191 Works

Monte Carlo simulation results for anaemia detection in the skin

Akhil Kallepalli & David James
This research will be/was presented at SPIE Photonics West 2020 (February 2020) with the article titled: Quantification and influence of skin chromophores for remote detection of anemic conditions.
Monte Carlo simulations were performed using Virtual Tissue Simulator (VTS) and Monte Carlo Command Line (MCCL) tools. The target was a two-layer model of the epidermis and dermis layers of the skin.
The optical attenuation properties quantifying the absorption and scattering in these layers are set according to...

Monte Carlo simulation results for anaemia detection in the skin

Akhil Kallepalli & David James
This research was presented at SPIE Photonics West 2020 (February 2020) with the article titled: Quantification and influence of skin chromophores for remote detection of anemic conditions
(https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2545784)
Monte Carlo simulations were performed using Virtual Tissue Simulator (VTS) and Monte Carlo Command Line (MCCL) tools. The target was a two-layer model of the epidermis and dermis layers of the skin.
The optical attenuation properties quantifying the absorption and scattering in these layers are set according to...

Monte Carlo simulation results for anaemia detection in the skin

Akhil Kallepalli & David James
This research was presented at SPIE Photonics West 2020 (February 2020) with the article titled: Quantification and influence of skin chromophores for remote detection of anemic conditions
(https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2545784)
Monte Carlo simulations were performed using Virtual Tissue Simulator (VTS) and Monte Carlo Command Line (MCCL) tools. The target was a two-layer model of the epidermis and dermis layers of the skin.
The optical attenuation properties quantifying the absorption and scattering in these layers are set according to...

Buried object detection and classification using SAR in varying moisture environments

Richard Sabiers
Remote investigation and classification of buried objects is important for many reasons. For defence roles the identification of suspicious objects can enhance security. Civilian applications are also applicable allowing estimation of crop yield and remote monitoring of plant health.
The aim of this work is to demonstrate a prototype open-source system of radar-based target detection and classification. Experimental targets consist of buried artefacts, including an example of military ordnance, such as a landmine and a...

Visual Scene Understanding for Self-Driving Cars Using Deep Learning and Stereovision

Amélie Grenier
Poster presented at the 2018 Defence and Security Doctoral Symposium.
Autonomous driving has been rapidly evolving for the last few years and there is a lot of fervour in increasing the intelligence of these vehicles. One key aspect of a self-driving car is its ability to sense the environment in order to be aware of its surrounding.Our interest lies in using computer vision and deep learning techniques to detect surrounding entities; localising and recognising them. Here,...

Conceptualising Supply Chain Management: An Objective-Oriented Approach

Hussain Alkebaisi
Poster presented at the Cranfield Doctoral Network Annual Event 2018.
Although it has been more than three decades since the concept of Supply Chain Management (SCM) was first introduced, there are still significant attempts at, and a call for conceptualising, defining, remodelling and identifying the theory(s) behind it. There is no consensus in the literature on a concise and precise definition of SCM nor its underpinning theory(s). A rigorous theoretical framework has not yet been developed;...

Low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles for the rapid and high-resolution determination of contamination

Peter Martin
Poster presentation at the 2016 Defence and Security Doctoral Symposium. Following the events of March 2011 at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a considerable quantity of radiation was released into the local Japanese as well as the global environment. Much work and expense is currently being devoted to the remediation of a large area of eastern Japan contaminated primarily by radiocaesium. Due to the complex nature of the environment affected by the release,...

Monte Carlo simulation results for full finger models based on ultrasound image data

Akhil Kallepalli, David James & Mark Richardson
Monte Carlo simulations were performed using Virtual Tissue Simulator (VTS) and Monte Carlo Command Line (MCCL) tools. The target was a tissue model specific to individual participants, including all anatomical components in a finger. The thickness and depth measurements were ascertained using an 18 MHz ultrasound probe. This implementation is proposed as a low-cost and novel method for patient-specific photo-therapy.

The optical models of 12 participants are assessed at four wavelengths of interest. The optical...

Monte Carlo simulation results for full finger models based on ultrasound image data

Akhil Kallepalli, David James & Mark Richardson
Monte Carlo simulations were performed using Virtual Tissue Simulator (VTS) and Monte Carlo Command Line (MCCL) tools. The target was a tissue model specific to individual participants, including all anatomical components in a finger. The thickness and depth measurements were ascertained using an 18 MHz ultrasound probe. This implementation is proposed as a low-cost and novel method for patient-specific photo-therapy.

The optical models of 12 participants are assessed at four wavelengths of interest. The optical...

Deep Learning Techniques for Missile Seeker Automatic Target Recognition

Samuel Westlake
Modern infrared missiles use sophisticated computer vision techniques, in conjunction with imaging seekers, to automatically detect and localise targets. However, simulations show that soft-kill countermeasures remain an effective defence against such systems. This research explores the feasibility of deep learning algorithms for Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) and aim to significantly improve seeker performance in the presence of soft-kill countermeasures and clutter. State-of-the-art neural network architectures were benchmarked using both simulated and real-world infrared data. Their...

Deep Learning Techniques for Missile Seeker Automatic Target Recognition

Samuel Westlake
Modern infrared missiles use sophisticated computer vision techniques, in conjunction with imaging seekers, to automatically detect and localise targets. However, simulations show that soft-kill countermeasures remain an effective defence against such systems. This research explores the feasibility of deep learning algorithms for Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) and aim to significantly improve seeker performance in the presence of soft-kill countermeasures and clutter. State-of-the-art neural network architectures were benchmarked using both simulated and real-world infrared data. Their...

Buried object detection and classification using SAR in varying moisture environments

Richard Sabiers
Remote investigation and classification of buried objects is important for many reasons. For defence roles the identification of suspicious objects can enhance security. Civilian applications are also applicable allowing estimation of crop yield and remote monitoring of plant health.
The aim of this work is to demonstrate a prototype open-source system of radar-based target detection and classification. Experimental targets consist of buried artefacts, including an example of military ordnance, such as a landmine and a...

Characterising bremsstrahlung and non-linear Compton scatter in high intensity laser-foil interactions

Stuart Morris
Non-linear Compton scatter (NCS) and bremsstrahlung radiation both contribute to the X-rays produced in laser-solid interactions. While it is expected that NCS will efficiently generate X-rays for next generation lasers, the weaker NCS yields from laser-solid interactions in existing facilities have not yet been observed due to the bremsstrahlung background. This work attempts to derive a quantitative description of the bremsstrahlung efficiency, for interactions between ultrahigh-intensity short-pulse lasers and thin-foil targets. This model was tested...

Characterising bremsstrahlung and non-linear Compton scatter in high intensity laser-foil interactions

Stuart Morris
Non-linear Compton scatter (NCS) and bremsstrahlung radiation both contribute to the X-rays produced in laser-solid interactions. While it is expected that NCS will efficiently generate X-rays for next generation lasers, the weaker NCS yields from laser-solid interactions in existing facilities have not yet been observed due to the bremsstrahlung background. This work attempts to derive a quantitative description of the bremsstrahlung efficiency, for interactions between ultrahigh-intensity short-pulse lasers and thin-foil targets. This model was tested...

Characterising bremsstrahlung and non-linear Compton scatter in high intensity laser-foil interactions

Stuart Morris
Non-linear Compton scatter (NCS) and bremsstrahlung radiation both contribute to the X-rays produced in laser-solid interactions. While it is expected that NCS will efficiently generate X-rays for next generation lasers, the weaker NCS yields from laser-solid interactions in existing facilities have not yet been observed due to the bremsstrahlung background. This work attempts to derive a quantitative description of the bremsstrahlung efficiency, for interactions between ultrahigh-intensity short-pulse lasers and thin-foil targets. This model was tested...

Tactical Psychology in Operation Veritable

Dermot Rooney
Research into tactical psychology has found remarkable effects on opponent willingness and ability to fight from applying apparently simple techniques. Combining threats causes indecision and inaction, more than doubling the number of opponents surrendering. Flanking give an obvious sign that the opponents are unlikely to succeed and more than trebles the number withdrawing from combat. Proximity -getting close to the enemy- once the first two effects are achieved, allows interpersonal non-verbal negotiation which ‘seals the...

Tactical Psychology in Operation Veritable

Dermot Rooney
Research into tactical psychology has found remarkable effects on opponent willingness and ability to fight from applying apparently simple techniques. Combining threats causes indecision and inaction, more than doubling the number of opponents surrendering. Flanking give an obvious sign that the opponents are unlikely to succeed and more than trebles the number withdrawing from combat. Proximity -getting close to the enemy- once the first two effects are achieved, allows interpersonal non-verbal negotiation which ‘seals the...

Antibiotic Discovery from the Abyss

Henry Stennett
It is essential that we discover and develop new antibiotics to overcome the problems associated with antibiotic resistance and find treatments for bacteria that don’t respond well to currently available treatment options. Recent years have seen revived interest in culture-dependent methods for discovery - screening rare bacteria from unexplored environments for their ability to inhibit the growth of pathogens. The deep sea is vast, rich in biodiversity, and one of the few ‘pristine’ environments on...

Antibiotic Discovery from the Abyss

Henry Stennett
It is essential that we discover and develop new antibiotics to overcome the problems associated with antibiotic resistance and find treatments for bacteria that don’t respond well to currently available treatment options. Recent years have seen revived interest in culture-dependent methods for discovery - screening rare bacteria from unexplored environments for their ability to inhibit the growth of pathogens. The deep sea is vast, rich in biodiversity, and one of the few ‘pristine’ environments on...

Audio Visual Assessment of CBRN hazards and injuries (AVA)

Athanasios Komianos
In recent years, there has been a significant rise in the uptake by the general public, of audio visual (AV) technology. In part this is driven by the wider adoption of smartphones, social media, broadband internet, computers with in built webcams and wearable devices. Despite the widespread adoption of AV technology, it has seen limited use in CBRN incidents, environmental hazards and emergencies.
AVA will systematically measure and evaluate the current communication situation, capture and analyse...

Audio Visual Assessment of CBRN hazards and injuries (AVA)

Athanasios Komianos
In recent years, there has been a significant rise in the uptake by the general public, of audio visual (AV) technology. In part this is driven by the wider adoption of smartphones, social media, broadband internet, computers with in built webcams and wearable devices. Despite the widespread adoption of AV technology, it has seen limited use in CBRN incidents, environmental hazards and emergencies.
AVA will systematically measure and evaluate the current communication situation, capture and analyse...

Predicting the Fate and Transport of Insensitive High Explosives in Soils

Encina Gutierrez Carazo
A great deal of studies on the environmental fate and transport of legacy explosives such as cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazoctane (HMX) has been conducted. However, less is known about the behaviour of Insensitive High Explosive (IHE) constituents being brought into military service such as 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 5-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (NTO) in soil and water environmental compartments. Typically fate and transport of explosives are often performed under controlled laboratory conditions. However, experimental data are often...

Predicting the Fate and Transport of Insensitive High Explosives in Soils

Encina Gutierrez Carazo
A great deal of studies on the environmental fate and transport of legacy explosives such as cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazoctane (HMX) has been conducted. However, less is known about the behaviour of Insensitive High Explosive (IHE) constituents being brought into military service such as 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 5-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (NTO) in soil and water environmental compartments. Typically fate and transport of explosives are often performed under controlled laboratory conditions. However, experimental data are often...

The Influence of Military Specific Physical Activity on Physical and Cognitive Performance Relevant to Military Operations: Future Directions

Christopher Vine
Background: The challenging and stochastic nature of military operations require combatants to operate at a high level whilst coping with numerous physical (e.g. load carriage) and cognitive challenges (e.g. decision making). Purpose: To investigate the effect of military specific physical activity (MSPA) on relevant parameters of physical and cognitive performance.Research Design: 1) Developing a representative MSPA protocol and physical and cognitive performance measures. 2) Quantifying the physical demands of the MSPA protocol. 3) Establishing the...

The Influence of Military Specific Physical Activity on Physical and Cognitive Performance Relevant to Military Operations: Future Directions

Christopher Vine
Background: The challenging and stochastic nature of military operations require combatants to operate at a high level whilst coping with numerous physical (e.g. load carriage) and cognitive challenges (e.g. decision making). Purpose: To investigate the effect of military specific physical activity (MSPA) on relevant parameters of physical and cognitive performance.Research Design: 1) Developing a representative MSPA protocol and physical and cognitive performance measures. 2) Quantifying the physical demands of the MSPA protocol. 3) Establishing the...

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