78 Works

The Power of Helicopter Money Revisited: A New Keynesian Perspective

Thomas J. Carter & Rhys R. Mendes
"We analyze money financing of fiscal transfers (helicopter money) in two simple New Keynesian models: a “textbook” model in which all money is non-interest-bearing (e.g., all money is currency), and a more realistic model with interest-bearing reserves. In the textbook model with only non-interest-bearing money, we find the following: A money-financed fiscal expansion can be more stimulative than a debt-financed fiscal expansion of equal magnitude. However, the extra stimulus requires that the central bank abandon...

Identifying Consumer-Welfare Changes when Online Search Platforms Change Their List of Search Results

Ryan Martin
"Online shoppers are guided by search platforms: consumers type a search phrase into the platform’s query box, and the platform chooses how products appear in response. While search platforms may choose responses that help consumers find products more efficiently, they may also have incentives to mislead consumers. For example, search platforms may organize responses to favor their own products over third-party products that better suit consumer needs. This paper uses a search-platform experiment to determine...

Optimal Taxation in Asset Markets with Adverse Selection

Mohammad Davoodalhosseini
"Consider markets for assets traded over the counter such as mortgage-backed securities and corporate bonds. Sellers in these markets may have more information on the value of their assets and their liquidity needs than buyers do. Also, sellers and buyers must search for trade partners, which is time-consuming and costly. During the 2007–09 financial crisis, activity in some of these markets declined to close to zero, and governments and central banks undertook various policies to...

Learning, Equilibrium Trend, Cycle, and Spread in Bond Yields

Guihai Zhao
"Given that the stochastic discount factor (SDF) from any equilibrium model has direct implications for yield curves, the historical dynamics of the US Treasury yield curve should tell us what a good SDF should look like from a historical perspective. Some key features in the US Treasury bond yields—the trends in the long-term yields, business-cycle movements in the short-term yields and level shifts in the yield spreads—pose serious challenges to existing equilibrium asset pricing models....

A Simple Method for Extracting the Probability of Default from American Put Option Prices

Bo Young Chang & Greg Orosi
A put option is a financial contract that gives the holder the right to sell an asset at a specific price by (or at) a specific date. A put option can therefore provide its holder insurance against a large drop in the stock price. This makes the prices of put options an ideal source of information for a market-based measure of the probability of a firm’s default.

Endogenous Time Variation in Vector Autoregressions

Danilo Leiva-Leon & Luis Henrique Uzeda Garcia
We introduce a new class of time-varying parameter vector autoregressions (TVP-VARs) where the identified structural innovations are allowed to influence — contemporaneously and with a lag — the dynamics of the intercept and autoregressive coefficients in these models. An estimation algorithm and a parametrization conducive to model comparison are also provided. We apply our framework to the US economy. Scenario analysis suggests that the effects of monetary policy on economic activity are larger and more...

Dynamic Competition in Negotiated Price Markets

Jason Allen & Shaoteng Li
"In many credit markets, prices are negotiated repeatedly. The final mortgage rate, for example, is rarely the posted price, but something that borrowers and lenders have bargained over. If borrowers are not satisfied with the rates their lenders propose, they need to search for and negotiate better offers. Borrowers often find it costly and inconvenient to switch lenders. The search and switching costs give incumbent lenders a clear advantage, allowing them to charge relatively high...

Monetary Policy Independence and the Strength of the Global Financial Cycle

Christian Friedrich, Pierre Guérin & Danilo Leiva-Leon
We propose a new strength measure of the global financial cycle by estimating a regime-switching factor model on cross-border equity flows for 61 countries. We then assess how the strength of the global financial cycle affects monetary policy independence, which is defined as the response of central banks' policy interest rates to exogenous changes in inflation.

Monetary Policy Implementation and Payment System Modernization

Jonathan Witmer
"Canada plans to adopt a retail payment system to allow Canadians to pay in real time (or near real time) 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. However, the traditional model for setting the overnight interest rate does not operate 24/7. In this paper, we adapt the traditional model to include paying after hours when participants do not have access to central bank lending and deposit facilities. If they do not have access to...

The potential effect of a central bank digital currency on deposit funding in Canada

Alejandro García, Bena Lands, Xuezhi Liu & Joshua Slive
A retail central bank digital currency denominated in Canadian dollars could, in theory, create competition for bank deposit funding.

Why Fixed Costs Matter for Proof-of-Work Based Cryptocurrencies

Rod Garratt & Maarten van Oordt
"Ensuring that the record of Bitcoin transactions is secure uses a lot of computational power. Miners, who supply this power to the Bitcoin network, earn transaction fees and new bitcoins. Ultimately, though, bitcoin miners will earn only fees as the number of new bitcoins slowly declines to zero. As mining rewards wane, some experts say that Bitcoin will become vulnerable to attacks. Will Bitcoin transactions remain secure in the future? Our analysis focuses on the...

Non-competing Data Intermediaries

Shota Ichihashi
I study a model of competing data intermediaries (e.g., online platforms and data brokers) that collect personal data from consumers and sell it to downstream firms. Competition in this market has a limited impact in terms of benefits to consumers: If intermediaries offer high compensation for their data, then consumers may share this data with multiple intermediaries, and this lowers its downstream price and hurts intermediaries. As intermediaries anticipate this problem, they offer low compensation...

Monetary Policy and Cross-Border Interbank Market Fragmentation: Lessons from the Crisis

Tobias Blattner & Jonathan Swarbrick
We present a two-country model featuring risky lending and cross-border interbank market frictions. We find that (i) the strength of the financial accelerator, when applied to banks operating under uncertainty in an interbank market, will critically depend on the economic and financial structure of the economy; (ii) adverse shocks to the real economy can be the source of banking crisis, causing an increase in interbank funding costs, aggravating the initial shock; and (iii) asset purchases...

The New Benchmark for Forecasts of the Real Price of Crude Oil

Amor Aniss Benmoussa, Reinhard Ellwanger & Stephen Snudden
How can we assess the quality of a forecast? We propose a new benchmark to evaluate forecasts of temporally aggregated series and show that the real price of oil is more difficult to predict than we thought.

Forward Guidance and Expectation Formation: A Narrative Approach

Christopher Sutherland
"Forward guidance is a central bank statement that provides direct information about the probable state of monetary policy in the future. Its purpose is to influence interest rate expectations. But how exactly does it do so?   To study this issue, I construct central bank data that includes forward guidance and its attributes, central bank projections and quantitative easing, which I then combine with survey data.   I find that, in response to a change in forward...

On Causal Networks of Financial Firms: Structural Identification via Non-parametric Heteroskedasticity

Ruben Hipp
Various business interactions of banks create a network of hidden relationships, which cannot be directly inferred from the correlation of bank stock returns. Without causality, it remains unclear how policy interventions change the network. Thus, this paper aims to find the causal network as anticipated by investors.

The Power of Many: Assessing the Economic Impact of the Global Fiscal Stimulus

Carlos De Resende, Rene Lalonde & Stephen Snudden
The Bank of Canada Global Economy Model (BoC-GEM) is used to examine the effect of various types of discretionary fiscal policies on different regions of the globe. The BoC-GEM is a microfounded dynamic stochastic general-equilibrium global model with six regions, multiple sectors, and international linkages. The authors use the model to assess four main fiscal policy concerns: (i) how the effect of an isolated local fiscal stimulus differs from one jointly implemented in all regions;...

Managing GDP Tail Risk

Thibaut Duprey & Alexander Ueberfeldt
Models for macroeconomic forecasts do not usually take into account the risk of a crisis—that is, a sudden large decline in gross domestic product (GDP). However, policy-makers worry about such GDP tail risk because of its large social and economic costs. Our practical framework provides monetary and macroprudential policy-makers with guidance on the trade-off between GDP tail risk and the most likely growth path for future GDP. Focusing on Canada, we compare the effectiveness of...

A Spatial Model of Bank Branches in Canada

Heng Chen & Matthew Strathearn
This study explores the market structure of the Canadian banking industry at the postal-code level. In particular, we study the effect of geographic and industrial concentration on the density of bank branches. Our analysis makes use of a novel dataset of bank branch locations across Canada over the period 2008 to 2018. We employ a spatial panel model with two-way fixed effects that accounts for spatial spillovers across adjacent postal codes. This encompassing model allows...

A Uniform Currency in a Cashless Economy

Walter Engert & Ben Fung
A number of questions can arise when considering the implications of a cashless society. This note considers whether cash is necessary for a uniform currency.

Demand for Payment Services and Consumer Welfare: The Introduction of a Central Bank Digital Currency

Kim Huynh, Jozsef Molnar, Oleksandr Shcherbakov & Qinghui Yu
In recent years, there have been rapid technological innovations in retail payments. Such dramatic changes in the economics of payment systems have led to questions regarding whether there is consumer demand for cash. The entry of these new products and services has resulted in significant improvements in the characteristics of existing methods of payment, such as tap-and-go technology or contactless credit and debit cards. In addition, the introduction of decentralized digital currencies has raised questions...

The Effect of Oil Price Shocks on Asset Markets: Evidence from Oil Inventory News

Ron Alquist, Reinhard Ellwanger & Jianjian Jin
We quantify the reaction of U.S. equity, bond futures, and exchange rate returns to oil price shocks driven by oil inventory news.

Scenario Analysis and the Economic and Financial Risks from Climate Change

Erik Ens & Craig Johnston
This paper adapts climate-economy models that have been applied in other contexts for use in climate-related scenario analysis. We consider illustrative scenarios for the global economy that could generate economic and financial risks. Our results suggest there are significant economic risks from climate change and the move to a low-carbon economy.

Is Central Bank Currency Fundamental to the Monetary System?

Hanna Armelius, Carl Andreas Claussen & Scott Hendry
In this paper, we discuss whether the ability of individuals to convert commercial bank money (i.e., bank deposits) into central bank money is fundamentally important for the monetary system. This is a significant question since the use of cash—the only form of central bank money that the public currently has access to—is declining rapidly in many countries. The question is highly relevant to the discussion around whether central banks need to issue a retail central...

Household indebtedness risks in the wake of COVID‑19

Olga Bilyk, Anson T. Y. Ho, Mikael Khan & Geneviève Vallée
COVID-19 presents challenges for indebted households. We assess these by drawing parallels between pandemics and natural disasters. Taking into account the financial health of the household sector when the pandemic began, we run model simulations to illustrate how payment deferrals and the labour market recovery will affect mortgage defaults.

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Text


  • Bank of Canada