631 Works

The emerging interventionists of the GCC

Karen Young
There is a shift occurring within the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in which new regional leaders are emerging, buoyed by a decade of unprecedented wealth generation from the 2000s commodities boom and increased foreign investment. Specifically, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have emerged as activist states in their interest and willingness to intervene both militarily and financially in the politics of neighbouring Arab states. Contrary to their collective and individual foreign policies of...

Battlefields of the republic: the struggle for public space in Tunisia

Charles Tripp
This paper argues that the Tunisian revolutionary moment of 2011 and its aftermath have opened up spaces that are capable of providing a framework for the agonistic politics associated with democratic possibility. Insurgent public space, an emerging plural public, as well as adversarial contests over the constitution of the republic display features that may help to build ‘conflictual consensus’ as part of a democratic future. These possibilities are constantly being re-enacted by Tunisians whose disagreements...

Designing Politics: the limits of design

Adam Kassa, John Bingham-Hall, Richard Sennett, Hillary Angelo, Tom Dobson, Sarah Bastide, Adriana Cobo Corey, Claudio Sopranzetti, Pushpa Arabindoo, Ludovica Rogers, Mona Sloane, Rodrigo Firmino, Adam Greenfield, Cécile Altaber & Andrew Belfield
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Competing claims, risk and ambiguity

Thomas Rowe
This thesis engages with the following three questions. First, how should the presence of risk and ambiguity affect how we distribute a benefit to which individuals have competing claims? (In line with common use in decision theory, a case involves risk when we can assign at least subjective probabilities to outcomes and it involves ambiguity when we cannot assign such probabilities.) Second, what is it about the imposition of a risk of harm itself (that...

Why keep protecting the few without external incentives? Compliance with minority rights norms after attaining IO membership in Latvia and Georgia

Neal Suleimanova
While research on developments in minority rights field in the South and East European countries has shown that political incentives in the form of International Organization (IO) membership conditionality was a driving factor in facilitating transposition of minority rights norms into domestic legislation, compliance with IO recommendations post-conditionality remains a puzzle. This thesis contributes to the broader literature on ‘Europeanisation’ by first, examining transposition of and compliance with minority rights norms once the main ‘carrot’...

Essays on environmental and urban economics

Yatang Lin
The thesis consists of three independent chapters on environmental and urban economics. A central theme explored in this thesis is what determines the distribution of economic activities across space. My exploration in this direction begins with the roles of industrial pollution and transportation infrastructure in shaping the spatial distribution of skills, and extends to evaluate the spatial allocation efficiency of renewable energy projects. The first chapter,“The Long Shadow of Industrial Pollution: Environmental Amenities and the...

Gender and the politics of welfare: a study of social assistance policies towards lone mothers in Britain, 1948-1966

Robyn Rowe
The thesis is a study of social assistance policies and practices towards separated wives and divorced and never-married women with children between 1948 and 1966 in Britain. It uses historical analysis of archival documents to address questions regarding gender and welfare state change. In doing so, the thesis builds on and critically examines existing social policy discourse concerned with the historical shift away from assumptions that women would be wives and/or mothers towards an assumption...

IT-enabled rationalization of public administration in developing countries: essays on Ghana’s customs modernization

Atta Addo
Through a series of three standalone yet related essays, this thesis theorizes effects of the government administration context in developing countries on situated IT-enabled practices. It develops arguments on the capacity of the institutional logics perspective for explaining complex interactions between the broader social context and IT-enabled practices carried out by situated actors in the public administration of developing countries. We theorize IT-enabled rationalization—a process through which inefficiencies, and dysfunctional institutionalized practices are transformed through...

Essays in macroeconomics

Oriol Carreras Baquer
This thesis contains four chapters. The first chapter establishes a negative empirical correlation between the share of employees working under a temporary contract and the share of employees with high educational attainments employed in jobs for which they are overqualified. Subsequently, I show that a search and matching model with heterogeneous jobs and workers with directed search can explain this correlation. Temporary contracts induce entrepreneurs to post, in relative terms, more vacancies for jobs with...

The experiences of Canadian children of prisoners

Else Marie Knudsen
Long hidden from academic scrutiny, children of prisoners have recently become the subjects of much academic study, through a variety of disciplines and methods. However many issues within this topic remain under-examined. This study aimed to explore two such issues: the self-reported experiences of children of prisoners, and children in the Canadian context. This thesis analyses the results of qualitative interviews with children aged 6-17 who currently have a parent in prison (N=22). Employing a...

Formal explorations in collective and individual rationality

Alexandru Marcoci
This thesis addresses several questions regarding what rational agents ought to believe and how they ought to act. In the first part I begin by discussing how scientists contemplating several mutually exclusive theories, models or hypotheses can reach a rational decision regarding which one to endorse. In response to a recent argument that they cannot, I employ the tools of social choice theory to offer a ‘possibility result’ for rational theory choice. Then I utilize...

Robustness, evidence, and uncertainty: an exploration of policy applications of robustness analysis

Nicolas Wüthrich
Policy-makers face an uncertain world. One way of getting a handle on decision-making in such an environment is to rely on evidence. Despite the recent increase in post-fact figures in politics, evidence-based policymaking takes centre stage in policy-setting institutions. Often, however, policy-makers face large volumes of evidence from different sources. Robustness analysis can, prima facie, handle this evidential diversity. Roughly, a hypothesis is supported by robust evidence if the different evidential sources (such as observations...

Essays on development economics and Japanese economic history

Junichi Yamasaki
This thesis consists of three independent chapters on development economics and Japanese economic history. The first chapter analyzes the effect of railroad construction in the Meiji period (1868–1912) on technology adoption and modern economic development. By digitizing a novel data set that measures the use of steam engines at the factory level and determining the cost-minimizing path between destinations as an identification strategy, I find that railroad access led to the increased adoption of steam...

The geography of firm internationalisation in Germany: exploring domestic and foreign heterogeneity across regions and sectors

David Nguyen
The present thesis explores the internationalisation of firms in relation to regionsector characteristics. We focus on outward investment by German firms and classify the heterogeneity across firms, regions and sectors, as well as foreign destinations. The thesis is structured in 5 chapters: a general introduction, followed by 3 empirical chapters and a final conclusion. In the introductory chapter we provide a general conceptual framework and selective review of the literature. Our starting point is that...

Essays in urban & development economics

Nathalie Picarelli
This thesis consists of four independent chapters on urban and development economics. Chapter 1 looks at the issue of distance and labour outcomes in urban areas of a developing country. It studies the effect of a housing relocation program on the labour supply and living conditions of low-income households across major cities in South Africa. For this, I use four waves of panel microdata collected between 2008 and 2014, and I exploit the arbitrary eligibility...

Titans of the early world: celtic ideas and national thought in Britain, Ireland, and France, 1700-1900

Ian Stewart
This thesis provides a coherent history of Celtic ideas in the modern era. Combining intellectual and cultural history in a transnational framework, it has two main aims. The first is to chart the transformation of perceptions of the Celts from those of a sought-after European ancestor to those of a marginalised people living on the ‘fringes’ of western Europe over the longue durée of 1700-1900. The second aim is to illustrate the wider intellectual, cultural,...

A maverick in the making: Romania’s de-Satellization process and the Global Cold War (1953-1963)

Corina Mavrodin
This research project explores Romania’s process of detachment from Moscow from 1953 to 1963 within the context of the global Cold War. Through a multi-archival investigation, the dissertation investigates the first full process of peaceful de-satellization within the Eastern bloc by considering the broader framework of the bipolar international climate. In so doing, it provides both a bottom-up, as well as a top-down analysis. This project focuses, in particular, on the tenure of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej...

Bringing about equality

Christopher Marshall
Sometimes people ought to do something for the sake of equality but it would be wrong to force them to do it. Contrariwise, sometimes it would be permissible to force people to do something for the sake of equality but it is unclear whether they ought to do it without coercion. This gives rise to moral obstacles to redistributing benefits and burdens in unequal situations of different degrees and kinds. In these situations, what are...

The politics of space: negotiating tenure security in a Nairobi slum

Sheila Wanjiru Kamunyori
Slum upgrading is a planning intervention where the state, in the process of upgrading an informal space, is seen as delivering tenure security to the residents in that space. This dissertation investigates the making legible of an informal space in Nairobi by analysing the processes and outcomes of a slum upgrading project and the consequent impact on tenure security. Using a qualitative, case study approach, I begin by analysing the production of the Korogocho slum...

A Politics of the People

Joel Pearce
The 2016 US presidential election saw Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders both being described as “populists”, despite running for different parties and coming from different political traditions. This paper empirically assesses the validity of this claim by conducting computer-assisted thematic analysis of their speeches during the presidential primaries. It explores the puzzle of populism being associated with diverse political positions by mapping out the candidates’ discourse, finding that both used populist themes but in strikingly...

Claims to orphanhood

Maja Haals Løndorf
Based on 16 consecutive months of fieldwork with children, their families and communities, this thesis explores the lives, experiences and perspectives of children, young people and their families who live in northwestern Rwanda and have experienced many hardships. In the context of war, genocide, migration and flight, it examines children and young people’s experiences of, as well as the social dynamics pertaining to, parental death or absence. The analysis addresses a key underlying question that...

Adjusting for unobserved and observed heterogeneity in survey-based performance indicators

Juliette Nicola Malley
This thesis is concerned with the statistical adjustment of survey-based indicators to account for unobserved and observed sources of heterogeneity. Recent years have seen a growth in the use of survey-based indicators to measure performance, but questions have been raised over their legitimacy due to high levels of nonresponse, particularly among certain groups, and the influence of factors unrelated to organisational performance, which complicate their interpretation. In light of this, this thesis uses a range...

American legal discourse on child trafficking: the re/production of inequalities and persistence of child criminalization

Pantea Javidan
The criminalization of children commercially-sexually exploited through prostitution persists despite trafficking laws recognizing this as one of the worst forms of exploitation committed against the most vulnerable social group. This thesis examines the re/production of inequalities in American legal discourse on child trafficking, and why child criminalization persists in this context. Employing a child-centered framework built from multi-conscious feminism and the sociologies of law and childhood, it examines mechanisms of othering and criminalization in key...

Determining policy priorities in a devolved health system: an analytical framework

Christina Novinskey
This dissertation develops an analytical framework for studying the effects of health system devolution on the health policymaking process and policy choices made by subnational governments. It addresses two research questions: (1) How does devolution change the structure and agency of the health policymaking process? (2) What is the resulting impact on health policy priorities? A critical literature review covers decentralization, devolution, and interest-based approaches for analysing the policymaking process, structure and agency. An analytical...

Remaking Rio de Janeiro through \"favela integration\": the politics of mobility and state space

Tucker Landesman
This thesis examines how states develop and implement urban planning and governance policies and programmes in response to segregation and socio-spatial inequalities. Rio de Janeiro has long been constructed as both a “marvellous city” and as strictly “divided” between the so-called formal city and the self-built favelas that developed into “consolidated” neighbourhoods. While never granted full legal tenure and continuously denied basic rights as guaranteed in the 1988 “Citizens’ Constitution,” public policy in the late...

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