) alone and together with -naphthoflavone as promotor. Status: 1977 - 1985, terminated; data in ERAD Treatment: Various chemicals inhaled or injected as indicated on the table Dosimetry: Amounts inhaled or injected Endpoints: Life-span study (spontaneous death) with macroscopic/microscopic pathology Animal: Male Sprague-Dawley SPF rats at an age of 3 months; for untreated controls see 02.01, controls treated with BNF only see 02.04 Results:...

Tumours and Lifespan in Rats After Treatment with Chemicals

Michael Gruenberger
Purpose: To evaluate the induction or promotion effect of inhalation (or injection) alone and together with -naphthoflavone as promotor. Status: 1977 - 1985, terminated; data in ERAD Treatment: Various chemicals inhaled or injected as indicated on the table Dosimetry: Amounts inhaled or injected Endpoints: Life-span study (spontaneous death) with macroscopic/microscopic pathology Animal: Male Sprague-Dawley SPF rats at an age of 3 months; for untreated controls see 02.01, controls treated with BNF only see 02.04 Results:...

Genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of whole plant extracts of Kalanchoe laciniata by Ames and MTT assay

Ali Sharif, Muhammad Furqan Akhtar, Bushra Akhtar, Ammara Saleem, Maria Manan, Maryam Shabbir, Muneeb Ashraf, Sohaib Peerzada, Shoaib Ahmed & Moosa Raza
Lack of data on safety of herbal medicines have endangered human health and life. The present study evaluated the genotoxic and mutagenic effect of Kalanchoe laciniata to access the safety and usefulness of the medicinal plant. Aqua-methanolic and n-hexane extracts of K. laciniata were evaluated for the genotoxic potential using Ames assay and cytotoxicity was evaluated using MTT assay. Ames assay was conducted using two strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA-100 and TA-102 whereas MTT assay...

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