83 Works

Analyzing the Descending Flight of the Germanwings A320 4U9525

Dieter Scholz
Something (on 2015-03-26, 10:00 still unknown) caused 4U9525 to descent. All the rest is the automatic reaction of a properly functioning Airbus A320 to these initial conditions: The aircraft is disengaging the autopilot automatically at a Mach number of 0.82 as a consequence of High Speed Protection and follows a subsequent descending flight in manual mode (with normal Fly-by-Wire flight control laws) and idle thrust. The pilots probably are neither touching the side sticks nor...

Analyzing the Descending Flight of the Germanwings A320 4U9525

Dieter Scholz
Something (on 2015-03-26, 10:00 still unknown) caused 4U9525 to descent. All the rest is the automatic reaction of a properly functioning Airbus A320 to these initial conditions: The aircraft is disengaging the autopilot automatically at a Mach number of 0.82 as a consequence of High Speed Protection and follows a subsequent descending flight in manual mode (with normal Fly-by-Wire flight control laws) and idle thrust. The pilots probably are neither touching the side sticks nor...

Introduction and Background Information

Dieter Scholz
Harvard Dataverse => Digital Library - Projects & Theses - Prof. Dr. Scholz ----- Introduction and background information to "Digital Library - Projects & Theses - Prof. Dr. Scholz". The URL of the dataverse: http://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataverse/LibraryProfScholz The URL of this (introduction) dataset: http://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/R33RS9 YOU MAY HAVE BEEN DIRECTED HERE, BECAUSE THE CALLING PAGE HAS NO OTHER ENTRY POINT (with DOI) INTO THIS DATAVERSE. Click on the title of this page to reach the start page of...

Analyzing the Descending Flight of the Germanwings A320 4U9525

Dieter Scholz
Something (on 2015-03-26 still unknown) caused 4U9525 to descent. All the rest is the automatic reaction of a properly functioning Airbus A320 to these initial conditions: The aircraft is disengaging the autopilot automatically at a Mach number of 0.82 as a consequence of High Speed Protection and follows a subsequent descending flight in manual mode (with normal Fly-by-Wire flight control laws) and idle thrust. The pilots probably are neither touching the side sticks nor the...

Template for Papers in the Journal \"Advances in Aerospace Science and Technology\"

Dieter Scholz
This electronic document (the Word version) is a "live" template. The various components of your paper (title, text, heads, etc.) are already defined on the style sheet, as illustrated by the portions given in this document.

Open Access Publishing in Aerospace – Opportunities and Pitfalls

Dieter Scholz
The first Open Access (OA) peer reviewed online journals in aerospace were all established after 2007. Still today more and more OA aerospace journals get started. Many publishers are located in less developed countries. The benefits of OA publishing are undisputed in the academic community, but there is disagreement if the new publishers can work to required standards. The current situation is evaluated based on an Internet review. OA journals in aerospace are listed with...

Conditions for Passenger Aircraft Minimum Fuel Consumption, Direct Operating Costs and Environmental Impact

Brecht Caers & Dieter Scholz
Purpose – Find optimal flight and design parameters for three objectives: minimum fuel consumption, Direct Operating Costs (DOC), and environmental impact of a passenger jet aircraft. --- Approach – Combining multiple models (this includes aerodynamics, specific fuel consumption, DOC, and equivalent CO2 mass) into one generic model. In this combined model, each objective's importance is determined by a weighting factor. Additionally, the possibility of further optimizing this model by altering an aircraft's wing loading is...

Publication Options Suitable for Aircraft Design - Open Access Journals Edited by Members of European Aerospace Organizations

Dieter Scholz
Open Access publishing in the field of "aircraft design" is characterized today by: 1.) The fact that a dedicated journal about aircraft design is currently missing. 2.) A problematic situation to find a suitable aerospace Open Access journal (as shown in a previous publication). It has been observed that authors need a certain amount of trust in the journal and its operator. This level of trust will be higher, if authors select a journal run...

Eco-Efficiency in Aviation – Flying Off Course?

Dieter Scholz
Eco-efficiency is based on the concept of creating more goods and services while using fewer resources and creating less waste and pollution. It is a management philosophy geared towards sustainability. The aviation industry believes in economic growth without growth in emissions. This is called zero emission growth and should be achieved from 2020 onwards. This is only possible with carbon offset schemes, because even all technologies combined cannot compensate a growth rate of 5%. There...

Hydrogen as Future Fuel Used in Minimum Change Derivatives of the Airbus A321

Dieter Scholz & Leon Dib
A new concept of a passenger aircraft using hydrogen as fuel is presented. Due to the future depletion of fossil fuels and growth of aviation within the next years, the aeronautical industry must get ready now for a realistic solution. Many projects were conducted for hydrogen-fueled aircraft designs in the past, however all the effort was focused on an expensive totally new aircraft design. In this work, research is based on the Airbus A320 with...

Aerospace Journals – Metrics & Ranking --- DGLR - Top 40 - Aerospace Journal Ranking

Dieter Scholz
The current discussions about publication ethics, impact factor, Google, and Open Access cause much confusion. With respect to aerospace journals, a listing of parameters and a ranking may be the first step to understand available options for authors and could guide them to where to publish. Journals with a general focus on aeronautical engineering or space engineering were selected to take part in the ranking. Journals were selected from existing aerospace journal rankings e.g. Google...

Open Access Publishing in Aerospace – Opportunities and Pitfalls

Dieter Scholz
The first Open Access (OA) peer reviewed online journals in aerospace were all established after 2007. Still today more and more OA aerospace journals get started. Many publishers are located in less developed countries. The benefits of OA publishing are undisputed in the academic community, but there is disagreement if the new publishers can work to required standards. The current situation is evaluated based on an Internet review. OA journals in aerospace are listed with...

Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der kooperativen Promotion

Dieter Scholz
Die kooperative Promotion gibt den HAW die Möglichkeit, sich zu beweisen – mehr aber auch nicht. Aus einer systematischen Betrachtung zur kooperative Promotion ergeben sich ihre Grenzen und damit die Forderung nach dem eigenständigen Promotionsrecht für HAW.

Aviation Ethics – Growth, Gain, Greed, and Guilt

Dieter Scholz
Purpose – Reach awareness that the aviation industry tends not to abide by the law and tends to apply unethical business practice. --- Approach – Information is reviewed via the Internet, this includes media information. --- Findings – Cases have been found showing a ruthless industry behavior accumulating guilt in the end. At times, obedience to the law is not even shown when the law is strongly enforced to the detriment of the company. ---...

Urban Air Mobility

Dieter Scholz
Urban Air Mobility (UAM) is mobility in cities for the elite with air taxis. It is expensive. It transports only very few people, so it does not help to reduce traffic jam. It consumes much energy per person and kilometer and pollutes the environment more than other modes of transport. Electric urban air mobility is physically not the right choice. Its range is limited. Vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) requires lot's of power, makes vehicles...

Aircraft Cabin Air and Engine Oil - An Engineering View

Dieter Scholz
Air conditioning in aviation means temperature control, pressure control and ventilation. The cabin is vented with a certain percentage (e.g. 50%) of fresh outside air. The remaining part of the air for cabin ventilation is provided as air from the cabin, filtered and recirculated back into the cabin. At cruise altitude, ambient pressure is below cabin pressure. Hence, the outside air needs to be compressed before it is delivered into the cabin. The air is...

Aircraft Cabin Air and Engine Oil - An Engineering View

Dieter Scholz
Air conditioning in aviation means temperature control, pressure control and ventilation. The cabin is vented with a certain percentage (e.g. 50%) of fresh outside air. The remaining part of the air for cabin ventilation is provided as air from the cabin, filtered and recirculated back into the cabin. At cruise altitude, ambient pressure is below cabin pressure. Hence, the outside air needs to be compressed before it is delivered into the cabin. The air is...

Cabin Air Contamination – A Summary of Engineering Arguments

Dieter Scholz
Almost all passenger jet aircraft today use potentially contaminated bleed air for cabin ventilation. This caused an emergency landing and evacuation of Hawaiian Airlines, A321neo with smoke on board on 2019-08-22. The fume event started at top of descent, where air pressure is not sufficient to hold oil back. A detailed look at the design of engine bearings, their lubrication and sealing reveals that jet engines leak small amounts of oil by design and not...

Ecolabel for Aircraft – Definition and Application

Dieter Scholz
Background: In 2019 EASA started work on a labeling system for the aviation industry. This let to a workshop on 2019-10-24, but activities stopped already shortly after that date. An "Ecolabel for Aircraft" was proposed and published by HAW Hamburg already in 2017. >>>
Motivation: With IPCC Reports, "Fridays for Future", and "Flygskam", the aviation industry is getting into defense. Recent industry climate initiatives failed to convince, because an agreed metric is missing, based on...

Aircraft Cabin Air and Engine Oil - A Systems Engineering View

Dieter Scholz
Purpose – This presentation gives an introduction to aircraft cabin air quality and contamination risks. Beyond these fundamentals, most of the current engineering issues discussed with respect to the topic are explained. Design/methodology/approach – The literature review is complemented with own explanations, thoughts and derivations. Findings – There is a real health and flight safety risk due to contaminated cabin air. For the infrequent flyer the risk is very low. Also aviation statistics are not...

Design of Hydrogen Passenger Aircraft – How much \"Zero-Emission\" is Possible?

Dieter Scholz
Purpose - 1.) Presentation and evaluation of selected past and present design projects for passenger aircraft with liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion. LH2 aircraft are also referred to as cryoplanes. 2.) Research question: Can cryoplanes be "zero emission"? 3.) Information for everyone interested. ---
Methodology - Revisiting of HAW Hamburg past research projects. Literature review. Combination of given knowledge to new insight. ---
Findings - An A319 cabin fits almost into a LH2 cryoplane based on...

Electric and Hybrid Aviation – From Media Hype to Flight Physics

Dieter Scholz
Purpose – This presentation takes a critical look at various electric air mobility concepts. With a clear focus on requirements and first principles applied to the technologies in question, it tries to bring inflated expectations down to earth. Economic, ecologic and social (noise) based well accepted evaluation principles are set against wishful thinking. Design/methodology/approach – Aeronautical teaching basics are complemented with own thoughts and explanations. In addition, the results of past research projects are applied...

Pan Am's Historic Contributions to Aircraft Cabin Design

Dieter Scholz
The report summarizes groundbreaking aircraft cabin developments at Pan American World Airways (Pan Am). The founder and chief executive Juan Terry Trippe (1899-1981) established Pan Am as the world's first truly global airline. With Trippe's determination, foresight, and strategic brilliance the company accomplished many pioneering firsts – many also in aircraft cabin design. In 1933 Pan Am approached the industrial designer Norman Bel Geddes (1893-1958). The idea was to create the interior design of the...

Germanwings_4U9525.pdf

Dieter Scholz
Something (on 2015-03-26 still unknown) caused 4U9525 to descent. All the rest is the automatic reaction of a properly functioning Airbus A320 to these initial conditions: The aircraft is disengaging the autopilot automatically at a Mach number of 0.82 as a consequence of High Speed Protection and follows a subsequent descending flight in manual mode (with normal Fly-by-Wire flight control laws) and idle thrust. The pilots probably do neither touching the side sticks nor the...

Limits to Principles of Electric Flight

Dieter Scholz
Purpose – This presentation takes a critical look at various electric air mobility concepts. With a clear focus on requirements and first principles applied to the technologies in question, it tries to bring inflated expectations down to earth. Economic, ecologic and social (noise) based well accepted evaluation principles are set against wishful thinking. --- Design/methodology/approach – Aeronautical teaching basics are complemented with own thoughts and explanations. In addition, the results of past research projects are...

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