52,736 Works

Living collections: care and curation at Drosophila stock centres.

Jenny Bangham
Biological stock centres collect, care for and distribute living organisms for scientific research. In the 1990s, several of the world's largest Drosophila (fruit fly) stock centres were closed or threatened with closure. This paper reflects on why this happened, and uses the visibility of these endings to examine how stock centre collections are managed, who maintains them and how they are kept valuable and accessible to biologists. One stock centre came under threat because of...

How many photons are needed for FRET imaging?

Alessandro Esposito
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging is an essential analytical method in biomedical research. The limited photon-budget experimentally available, however, imposes compromises between spatiotemporal and biochemical resolutions, photodamage and phototoxicity. The study of photon-statistics in biochemical imaging is thus important in guiding the efficient design of instrumentation and assays. Here, we show a comparative analysis of photon-statistics in FRET imaging demonstrating how the precision of FRET imaging varies vastly with imaging parameters. Therefore, we provide...

Water-resistant perovskite nanodots enable robust two-photon lasing in aqueous environment.

Siqi Li, Dangyuan Lei, Wei Ren, Xuyun Guo, Shengfan Wu, Ye Zhu, Andrey L Rogach, Manish Chhowalla & Alex K-Y Jen
Owing to their large absorption cross-sections and high photoluminescence quantum yields, lead halide perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) are regarded as a promising candidate for various optoelectronics applications. However, easy degradation of PQDs in water and in a humid environment is a critical hindrance for applications. Here we develop a Pb-S bonding approach to synthesize water-resistant perovskite@silica nanodots keeping their emission in water for over six weeks. A two-photon whispering-gallery mode laser device made of these...

Immune Responses to Gametocyte Antigens in a Malaria Endemic Population—The African falciparum Context: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Michelle K. Muthui, Alice Kamau, Teun Bousema, Andrew M. Blagborough, Philip Bejon & Melissa C. Kapulu
Background: Malaria elimination remains a priority research agenda with the need for interventions that reduce and/or block malaria transmission from humans to mosquitoes. Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) are in development, most of which target the transmission stage (i.e., gametocyte) antigens Pfs230 and Pfs48/45. For these interventions to be implemented, there is a need to understand the naturally acquired immunity to gametocytes. Several studies have measured the prevalence of immune responses to Pfs230 and Pfs48/45 in populations...

Normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to a novel GNRH1 variant in two siblings.

Satyanarayana V Sagi, Hareesh Joshi, Emily Whiles, Mondy Hikmat, Vijith R Puthi, Jane MacDougall, Sarah L Spiden, Gavin Fuller, Soo-Mi Park & Samson O Oyibo
Summary:Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is characterised by insufficient secretion of pituitary gonadotropins resulting in delayed puberty, anovulation and azoospermia. When hypogonadotropic hypogonadism occurs in the absence of structural or functional lesions of the hypothalamic or pituitary gland, the hypogonadism is defined as idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). This is a rare genetic disorder caused by a defect in the secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH) by the hypothalamus or a defect in the action of GNRH on the...

From the Dawn Chorus to the Canary Choir: Notes on the Unnatural History of Birdsong

Philip Howell & Olga Petri
Birdsong is exemplary in its quotidian familiarity, and yet enigmatic almost to the point of obscurity, the heroic efforts of the ornithologists notwithstanding (Stap).⁠ Even the term “birdsong” is debatable, if by this we make the claim that nonhuman animals produce music, which is a canonical example of question begging. Naturalists still disagree even on why birds sing (Araya-Salas; Higgins 31-32; Rothenberg, Why Birds Sing; Taylor, Is Birdsong Music?), and they might be placed on...

Corrigendum to “Circulating Cancer Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as a Novel Biomarker for Clinical Outcome Evaluation”

D. Brocco, P. Lanuti, P. Simeone, G. Bologna, D. Pieragostino, M. C. Cufaro, V. Graziano, M. Peri, P. Di Marino, M. De Tursi, A. Grassadonia, I. G. Rapposelli, L. Pierdomenico, E. Ercolino, F. Ciccocioppo, P. Del Boccio, M. Marchisio, C. Natoli, S. Miscia & N. Tinari
Peer Reviewed

Molecular Characterization and Immuno-Reactivity Patterns of a Novel Plasmodium falciparum Armadillo-Type Repeat Protein, PfATRP

Emmanuel Amlabu, Philip Ilani, Grace Opoku, Prince B. Nyarko, Evelyn Quansah, Laty G. Thiam, Manfred Anim, Reuben Ayivor-Djanie, Ojo-Ajogu Akuh, Henrietta Mensah-Brown, Julian C. Rayner & Gordon A. Awandare
Nearly half of the genes in the Plasmodium falciparum genome have not yet been functionally investigated. We used homology-based structural modeling to identify multiple copies of Armadillo repeats within one uncharacterized gene expressed during the intraerythrocytic stages, PF3D7_0410600, subsequently referred to as P. falciparum Armadillo-Type Repeat Protein (PfATRP). Soluble recombinant PfATRP was expressed in a bacterial expression system, purified to apparent homogeneity and the identity of the recombinant PfATRP was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Affinity-purified...

Arf6 Can Trigger Wave Regulatory Complex-Dependent Actin Assembly Independent of Arno

Vikash Singh, Anthony C. Davidson, Peter J. Hume & Vassilis Koronakis
The small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) anchors at the plasma membrane to orchestrate key functions, such as membrane trafficking and regulating cortical actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. A number of studies have identified key players that interact with Arf6 to regulate actin dynamics in diverse cell processes, yet it is still unknown whether Arf6 can directly signal to the wave regulatory complex to mediate actin assembly. By reconstituting actin dynamics on supported lipid bilayers, we found...

Drosophila MARF1 ensures proper oocyte maturation by regulating nanos expression

Shinichi Kawaguchi, Mizuki Ueki & Toshie Kai
Meiosis and oocyte maturation are tightly regulated processes. The meiosis arrest female 1 (MARF1) gene is essential for meiotic progression in animals; however, its detailed function remains unclear. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism of dMarf1, a Drosophila homolog of MARF1 encoding an OST and RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) -containing protein for meiotic progression and oocyte maturation. Although oogenesis progressed in females carrying a dMarf1 loss-of-function allele, the dMarf1 mutant oocytes were found...

Testing hot-spots police patrols against no-treatment controls: Temporal and spatial deterrence effects in the London Underground experiment

Barak Ariel, LW Sherman & M Newton

BigBrain 3D atlas of cortical layers: Cortical and laminar thickness gradients diverge in sensory and motor cortices

Konrad Wagstyl, Stéphanie Larocque, Guillem Cucurull, Claude Lepage, Joseph Paul Cohen, Sebastian Bludau, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher, Lindsay B. Lewis, Thomas Funck, Hannah Spitzer, Timo Dickscheid, Paul C. Fletcher, Adriana Romero, Karl Zilles, Katrin Amunts, Yoshua Bengio & Alan C. Evans
Histological atlases of the cerebral cortex, such as those made famous by Brodmann and von Economo, are invaluable for understanding human brain microstructure and its relationship with functional organization in the brain. However, these existing atlases are limited to small numbers of manually annotated samples from a single cerebral hemisphere, measured from 2D histological sections. We present the first whole-brain quantitative 3D laminar atlas of the human cerebral cortex. It was derived from a 3D...

Onsager's conjecture in bounded domains for the conservation of entropy and other companion laws.

C Bardos, P Gwiazda, A Świerczewska-Gwiazda, Edriss Titi & E Wiedemann

Influence of Pore Size on Carbon Dioxide Diffusion in Two Isoreticular Metal-Organic Frameworks

Alexander Forse, Kristen A Colwell, Miguel I Gonzalez, Stefan Benders, Rodolfo M Torres-Gavosto, Bernhard Blumich, Jeffrey A Reimer & Jeffrey R Long

A Multiplicative Regularisation for Inverse Problems

Yujun Qiao
This thesis considers self-adaptive regularisation methods, focusing particularly on new, multiplicative methods, in which the cost functional is constructed as a product of two terms, rather than the more usual sum of a fidelity term and a regularisation term. By re-formulating the multiplicative regularisation model in the framework of the alternating minimisation algorithm, we were able to obtain a series of rigorous theoretical results, as well as formulating a number of new models in both...

Negative Regulation of TLR Signaling by BCAP Requires Dimerization of Its DBB Domain.

Johannes U Lauenstein, Michael J Scherm, Atul Udgata, Martin C Moncrieffe, David I Fisher & Nicholas J Gay
The B cell adaptor protein (BCAP) is a multimodular regulator of inflammatory signaling in diverse immune system cells. BCAP couples TLR signaling to phosphoinositide metabolism and inhibits MyD88-directed signal transduction. BCAP is recruited to the TLR signalosome forming multitypic interactions with the MAL and MyD88 signaling adaptors. In this study, we show that indirect dimerization of BCAP TIR is required for negative regulation of TLR signaling. This regulation is mediated by a transcription factor Ig...

Liver X receptor inhibition potentiates mitotane-induced adrenotoxicity in ACC.

Kate M Warde, Erik Schoenmakers, Eduardo Ribes Martinez, Yi Jan Lim, Maeve Leonard, Sarah J Lawless, Paula O'Shea, Krishna Chatterjee, Mark Gurnell, Constanze Hantel & Michael Conall Dennedy
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare aggressive malignancy with a poor outcome largely due to limited treatment options. Here, we propose a novel therapeutic approach through modulating intracellular free cholesterol via the liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) in combination with current first line pharmacotherapy, mitotane. H295R and MUC-1 ACC cell lines were pretreated with LXRα inhibitors in combination with mitotane. In H295R, mitotane (20, 40, 50µM) induced dose-dependent cell death, however, in MUC-1 this only...

Strengthen causal models for better conservation outcomes for human well-being.

Samantha H Cheng, Madeleine C McKinnon, Yuta J Masuda, Ruth Garside, Kelly W Jones, Daniel C Miller, Andrew S Pullin, William J Sutherland, Caitlin Augustin, David A Gill, Supin Wongbusarakum & David Wilkie
BACKGROUND:Understanding how the conservation of nature can lead to improvement in human conditions is a research area with significant growth and attention. Progress towards effective conservation requires understanding mechanisms for achieving impact within complex social-ecological systems. Causal models are useful tools for defining plausible pathways from conservation actions to impacts on nature and people. Evaluating the potential of different strategies for delivering co-benefits for nature and people will require the use and testing of clear...

(:unas) unassigned

Beverley Speight

Reducing Gender Bias in Neural Machine Translation as a Domain Adaptation Problem

Danielle Saunders & William Byrne
Training data for NLP tasks often exhibits gender bias in that fewer sentences refer to women than to men. In Neural Machine Translation (NMT) gender bias has been shown to reduce translation quality, particularly when the target language has grammatical gender. The recent WinoMT challenge set allows us to measure this effect directly (Stanovsky et al, 2019). Ideally we would reduce system bias by simply debiasing all data prior to training, but achieving this effectively...

Spatiotemporal variability in dengue transmission intensity in Jakarta, Indonesia.

Megan O'Driscoll, Natsuko Imai, Neil M Ferguson, Sri Rezeki Hadinegoro, Hindra Irawan Satari, Clarence C Tam & Ilaria Dorigatti

Molecular basis of TAPBPR-mediated peptide editing on MHC class I molecules

Florin Tudor Ilca
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules present fragments of the cellular proteome, in the form of short peptides, to the cell surface for the inspection by cytotoxic T cells. This process is a crucial immunosurveillance mechanism used to induce appropriate immune responses against intracellular pathogens and cancer. In order to generate optimal T cell-mediated immune responses, prior to their export to the cell surface, MHC class I molecules undergo a process known as peptide...

Multi-transcript profiling in archival diagnostic prostate cancer needle biopsies to evaluate biomarkers in non-surgically treated men.

Naveen Kachroo, Anne Warren & Vincent Gnanapragasam

Changing presentation of prostate cancer in a UK population--10 year trends in prostate cancer risk profiles in the East of England.

DC Greenberg, KA Wright, A Lophathanon, KR Muir & Vincent Gnanapragasam

Evidence for downregulation of the negative regulator SPRED2 in clinical prostate cancer.

N Kachroo, T Valencia, Anne Warren & Vincent Gnanapragasam

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