130 Works

Competing claims, risk and ambiguity

Thomas Rowe
This thesis engages with the following three questions. First, how should the presence of risk and ambiguity affect how we distribute a benefit to which individuals have competing claims? (In line with common use in decision theory, a case involves risk when we can assign at least subjective probabilities to outcomes and it involves ambiguity when we cannot assign such probabilities.) Second, what is it about the imposition of a risk of harm itself (that...

Why keep protecting the few without external incentives? Compliance with minority rights norms after attaining IO membership in Latvia and Georgia

Neal Suleimanova
While research on developments in minority rights field in the South and East European countries has shown that political incentives in the form of International Organization (IO) membership conditionality was a driving factor in facilitating transposition of minority rights norms into domestic legislation, compliance with IO recommendations post-conditionality remains a puzzle. This thesis contributes to the broader literature on ‘Europeanisation’ by first, examining transposition of and compliance with minority rights norms once the main ‘carrot’...

Essays on environmental and urban economics

Yatang Lin
The thesis consists of three independent chapters on environmental and urban economics. A central theme explored in this thesis is what determines the distribution of economic activities across space. My exploration in this direction begins with the roles of industrial pollution and transportation infrastructure in shaping the spatial distribution of skills, and extends to evaluate the spatial allocation efficiency of renewable energy projects. The first chapter,“The Long Shadow of Industrial Pollution: Environmental Amenities and the...

Gender and the politics of welfare: a study of social assistance policies towards lone mothers in Britain, 1948-1966

Robyn Rowe
The thesis is a study of social assistance policies and practices towards separated wives and divorced and never-married women with children between 1948 and 1966 in Britain. It uses historical analysis of archival documents to address questions regarding gender and welfare state change. In doing so, the thesis builds on and critically examines existing social policy discourse concerned with the historical shift away from assumptions that women would be wives and/or mothers towards an assumption...

IT-enabled rationalization of public administration in developing countries: essays on Ghana’s customs modernization

Atta Addo
Through a series of three standalone yet related essays, this thesis theorizes effects of the government administration context in developing countries on situated IT-enabled practices. It develops arguments on the capacity of the institutional logics perspective for explaining complex interactions between the broader social context and IT-enabled practices carried out by situated actors in the public administration of developing countries. We theorize IT-enabled rationalization—a process through which inefficiencies, and dysfunctional institutionalized practices are transformed through...

Essays in macroeconomics

Oriol Carreras Baquer
This thesis contains four chapters. The first chapter establishes a negative empirical correlation between the share of employees working under a temporary contract and the share of employees with high educational attainments employed in jobs for which they are overqualified. Subsequently, I show that a search and matching model with heterogeneous jobs and workers with directed search can explain this correlation. Temporary contracts induce entrepreneurs to post, in relative terms, more vacancies for jobs with...

The experiences of Canadian children of prisoners

Else Marie Knudsen
Long hidden from academic scrutiny, children of prisoners have recently become the subjects of much academic study, through a variety of disciplines and methods. However many issues within this topic remain under-examined. This study aimed to explore two such issues: the self-reported experiences of children of prisoners, and children in the Canadian context. This thesis analyses the results of qualitative interviews with children aged 6-17 who currently have a parent in prison (N=22). Employing a...

A maverick in the making: Romania’s de-Satellization process and the Global Cold War (1953-1963)

Corina Mavrodin
This research project explores Romania’s process of detachment from Moscow from 1953 to 1963 within the context of the global Cold War. Through a multi-archival investigation, the dissertation investigates the first full process of peaceful de-satellization within the Eastern bloc by considering the broader framework of the bipolar international climate. In so doing, it provides both a bottom-up, as well as a top-down analysis. This project focuses, in particular, on the tenure of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej...

American legal discourse on child trafficking: the re/production of inequalities and persistence of child criminalization

Pantea Javidan
The criminalization of children commercially-sexually exploited through prostitution persists despite trafficking laws recognizing this as one of the worst forms of exploitation committed against the most vulnerable social group. This thesis examines the re/production of inequalities in American legal discourse on child trafficking, and why child criminalization persists in this context. Employing a child-centered framework built from multi-conscious feminism and the sociologies of law and childhood, it examines mechanisms of othering and criminalization in key...

Determining policy priorities in a devolved health system: an analytical framework

Christina Novinskey
This dissertation develops an analytical framework for studying the effects of health system devolution on the health policymaking process and policy choices made by subnational governments. It addresses two research questions: (1) How does devolution change the structure and agency of the health policymaking process? (2) What is the resulting impact on health policy priorities? A critical literature review covers decentralization, devolution, and interest-based approaches for analysing the policymaking process, structure and agency. An analytical...

Remaking Rio de Janeiro through \"favela integration\": the politics of mobility and state space

Tucker Landesman
This thesis examines how states develop and implement urban planning and governance policies and programmes in response to segregation and socio-spatial inequalities. Rio de Janeiro has long been constructed as both a “marvellous city” and as strictly “divided” between the so-called formal city and the self-built favelas that developed into “consolidated” neighbourhoods. While never granted full legal tenure and continuously denied basic rights as guaranteed in the 1988 “Citizens’ Constitution,” public policy in the late...

Essays on financial frictions and productivity

Isabelle Roland
Productivity - the efficiency with which firms transform inputs into outputs - is the root of economic growth and the improvement of living standards. This thesis explores different financial frictions that affect productivity at the corporate level and their aggregate consequences. The first chapter, “Credit Market Frictions and the Productivity Slowdown”, is joint work with John Van Reenen and Timothy Besley. UK labour productivity growth has been particularly weak since the financial crisis. We develop...

Architectural evolution through softwarisation: on the advent of software-defined networks

Reuel Ocho
Digital infrastructures characteristically expand and evolve. Their propensity for growth can be attributed to the self-reinforcing mechanism of positive network externalities, in which the value and attractiveness of any digital infrastructure to users, is generated from and sustained as a function of the size of its existing user community. The expansion of any digital infrastructure, though, is ultimately underpinned by an inherent architectural capacity to support unanticipated change, that may include changes to architecture itself....

Essays in development, banking and organisations

Nicola Limodio
This thesis contains four chapters that participate to the literature between development economics, banking and organisational economics. The first chapter shows that deposit volatility and costly bank liquidity increase the long ­term lending rates offered by banks, which reduce loan maturities,long-term investment and output. Together with my co-author(Ali Chaudhary from the State Bank of Pakistan), we formalise this mechanism in a banking model and analyse exogenous variation in deposit volatility induced by a Sharia levy...

Mind over matter: access to knowledge and the British industrial revolution

James Dowey
This thesis argues that the British Industrial Revolution, which marked the beginning of sustained modern economic growth, was facilitated by the blossoming in eighteenth and early nineteenth century Britain of the world’s first infrastructure for commercial R&D, composed of a network of ‘Knowledge Access Institutions’ (KAIs): scientific societies, ‘mechanics institutes’, public libraries, masonic lodges and other organisations. This infrastructure lowered the cost of access to knowledge for scientists, inventors and entrepreneurs, raising the productivity of...

Essays on tasks, technology, and trends in the labor market

Orhun Sevinc
This thesis contains three essays on the role of tasks and technology in explaining the trends in reallocation of employment across occupations and sectors, and inequalities in the labor market. The first two chapters focus on the task content of occupations with special emphasis on the effect of interpersonal interactions in the changing structure of employment in the labor market. Chapter 1 studies structural change of employment at the task level. Interactions with customers are...

Public narratives as symbolic resources for gender and development: a case study of women and community radio in south Sudan

Emily LeRoux-Rutledge
This thesis seeks to understand how public narratives about women facilitate and constrain the achievement of gender and development goals, using South Sudan as a case study. The international community is committed to achieving gender and development goals such as women’s empowerment, education and employment. The gender and development literature suggests that realising such goals requires understanding local cultural contexts. In particular, the literature often views traditional elements of local cultural context as obstacles (although...

Cultivating hierarchy: the reproduction of structural advantage in Sierra Leone’s cannabis economy

Christopher Suckling
Violence is often treated as an organisational compliment to illicit drug production and exchange in sub-Saharan Africa. The thesis challenges this view in light of the “chain work” undertaken by cannabis cultivators in Sierra Leone, and examines its complex web of labour, exchange, and extra-legal relations. Research reveals that an apprenticeship system during the early 1800s slavery abolition period continued to organise labour in Western Area’s small-scale agriculture. Meanwhile, the migration of cultivators from Jamaica...

How models represent

James Nguyen
Scientific models are important, if not the sole, units of science. This thesis addresses the following question: in virtue of what do scientific models represent their target systems? In Part i I motivate the question, and lay out some important desiderata that any successful answer must meet. This provides a novel conceptual framework in which to think about the question (or questions) of scientific representation. I then argue against Callender and Cohen’s (2006) attempt to...

Essays on disparities in innovative performance and economic development in emerging countries: a regional and firm-level investigation

Alexander Jaax
The global economic system has been undergoing fundamental changes since the 1980s. Many emerging countries drastically increased their openness to trade and foreign investments. Formerly socialist countries entered a transition towards a market-based model and deepened their integration into the global economy. As a result, the geography of trade, investment flows, and innovation is becoming more multipolar. This thesis seeks to improve our understanding of the links between these macro-level shifts and the geography of...

Services trade integration in East Asia and political economy impediments in domestic decision-making: a case study of Japan-ASEAN bilateral free trade agreements

Minako Morita-Jaeger
In East Asia, services trade integration, both in market and policy, lags far behind goods trade integration. In spite of a proliferation of ASEAN plus one type FTAs in the Region since the early 2000s, policy-led services integration has not happened in East Asia. The aim of this research project is to investigate the reasons why the Japan-ASEAN bilateral FTAs, which were concluded in the 2000s, resulted in the shallow GATS-plus FTAs. Since barriers in...

Digital faith: social media and the enactment of religious identity in Pakistan

Emrys Schoemaker
This thesis is a theoretically framed and historically informed sociological analysis of how digital technology usage shapes religious identity in Pakistan. The development literature is dominated by assumptions of technologically driven progress towards secularisation and studies of technology projects, yet there are few empirical studies of everyday ICT day use, and religion remains significant in Pakistan. To explain this, I draw on theoretical literature, the Pakistan religious identity literature and twelve months of fieldwork (2014-2015)...

Enclave empires: Britain, France and the treaty-port system in Japan, 1858-1868

Scott Gilfillan
This thesis will present a comparative and internationally contextualised history of Anglo-French relations in Japan between 1858 and 1868. It will introduce the concept of ‘enclave empires’ to describe the conduits for Western informal imperialism that were created in Japan by the imposition of the treaty-port system in 1858. It will aim to address longstanding gaps in the historiography by assessing that system as a multinational construct that depended upon the cooperation and collaboration of...

Revisiting the Local Power Structure in Bangladesh: Economic Gain, Political Pain?

David Lewis & Abu Hossain

RWE in Europe Paper II: The use of Real World Evidence in the disease context

Jennifer Gill, Panos Kanavos, Joan Albanell, Magdolna Dank, Robert Duncombe, Antje-Henriette Fink-Wagner, John Hutton, Karina Jahnz-Różyk, Ingrid Kossler, Katerina Podrazilova, Wolfgang Schramm, Federico Spandonaro, Michael Thomas & Markus Wartenberg
Real World Evidence (RWE), the use of data not collected via traditional randomised controlled trials (RCT) for decision-making, is becoming more interesting to market-access and reimbursement decision-makers, despite potential methodological issues around its use. This paper, the second in a series looking at the use of Real World Evidence (RWE) in Europe, analyses the opinions of a number of key experts in pricing and reimbursement from a selection of countries across Europe. Discussion centred on...

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