642 Works

Three essays in applied microeconomics.

Konrad Burchard Burchardi
This thesis comprises three independent chapters, spanning the range of my interests. The first chapter provides estimates of the causal effects of social ties on aggregate, firm level and individual level economic outcomes. The second chapter is a first step at understanding the joint determination of language change and economic structural change which seems to have occurred over the past centuries and probably continues today. A joint theme in these papers is the attempt to...

Dynamic injustice:

Diana-Elena Popescu
Theories of justice are usually divided in aim and sphere of operation between redistributive justice (allocation of goods and resources) and recognition justice (ensuring respect and esteem between members of societies regardless of race, ethnicity, sexuality etc.). Divorcing the two is said to create conceptual clarity, but policy chaos in the treatment of complex injustices. Contrary to the received view, my thesis argues recognition and redistribution can only provide an adequate conceptual framework for questions...

Mean-variance optimal portfolios for Lévy processes and a singular stochastic control model for capacity expansion.

Jose E. Pasos
In the first part of the thesis, the problem of determining the optimal capacity expansion strategy for a firm operating within a random economic environment is studied. The underlying market uncertainty is modelled by means of a general one-dimensional positive diffusion with possible absorption at 0. The objective is to maximise a performance criterion that involves a general running payoff function and associates a cost with each capacity increase up to the first hitting time...

Essays on the economics of gender identity and behavioural responses to tax policy.

Panos Mavrokonstantis
This thesis presents three essays. The first examines the effect of having a breadwinner mother on children’s gender norms in England. It shows that, while boys with breadwinning mothers are less likely to develop traditional views, girls are more likely to become traditional, in opposition to their family’s norm but in line with society’s. It then develops a model of gender identity, showing that the results can be explained by girls’ weaker preference for conformity...

Visceral politics of food:

Ken Kuroda
This Ph.D. examines how commuters in Mumbai, India, negotiate their sense of being and wellbeing through their engagements with food in the city. It focuses on the widespread practice of eating homemade lunches in the workplace, important for commuters to replenish mind and body with foods that embody their specific family backgrounds, in a society where religious, caste, class, and community markers comprise complex dietary regimes. Eating such charged substances in the office canteen was...

LTCcovid International living report on COVID-19 and Long-Term Care

Adelina Comas-Herrera, Joanna Marczak, William , Klara Lorenz-Dant, &

The hegemony of urbanisation: questioning the production of space by the state in Beijing’s green belts

Yimin Zhao
This thesis aims to investigate the state question in the context of China’s urban change, with Beijing’s green belts as the study site. Formerly places where the socialist-modernist vision would be realised, the green belts have been made central to the state-led and land-based urban accumulation strategies during the last two decades of urban metamorphosis. By interrogating the power dynamics associated with the green belts under change, this thesis illustrates the agency and agents of...

Poverty, cash transfers and adolescents’ lives: exploring the unintended consequences of Nepal’s social pension: a mixed-methods study

Nicholas John Mathers
This thesis contributes new evidence and analyses on the effects of cash transfers on adolescent school attendance, work participation and marital status. The mixed-methods study investigates the effects of Nepal’s Old Age Allowance (OAA), an unconditional cash transfer, on adolescents who co-reside with older persons using primary data from a household survey (n=2018) and in-depth interviews (IDI) (n=55) conducted in Rautahat district in the Terai region. The quantitative analysis exploits the age criteria for OAA...

Towards a pluralistic view of formal methods

Ko-Hung Kuan
This thesis is a collection of three self-contained papers on related themes in the area of formal and social epistemology. The first paper explores the possibility of measuring the coherence of a set with multiplicative averaging. It has been pointed out that all the existing probabilistic measures of coherence are flawed for taking the relevance between a set of propositions as the primary factor which determines the coherence of the set. What I show in...

New approaches to measuring economic and social well-being in Chile

Joaquín Prieto
I propose three new measures of social and economic well-being using different approaches. These measures are applied to Chile using two household surveys: the Panel CASEN and the Financial Survey. First, I use an income positions persistence approach to estimate the persistence of households in different positions of the income distribution. The application of this measure enables us to understand the mechanisms that explain why those at the lower end of the income distribution have...

Valued capital(s) and devalued labour in London’s \"gig economy\"

George Edward Maier
A considerable body of literature on the “gig economy” is dedicated to exploited and precarious labour. This thesis set out to examine the undertheorised role of capitals (economic, social and cultural) and the relationship between these capitals and labour on gig platforms. It found that capitals, in combination with debt, play an important role in shaping the lived experiences of “entrepreneurs” in the “gig economy”. It is argued, therefore, that class analysis of the “gig...

Home style: governments, parties, and the domestic presentation of European integration

Tom Hunter
National governments are accused of being evasive and opportunistic in their presentation of European integration, thereby exacerbating the EU's crisis of legitimacy. Yet empirical evidence on how governments present Europe at home is limited to a small handful of qualitative studies. This thesis provides the first comparative, quantitative study of how governments - and the parties that form them - present Europe in their domestic public spheres, and what these presentational strategies mean for representation...

Essays on outward foreign direct investment and technological innovation

Yunxiong Li
This thesis studies outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) of Chinese multinational enterprises (CMNEs) and technological innovation. The first three chapters explore how home country contexts influence OFDI decisions, strategies and post investment performance. Chapter 1 develops a “three internationalization advantages” framework in which CMNEs invest abroad not only on the basis of firm-specific advantages (FSA) but also on state-created and network-based advantages which can make up for the shortage of FSA. The necessary condition for...

Governing data in modernity/coloniality: astronomy data in the Atacama Desert and the struggle for collective autonomy

Sebastián Lehuedé
In recent years, different actors in Chile have portrayed the vast volumes of astronomy data produced by international observatories in the Atacama Desert as a unique opportunity for scientific and economic development. Research, policy and corporate initiatives have been put into place to leverage this situation. In this thesis I examine the governance of this data by developing a framework based on collective autonomy. Unlike the paradigms of openness and sovereignty, collective autonomy speaks to...

Understanding reneging: Canada's nuclear sharing commitments to NATO and NORAD during the Cold War

Jacklyn Majnemer
How and why do leaders renege on their alliance commitments, despite institutional incentives to cooperate? According to the research on alliance reliability, three types of costs discourage reneging: material costs, reputational costs, and domestic audience costs. These costs are theorized to be especially high for leaders of democracies, junior alliance members, and members of highly institutionalized alliances. Yet, despite these characteristics, Canada's foreign policy related to its nuclear sharing commitments to NATO and NORAD between...

Systemic pressures, party politics and foreign policy: Serbia between Russia and the West, 2008-2020

Vuk Vuksanovic
Since 2008 Serbia maintained its relations with the West, meaning the EU and the US while nurturing partnership with Russia, even though it has an interest in joining the EU. This thesis examines the causes of the Serbian balancing act between Russia and the West in the period between 2008 and 2020. The thesis determines the causal factors behind Serbian balancing act and factors that account for differences in the intensity of this policy during...

Direct payments: a national survey of direct payments policy and practice

Vanessa Davey, Jose-Luis Fernandez, Martin Knapp, Nicola Vick, Debbie Jolly, Paul Swift, Roseanne Tobin, Jeremy Kendall, Jo Ferrie, Charlotte Pearson, Geof Mercer & Mark Priestley

Tension: an ethnographic study of women’s mental distress in rural North India

Nikita Rachel Kaur Simpson
The aim of this thesis is to examine the embodied and mental forms of distress - expressed as tension – experienced by women of the Gaddi tribal community of Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India. Tension is a polysemic term used across South Asia to describe the strains and scrapes of life, similar to ‘worry’ or ‘stress’ in Euro-American discourse. Amongst the Gaddi, the term provides a unique window into the intimate, embodied experience of politico-economic and...

Essays in financial economics

Alberto Pellicioli
In the first chapter, co-authored with Dr. Christian Julliard, we study the impact of option expiration on underlying stock volatility. We find a negative direct effect on stock realized volatility and a positive and significant effect on stock implied volatility. Moreover, a positive spillover effect on stocks with no options expiring on a given expiration date is observed. Two possible explanations are discussed, namely investors’ delta hedging and stock pinning around option expiration dates. Both...

The behavioural nature of safety voice: advancing concepts and measures to enable the prevention of harm

Mark Christiaan Noort
Background: The concept of ‘safety voice’ captures the extent to which individuals speak-up about safety. The behaviour is deemed important for preventing accidents, yet interventions are needed because people often fail to speak-up (‘safety silence’), thus contributing to harmful outcomes across safety-critical domains. However, the concept remains disintegrated and grounded in limited evidence and methodologies. Thus, the utility of ‘safety voice’ for safety management remains unclear, prohibiting effective interventions. This thesis therefore aims to evaluate...

Shifting sands in Accra, Ghana: the ante-lives of urban form

Katherine Dawson
This thesis thinks with sand and its fundamental relationship to the making of the city. Sand is a material of our shared contemporary. Constituting roads, buildings, fracking technologies, computer chips, glass and land itself, this grainy material is at ‘the core of our daily lives’ (Beiser, 2018:2). This ubiquity has generated global demand, with sand and gravel constituting the largest volume of solid material extracted worldwide (UNEP, 2014). Yet, despite the centrality of sand to...

Public infrastructure and health in low- and middle-income countries

Antonella Bancalari Valderrama
Public infrastructure provides the services that allow societies to function and economies to thrive. Economic research has been very useful at identifying the social returns to investing in public infrastructure, once projects are completed and in use. Yet, we know little about what made these infrastructure projects successful in improving living standards in the first place. A key policy question moving forward is not “how much” but “how well” we invest in public infrastructure. In...

Iran’s idea of Europe (1501-2015): identity, concepts, and international society

Alireza Shams Lahijani

A micro-demographic analysis of human fertility from Chinese genealogies, 1368-1911

Sijie Hu
This thesis is a micro-demographic analysis of human fertility from Chinese genealogies in the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties. It exploits a new genealogical dataset comprising 72,861 individuals from six lineages to account for the fertility decisions taken in Chinese families. Following the comprehensive micro-level analyses of a small population, the thesis demonstrates the main features at an individual level of the fertility patterns and the relationships between demographic outcomes and social outcomes in...

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