This paper develops a principal-agent model of farmer compliance with Bt corn refuge requirements intended to manage the evolution of resistance to the Bt toxin by insect pests. The model endogenizes the price of the technology, the audit rate, and the fine imposed on non-complying farmers when farmer willingness to pay for Bt corn and compliance effort is private information.
The preliminary four year results suggest that establishing and harvesting processing tomatoes and cotton with conservation tillage systems is possible given some equipment modification and that yields may be maintained relative to standard tillage in CT crop residue environments.
This paper makes a contribution to the application of nonlinear simultaneous equations estimation and nonparametric Bootstrapping techniques. The nonlinear demand model estimation work in this paper is in the context of the newly developed Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) model, and provides substantive results in terms of both model estimation technique and empirical economic findings. For the first time, bootstrapping is used in this highly nonlinear modeling environment to estimate variability in demand model...
Wetland ecosystems on privately owned farms such as those on the Murrumbidgee River Floodplain in the state of New South Wales, Australia provide a mix of potentially valuable outputs to their owners and the wider community. The mix of values generated is dependent on the biophysical status of the wetlands, which in-turn, is dependent on the land management in and around these multiple-output ecosystems. Despite the range of private and public values generated, management decisions...
This study examined the production structure of the sawmilling industry of the Lake States (Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin) in order to determine elasticities of substitution and elasticities of demand. A homogeneous translog cost function was estimated using pooled time-series data for the period 1963-1996 with inputs labor, materials and capital. Based on the model selection process, the estimated model imposes constant returns to scale and allows for nonunitary elasticities of substitution amongst the inputs. The...
Globally the U.S. is the number one producer, consumer and exporter of soybeans. Nationally, U.S. soybean production value ranks second among all agricultural bulk commodities, having a significant impact on U.S. farm incomes. U.S. soybeans have been a subsidized commodity since 1941 and the 2002 Farm Bill provides soybeans for the first time direct government and counter-cyclical payments. Using welfare economics, this research explores the political economy of U.S. soybean subsidy policies. Results indicate that...
A three year study of the Quizbowl participants and advisers reveals perceptions on how beneficial preparation for and participation in the SS-AAEA Quizbowl are in successfully completing related course work in eight areas of economics at their universities and how funding impacts performance. Additionally responses indicate overall satisfaction with Quizbowl event.
Survival of many family farms is dependent on successful intergenerational transfer. Given the importance of succession in the farm sector, the purpose of this paper is to examine factors that are likely to influence succession decisions on U.S. farms. The paper uses 2001 ARMS data and a multinomial Logit (MNL) regression to estimate family succession, non-family succession, and farm exit decisions of farm households in the U.S. Model choice and specification issues are discussed. Results...
INTERNATIONAL MARKET INTEGRATION UNDER WTO: EVIDENCE IN THE PRICE BEHAVIORS OF CHINESE AND US WHEAT FUTURESWen Du & Wen Du
China's 10-year old wheat futures market, the China Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange (CZCE) has been in stable development since establishment and is expected to be integrated to the world market after China joined WTO. This paper compares the price behavior of CZCE with that of the Chicago Board of trade (CBOT) in the US using ARCH/GARCH based univariate and multivariate time series models for the period between 1999 and 2003, around when China joined the World...
We analyze the impact of individualization on productivity growth within an augmented neo-classical growth model framework. Our estimation results using a panel data covering 15 transition countries over the period 1990-2001 and applying a GMM-IV estimator support the view that the shift to individual farming, as well as the overall economic reforms, have positively contributed to the productivity growth of transition agriculture.
A methodology for evaluating public wetlands conservation investments that considers climate change is developed and applied to Virginia's Elizabeth River watershed. A revised cellular automaton (CA) model is applied to project future land use change. Discrete stochastic sequential programming (DSSP) is used to model a parcel-based discrete-time decision process.
EFFECTS OF WEATHER EVENTS ON LOSS RATIOS FOR CROP INSURANCE PRODUCTS: A COUNTY-LEVEL PANEL DATA ANALYSIS.Edouard Mafoua, Calum G. Turvey, Edouard Mafoua & Calum G. Turvey
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship over time between specific weather events (drought, excessive rainfall, cold weather, etc ) and loss ratios for crop insurance products. The study also investigates the impact of rainfall and extreme heat on field and fruit crop insurance loss ratios.
A model of uniform spatial pricing with Löschian conduct as developeded by Alvarez et al. is tested for the milk processing industry in Germany. Results confirm some oligopsony power in this spatial markets and a low pass-through of a retail price change to the farm.
Wal-Mart is a giant in the grocery industry and its influence is growing at a rapid pace. Despite Wal-Mart's success with Everyday Low Pricing (EDLP), there is little to no evidence to suggest that other supermarket chains wish to follow a similar path. Why? This research addresses this question.
A volatile closing basis prevents class I hedgers from locking in a minimum price. The closing basis is composed of an "acceleration" and "mover" effect. The mover effect always works to the producer's advantage unlike the acceleration effect. This research discusses hedging strategies to minimize the acceleration effect.
MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES TO MITIGATE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF WEATHER UNCERTAINTY IN EFFLUENT APPLICATION TO IRRIGATED CORN IN SEMIARID REGIONSMichael A. Kizer, Arthur L. Stoecker, Rita I. Carreira, Jeffory A. Hattey, Michael A. Kizer, Arthur L. Stoecker, Rita I. Carreira & Jeffory A. Hattey
This study compares subsurface drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation with respect to expected returns, aquifer life, nutrient utilization and accumulation in the production of irrigated corn using swine effluent and fresh groundwater from a depleting aquifer in the Oklahoma Panhandle. Most of the equations estimated econometrically had heteroskedasticity problems and MLE was used. The econometric estimation of a PDF of ammonia volatilization dependent on amount of nitrogen applied, for each irrigation system, was successful and...
This paper reports tests of aggregation over consumer food products and estimates of aggregate food demand elasticities. Evidence that food demand variables follow unit root processes leads us to build on and simplify tests of the Generalized Composite Commodity Theorem found in the literature. We compute food demand elasticities using cointegration applied to a convenient but nonlinear functional form. Estimates are based on consumer reported expenditure data rather than commercial disappearance data.
Aim of the paper is to appraise the impact of EU and US non tariff measures on agro-food exports from African, Asian and South-American developing countries. After an inventory description of these measures, a gravity model is estimated. The results offer a measure of the impact of the different type of technical (i.e. labeling and standard requirement for both safety and non safety matters) and non-technical (i.e. import licensing and authorization requirements) provisions and of...
WHERE HAS ALL THE WATER GONE? ESTIMATION OF A PRODUCTION FUNCTION FOR THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN THE REGION KHOREZM, UZBEKISTANMarc Mueller & Marc Mueller
A widely known obstacle for analyses of agricultural production systems is the lack of activity specific input data. A set of production functions for the case of agriculture in Khorezm (Uzbekistan) is estimated based on aggregated input data by employing 'maximum entropy'.
DOES MONEY ILLUSION MATTER? THE IMPACT OF EURO ON THE VERTICAL TRANSMISSION OF FOOD PRICE IN GERMANYThomas Glauben, Jens-Peter Loy, Jochen Meyer, Thomas Glauben, Jens-Peter Loy & Jochen Meyer
In this paper the impact of the introduction of the Euro on the vertical price transmission in German food markets is analyzed. It is hypothesized that the presence of money illusion might have lead to higher real prices as a result of the Euro, and if so it must be accompanied with a higher margin between the respective wholesale and retail price. While generally studies focus on the behavior of average prices, in this study...
Behavioral and Welfare Effects of Tournaments and Fixed Performance Standard Contracts with Heterogeneous Agents: Some Experimental EvidenceSteven Y. Wu, Natalie Nazaryan, Brian E. Roe, Thomas L. Sporleder, Steven Y. Wu, Natalie Nazaryan, Brian E. Roe & Thomas L. Sporleder
Experimental economics is used to compare tournaments (T) and fixed performance contracts (F) when agents have heterogeneous costs. Our primary findings were: (1) There is no statistical difference in average pooled effort (effort by high ability and low ability subjects are pooled together to get an aggregate average) under T and F contracts, (2) on average, effort exerted by high ability agents is considerably higher than effort exerted by low ability agents under both types...
The marginal value of increased automobile fuel economy is estimated using a hedonic model of 2001 model year automobiles sold in the United States. This value is then compared to the average expected lifetime fuel savings attributable to increased fuel economy. Results indicate that automobile buyers fully internalize fuel cost savings attributable to improved fuel economy at low discount rates, and may partially internalize other perceived benefits of improved fuel economy such as reduction in...
The paper extends the work of Deller et al (2001) by introducing a spatial component in a structural growth model to capture the role of spatially distributed variables using county-level data. The premise of the analysis is that what is true at a national level may provide a partial or misleading picture when we look at particular areas. Additionally, data available at the state level can often provide richer, more precise information than what is...
The possibility of 'immiserizing growth' in the grain sectors of the acceding countries after the EU enlargement is explored. The impact of the enlargement on the EU, new member states, and world grains markets are projected with different technology transfer scenarios, and the net welfare changes in each scenario are computed.
Will a more tightly aligned system become the exclusive coordination or governance system in the pork industry? The analysis shows that the packer prefers to source hogs from both an aligned market and an independent market. This result is because the packer, facing variability in the demand for premium pork, must balance the cost of higher quality aligned hogs and independent hogs against the states of nature for demand for the premium product.
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