90,087 Works

Stochastic search and joint fine-mapping increases accuracy and identifies previously unreported associations in immune-mediated diseases.

Jennifer L Asimit, Daniel B Rainbow, Mary D Fortune, Nastasiya F Grinberg, Linda S Wicker & Chris Wallace
Thousands of genetic variants are associated with human disease risk, but linkage disequilibrium (LD) hinders fine-mapping the causal variants. Both lack of power, and joint tagging of two or more distinct causal variants by a single non-causal SNP, lead to inaccuracies in fine-mapping, with stochastic search more robust than stepwise. We develop a computationally efficient multinomial fine-mapping (MFM) approach that borrows information between diseases in a Bayesian framework. We show that MFM has greater accuracy...

Peace education research in the twenty-first century: three concepts facing crisis or opportunity?

H Cremin
This article focuses on the concepts of peace, education and research, and the ways in which they combine to form the field of peace education and peace education research. It discusses the ways in which each can be said to be facing a crisis of legitimation, representation and praxis, and the structural and cultural violence that inhibit efforts towards a more inclusive global conception of peace. It will review some ways in which it may...

Rapport-Building in Investigative Interviews of Alleged Child Sexual Abuse Victims

EA Price, EC Ahern & ME Lamb
Research shows that both utterance type and rapport-building can affect children’s productivity during the substantive phase of investigative interviews. However, few researchers have examined the effects of utterance type and content on children’s productivity within the rapport-building phase. In the present study, transcripts of interviews with 94 4- to 13-year-old alleged victims were examined. Interviews were conducted using either the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Protocol or the Memorandum of Good...


Nick Wareham

Extracellular vesicles: pathogenetic, diagnostic and therapeutic value in traumatic brain injury.

Stefania Mondello, Eric P Thelin, Gerry Shaw, Michel Salzet, Carmela Visalli, Dasa Cizkova, Firas Kobeissy & Andras Buki
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Accurate classification according to injury-specific and patient-specific characteristics is critical to help informed clinical decision-making and to the pursuit of precision medicine in TBI. Reliable biomarker signatures for improved TBI diagnostics are required but still an unmet need. Areas covered: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a new class of biomarker candidates in TBI. These nano-sized vesicles have key roles in cell signaling...

Conscience and the King's Household Clergy in the Early Tudor Court of Requests

Laura Flannigan
The early Tudor Court of Requests was closely attached to the king's person and his duty to provide ‘indifferent’ justice. In practice, however, it was staffed by members of the attendant royal household and council. Utilizing the little-studied but extensive records of the court, this article traces the rising dominance of the dean of the Chapel Royal and the royal almoner as administrators and judges there from the 1490s to the 1520s. It examines the...

The first multidimensional view of mass loss from externally FUV irradiated protoplanetary discs

Thomas J Haworth & Cathie J Clarke

Phoretic flow induced by asymmetric confinement

Maciej Lisicki, S Michelin & Eric Lauga Lauga
Internal phoretic flows due to the interactions of solid boundaries with local chemical gradients may be created using chemical patterning. Alternatively, we demonstrate here that internal flows might also be induced by geometric asymmetries of chemically homogeneous surfaces. We characterise the circulatory flow created in a cavity enclosed between two eccentric cylindrical walls of uniform chemical activity. Local gradients of the diffusing solute induce a slip flow along the surface of the cylinders, leading to...

Anti-ALK Antibodies in Patients with ALK-Positive Malignancies Not Expressing NPM-ALK.

Christine Damm-Welk, Faraz Siddiqi, Matthias Fischer, Barbara Hero, Vignesh Narayanan, David Ross Camidge, Michael Harris, Amos Burke, Thomas Lehrnbecher, Karen Pulford, Ilske Oschlies, Reiner Siebert, Suzanne Turner & Wilhelm Woessmann
Patients with Nucleophosmin (NPM)- Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) fusion positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma produce autoantibodies against ALK indicative of an immune response against epitopes of the chimeric fusion protein. We asked whether ALK-expression in other malignancies induces specific antibodies. Antibodies against ALK were detected in sera of one of 50 analysed ALK-expressing neuroblastoma patients, 13 of 21 ALK positive non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients, 13 of 22 ALK translocation-positive, but NPM-ALK-negative lymphoma patients...

Reported Outcome Measures in Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: A Systematic Review.

Benjamin M Davies, Maire McHugh, Ali Elgheriani, Angelos G Kolias, Lindsay A Tetreault, Peter JA Hutchinson, Michael G Fehlings & Mark RN Kotter
OBJECTIVE: Degenerative cervical myelopathy [DCM] is a disabling and increasingly prevalent group of diseases. Heterogeneous reporting of trial outcomes limits effective inter-study comparison and optimisation of treatment. This is recognised in many fields of healthcare research. The present study aims to assess the heterogeneity of outcome reporting in DCM as the premise for the development of a standardised reporting set. METHODS: A systematic review of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015025497) was conducted...

Dispersion retrieval from multi-level ultra-deep reactive-ion-etched microstructures for terahertz slow-wave circuits

Chan-Wook Baik, Ho Young Ahn, Yongsung Kim, Jooho Lee, Seogwoo Hong, Jun Hee Choi, Sunil Kim, Sang Hun Lee, So Yeon Jun, SeGi Yu, R Lawrence Ives, Jong Min Kim & Sungwoo Hwang

Novel integrated computational approach for designing Fe-Ni-based alloys

Masayoshi Sawada
A novel computational approach for designing high temperature alloys is proposed; the approach incorporates properties prediction and optimisation. As for properties prediction, microstructural parameters, such as the volume fraction and precipitate size after heat treatment (replicating the service conditions of automobile sealing parts) were thermokinetically calculated by adopting phase transformation software. The associated yield stress was then predicted using classical strengthening theories: solid solution, grain boundary and precipitation strengthenings. These calculations were integrated with a...

Quantification and Statistical Analysis of Structural Similarities in Dialectological Area-Class Maps

Jonas Rumpf, Simon Pickl, Stephan Elspass, Werner Koenig & Volker Schmidt
Some of the main aims of dialectology have always been the division of a given geographic space into areas where different dialects are spoken, the detection of dialect boundaries, and the investigation of the strength of these boundaries. For this purpose, a sub-discipline of dialectology, „dialectometry‟, has introduced the method of counting or measuring the differences between lects spoken at different locations. (For a concise overview of dialectometric methods, see, for example, HEERINGA 2004, 9–24.)...

Garnet and spinel oxybarometers: New internally consistent multi-equilibria models with applications to the oxidation state of the lithospheric mantle

WGR Miller, TJB Holland & SA Gibson
New thermodynamic data for skiagite garnet (Fe 3 Fe 2 3+ Si 3 O 12 ) are derived from experimental phase-equilibrium data that extend to 10 GPa and are applied to oxybarometry of mantle peridotites using a revised six-component garnet mixing model. Skiagite is more stable by 12 kJ mol -1 than in a previous calibration of the equilibrium 2 skiagite = 4 fayalite + ferrosilite + O 2 , and this leads to calculated...

Clinical presentation and proteomic signature of patients with TANGO2 mutations.

Nadja Mingirulli, Angela Pyle, Denisa Hathazi, Charlotte L Alston, Nicolai Kohlschmidt, Gina O'Grady, Leigh Waddell, Frances Evesson, Sandra BT Cooper, Christian Turner, Jennifer Duff, Ana Topf, Delia Yubero, Cristina Jou, Andrés Nascimento, Carlos Ortez, Angels García-Cazorla, Claudia Gross, Maria O'Callaghan, Saikat Santra, Maryanne A Preece, Michael Champion, Sergei Korenev, Efsthatia Chronopoulou, Majumdar Anirban … & Rita Horvath
Transport And Golgi Organization protein 2 (TANGO2) deficiency has recently been identified as a rare metabolic disorder with a distinct clinical and biochemical phenotype of recurrent metabolic crises, hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, arrhythmias, and encephalopathy with cognitive decline. We report nine subjects from seven independent families, and we studied muscle histology, respiratory chain enzyme activities in skeletal muscle and proteomic signature of fibroblasts. All nine subjects carried autosomal recessive TANGO2 mutations. Two carried the reported...

General risk or individual vulnerability? Individual differences in young adults' health risk behaviour after childhood trauma

OM Laceulle, J Rentfrow, ME Lamb & E Alisic
The present study aims at replicating earlier findings regarding the link between childhood trauma and young adults' health risk behaviours and extends previous work by examining potential moderating effects of demographic and trait characteristics. Specifically, the current study enables to disentangle individual differences in response to trauma and separate the effect of trauma on health risk behaviours from possible confounders known to be associated with health risk behaviours. Data were used from a large British...

Ventricular drainage catheters versus intracranial parenchymal catheters for intracranial pressure monitoring-based management of traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Victor Volovoci, Jilske A Hujben, Ari Ercole, Nino Stocchetti, Clemens MF Dirven, Mathieu Van Der Jagt, Ewout W Steyerberg, Hester F Lingsma, David K Menon, Andrew IR Maas & Iain K Haitsma
traumatic brain injury (TBI), but different approaches to monitoring exist. The aim of this Abstract: Journal of Neurotrauma Page 4 of 41 Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is one of the mainstays in the treatment of severe systematic review and meta-analysis is to compare the effectiveness and complication rate of ventricular drainage (VD) versus intracranial parenchymal (IP) catheters to monitor and treat raised ICP in patients with TBI.

Impact of Digital Mammography on Cancer Detection and Recall Rates: 11.3 Million Screening Episodes in the English National Health Service Breast Cancer Screening Program.

Roger G Blanks, Matthew G Wallis, Rupert Alison, Olive Kearins, Jacquie Jenkins, Julietta Patnick & Rosalind M Given-Wilson
Purpose To report the impact of changing from screen-film mammography to digital mammography (DM) in a large organized national screening program. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected annual screening data from 2009-2010 to 2015-2016 for the 80 facilities of the English National Health Service Breast Cancer Screening Program, together with estimates of DM usage for three time periods, enabled the effect of DM to be measured in a study of 11.3 million...

The screening effects of the screened exchange hybrid functional in surface systems: A case study on the CO/Pt(111) problem

H Li, R Gillen & J Robertson
The screened exchange (sX) hybrid functional has been widely used in computational material science. Although it has widely been studied in bulk systems, less is known about its functional behavior in surface systems which are crucial to many technologies such as materials synthesis and nano-electronic devices. Assessing the screening dependent functional behaviors in the surface systems is therefore important for its application in such systems. In this work, we investigate the screening effects of the...

Selective Inhibition Mediates the Sequential Recruitment of Motor Pools.

Maarten F Zwart, Stefan R Pulver, James W Truman, Akira Fushiki, Richard D Fetter, Albert Cardona & Matthias Landgraf
Locomotor systems generate diverse motor patterns to produce the movements underlying behavior, requiring that motor neurons be recruited at various phases of the locomotor cycle. Reciprocal inhibition produces alternating motor patterns; however, the mechanisms that generate other phasic relationships between intrasegmental motor pools are unknown. Here, we investigate one such motor pattern in the Drosophila larva, using a multidisciplinary approach including electrophysiology and ssTEM-based circuit reconstruction. We find that two motor pools that are sequentially...

The Facets of Artificial Intelligence: A Framework to Track the Evolution of AI.

KV Vold, Fernando Martínez-Plumed, Bao Sheng Loe, Peter Flach, Seán Ó HÉigeartaigh & José Hernández-Orallo
We present nine facets for the analysis of the past and future evolution of AI. Each facet has also a set of edges that can summarise different trends and contours in AI. With them, we first conduct a quantitative analysis using the information from two decades of AAAI/IJCAI conferences and around 50 years of documents from AI topics, an official database from the AAAI, illustrated by several plots. We then perform a qualitative analysis using...

Educational neuroscience: Neural structure-mapping and the promise of oscillations

U Goswami
A critical goal for educational neuroscience is to specify causal developmental mechanisms of learning. In-depth understanding of neural information coding and transmission should enable understanding of how sensory systems build the cognitive systems critical for education–language, attention, memory-over developmental time. Cortical oscillatory encoding processes may offer mechanistic insights into how developmental trajectories unfold. All educators are familiar with children who show mastery of taught information one week, yet subsequently appear to lose it. Oscillatory research...

How is poststroke fatigue understood by stroke survivors and carers? A thematic analysis of an online discussion forum.

Karen Thomas, Chloe Gamlin, Anna De Simoni, Ricky Mullis & Jonathan Mant
OBJECTIVE: To understand poststroke fatigue from the perspective of stroke survivors and caregivers expressed in an online discussion forum. DESIGN: The search terms 'tiredness', 'fatigue', 'tired', 'weary' and 'weariness' were used to identify relevant posts. Thematic analysis performed by two independent researchers who coded all forum posts and identified pertinent themes. Posts were coded in relation to two research questions: (1) how is poststroke fatigue described? and (2) what coping strategies are suggested to target...

Diabetic microcirculatory disturbances and pathologic erythropoiesis are provoked by deposition of amyloid-forming amylin in red blood cells and capillaries.

Nirmal Verma, Miao Liu, Han Ly, Analia Loria, Kenneth S Campbell, Heather Bush, Philip A Kern, Pedro A Jose, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Donald M Bers, Sanda Despa, Larry B Goldstein, Andrew J Murray & Florin Despa
In the setting of type-2 diabetes, there are declines of structural stability and functionality of blood capillaries and red blood cells (RBCs), increasing the risk for microcirculatory disturbances. Correcting hyperglycemia is not entirely effective at reestablishing normal cellular metabolism and function. Therefore, identification of pathological changes occurring before the development of overt hyperglycemia may lead to novel therapeutic targets for reducing the risk of microvascular dysfunction. Here we determine whether RBC-capillary interactions are altered by...

Health-related welfare prioritisation of canine disorders using electronic health records in primary care practice in the UK.

Jennifer F Summers, Dan G O'Neill, David Church, Lisa Collins, David Sargan & David C Brodbelt
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based comparison of the disorder-specific welfare burdens of major canine conditions could better inform targeting of stakeholder resources, to maximise improvement of health-related welfare in UK dogs. Population-level disease related welfare impact offers a quantitative, welfare-centred framework for objective disorder prioritisation, but practical applications have been limited to date due to sparse reliable evidence on disorder-specific prevalence, severity and duration across the canine disease spectrum. The VetCompass™ Programme collects de-identified electronic health record data...

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