5,796 Works

Self-assembled Floating Lipid Bilayers: What Forces Are Causing the Bilayer to Surface Distance Control?

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Recently (RB19100102) we have discovered that floating bilayers composed of fluid phase lipids can be produced by deposited vesicles onto charge modified oligo(ethylene glycol)coated gold surfaces. Changing the solution NaCl concentration was found to cause the membrane to surface distance to increase. This effect is likely related to one or a combination of two phenomena. Either secondary hydration forces arising from the binding of hydrated cations to the charged SAM surface or a change in...

The Interactions of Blood Components with Models of the Gram Negative Bacterial Surface

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One of the major challenges in the fight against antimicrobial resistance is the development of antimicrobial compounds that selectively disrupt bacterial membranes and leave endothelial membranes untouched. A major limitation is the lack of understanding in how novel medicines interact with blood serum components in the presence of either bacterial or endothelial cellular membranes. For example, we have previously found that serum proteins bind to a large extent to lipid bilayers composed predominantly of phosphatidylcholine...

Membrane interactions of virus-like silica nanoparticles as antimicrobial peptide carriers

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As a result of an increasing number of bacteria developing resistance against antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are currently attracting significant interest. However, much less focus has been placed on delivery systems for AMPs. Nanoparticles may provide opportunities, e.g., for controlling peptide release, reducing infection-related AMP degradation or increasing bioavailability. We have previously shown that mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNP) are interesting delivery systems for AMPs, e.g., providing protection against proteolytic degradation. We propose to extend this...

A High-Pressure investigation on 3,4,5-Trinitropyrazole

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This proposal will explore the effect of elevated pressure on the 3,4,5-Trinitropyrazole (TNP). TNP releases a large amount of dinitrogen gas as a detonation product which is neither toxic nor environmentally harmful, unlike most conventional explosives. They produce less carbon monoxide, soot and other oxidised toxic explosive residues. TNP is therefore considered as green energetic material. We are proposing a careful high-pressure neutron diffraction studyon TNP under hydrostatic conditions, with the aims of (i) identifying...

A High-Pressure investigation on 3,4,5-Trinitropyrazole

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This proposal will explore the effect of elevated pressure on the 3,4,5-Trinitropyrazole (TNP). TNP releases a large amount of dinitrogen gas as a detonation product which is neither toxic nor environmentally harmful, unlike most conventional explosives. They produce less carbon monoxide, soot and other oxidised toxic explosive residues. TNP is therefore considered as green energetic material. We are proposing a careful high-pressure neutron diffraction studyon TNP under hydrostatic conditions, with the aims of (i) identifying...

Structural characterisation of an electron-transfer protein, cytochrome c, on modified gold and indium tin oxide surfaces

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This proposal concerns the adsorption behaviour of an electron-transfer protein, cytochrome c, on modified electrode surfaces. Cytochrome c plays an important role in transferring electrons across membranes, for example during photosynthesis. Bioelectrochemical devices that use light-harvesting biofilms to generate electricity are limited by slow electron transfer at the electrode surface, and so understanding how proteins such as cytochrome c interface with these electrodes is crucial for improving this technology. We previously successfully used an electrochemical...

The membrane lipid composition regulates the orientation of Tissue Factor extramembrane domain

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Tissue Factor (TF) is a membrane protein located on the cell surfaces of extravascular cells. TF activity is fundamental for normal homeostasis- the physiological process which leads to blood coagulation. Indirect evidences suggest that the membrane lipid composition and in particular the presence of anionic phospholipid, such as phosphatidylserine (PS), and cholesterol has an important impact in stabilizing the protein complex and thus in regulating TF activity towards blood coagulation. No experimental data has so...

Pressure driven phase transitions in the magnetically frustrated layered material, Ca2Mn3O8

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Frustration occurs in materials where antiferromagnetic (spin up and spin down pairs) are incomparible with the underlying crystal morphology, for example where the connectivity between magnetic ions has a triangular motif. In these magnetic materials the magnetically ordered state is often unconventional. Calcium manganese oxide, Ca2Mn3O8, exhibits managnese oxide layers seperated by calcium ions. Within the layers a complex "bow-tie" like connectivity of the maganese leads to a "two up two down" spin arrangement below...

Investigating the antiferromagnetic order in (001)pc SmNiO3/NdNiO3 superlattices

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Rare earth nickelates (RNO3, but La) display a metal to insulator transition (MIT) as the temperature is reduced together with an unusual antiferromagnetic (AFM) order described by the (1/4,1/4,1/4)pc-wavevector below the Néel transition (TNéel). By growing superlattices (SLs) that combine SmNiO3 (SNO) and NdNiO3 (NNO) layers two nickelates displaying different critical temperatures, we have found that TMI of the whole system is controlled by the thickness of the individual SNO and NNO layers. In...

Cross sections of some efficient slow-neutron reflectors

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The proposal seeks to investigate the reflection capacity of two systems that are candidates for use in the design of cold neutron sources. These are carbon nanodiamonds and magnesium hydride. The first shows a strong Small Angle Neutron Scattering component in its cross section, while the second has scattering distributions closer to the isotropy. The comparison between forward and backward scattering signals will serve to evaluate such properties. In addition, the transmission measured with the...

A detailed study of magnetic diffuse scattering in a low-dimension ferromagnet CePdSb

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We have carried out detailed investigations on the ferromagnetic (FM) Kondo lattice CePdSb, in polycrystal as well as single crystal form (TC=17.5K) using magnetization, neutron diffraction, inelastic neutron scattering and heat capacity. This has turned out to be an extraordinary compound, which exhibits pronounced anomaly at 10 K, well below TC=17.5K in the heat capacity and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and very weak anomaly at TC. Surprisingly, the correlation lengths in the ab-plane as well...

Inelastic neutron scattering studies on novel frustrated antiferromagnets Li3Mg2MO6 (M = Ru, Os)

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A newly discovered novel frustrated antiferromagnets Li3Mg2MO6 (M = Ru, Os) constitutes edge-sharing triangles of M4+ ions (S = 3/2) linked by corner-sharing in the ab-plane. The M spins interact with each other via four different antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, J1, J2, J3 and J4. Despite the considerable geometrical frustration, Li3Mg2MO6 exhibits an antiferromagnetic long-range order at TN = 18 K for M = Ru and TN = 8 K for M = Os. Heat capacity...

Measuring the spin-wave spectrum of the room temperature metal-organic spintronic material V[TCNE]2

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Organic-based materials have found applications in a wide variety of devices, including light emitting diodes, photovoltaics, and field effect transistors. These take advantage of the low cost, chemical tunability, and mechanical flexibility of this class of materials. Vanadium tetracyanoethylene (V[TCNE]x~2) exhibits ferimagnetic order well above room temperature (TN > 600K), and an ultra-narrow ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidth , making it a competetive alternative to best-in-class inorganic materials. Despite its popularity, little is known about the...

Low-temperature structures of Prussian blue analogues for electrochemical applications

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We propose a low-temperature diffraction study at POLARIS of Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) of general formula NaxMM'(CN)6, where 1 < x 2. These systems currently attract intense research interest due to their potential applications as electrodes in sodium ion batteries. In order to fully understand the electrochemical processes, accurate structural models are vital. At present, the most favourable position of Na in the framework is debated and we believe that this diffraction study will be...

Controlling the interaction of hemicellulose (galactoglucomannan, GGM) with cellulose by means of enzyme modification

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Softwood hemicellulose (galactoglucomannan, GGM) is one of the major plant polysaccharides found in cell walls after cellulose. It makes up to 25% of the wood in Sweden, however, currently most of it is obtained as a by-product of several industrial processes and discarded in waste-stream. The aim of the project is to develop sustainable processes to biocatalytically modify GGM structure in order to transform it to a versatile and excellent renewable resource for novel high-performance...

Probing the ground state magnetism at the local scale of an unusual metallic pyrochlore Pb2-xCdxIr2O7-d;

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Common d5 pyrochlore iridates, A2Ir2O7 or A2Ir2O6O, are reported to have long range magnetic order based on muSR experiment. Only Pr2Ir2O7 has been identified as a metallic spin liquid. The lone d4 pyrochlore Pb2Ir2O7-d; appears different due to nonmagnetic Pb at A-site and high vacancy tolerance at O site due to Pb 6s2 lone pair. This large oxygen vacancy ensures presence of Ir4+ and Ir5+, but the susceptibility shows a paramagnet-like trend with negative theta....

Determination of type-2 cycloidal ordering in BiFeO3 thin films

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Multiferroics have recently aroused a large interest in the community, opening the route to promising applications especially in spintronics. Among multiferroics, BiFeO3 (BFO) is one of the most studied as it shows multiferroic properties at room temperature. When deposited as thin film, the bulk-like cycloidal modulation (cycloid of type 1) destabilizes and especially under tensile strain a new cycloid (cycloid of type 2) with a propagation vector along [11-2] direction takes place. The aim of...

Lipid dynamics in yeast cell membranes – effect of ergosterol and its precursors

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A cell membrane can contain hundreds of different lipid molecules, but our understanding of the dynamics of cell membranes is very limited. As a result of a collaboration between the ILL and ESS on the deuteration of lipids from cell cultures, we can now produce 100s of milligrams of lipid extracts from yeast and other microbial cell cultures, sufficient for neutron spectroscopy studies of their dynamics. We recently carried out the first QENS experiment on...

Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzer Heat Dissipation Through Porous Media

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Investigation focuses on resolving the temperature distribution of water within porous media of electrochemical device using ToF neutron imaging technique. The temperature of the water has a great impact on the performance of the device and the heat dissipation estimation is an important factor in electrochemical cell characterization in terms of voltage loss origins. This study aims to prove that it is possible to obtain temperature gradients and possibly the map of heat distribution over...

Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzer Heat Dissipation Through Porous Media

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Investigation focuses on resolving the temperature distribution of water within porous media of electrochemical device using ToF neutron imaging technique. The temperature of the water has a great impact on the performance of the device and the heat dissipation estimation is an important factor in electrochemical cell characterization in terms of voltage loss origins. This study aims to prove that it is possible to obtain temperature gradients and possibly the map of heat distribution over...

Fine structure of a confined quantum translator-rotator probed with high-resolution: HD@C60

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A process known as molecular surgery enables the synthesis of the fullerene C60 enclosing a small molecule such as H2, H2O, HF and CH4. The caged molecules in these molecular endofullerenes are quantum rotors showing the isolation and free rotation expected in a low pressure gas, but in an easily handled form and high effective concentration. In molecular endofullerenes the energies of the quantised translational states may be measured by inelastic neutron scattering and provide...

Crystal Electric Field (CEF) Effect in CeIr3Ge7 and YbIr3Ge7

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We recently discovered new members of the stoichiometric 1-3-7 family of crystals including YbRh3Si7, YbIr3Ge7, CeIr3Ge7, and YbIr3Si7, whose magnetic and transport properties reflect large crystal electric field(CEF) anisotropy. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on CeIr3Ge7 and YbIr3Ge7 will allow us to directly measure their CEF transitions from which we can then parameterize their single ion Hamiltonians. This analysis will definitively establish the nature of their spin anisotropies and the g-tensor of their ground state doublet,...

Phase transitions in Sr-doped multiferroic bismuth ferrite

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Bismuth ferrite, BiFeO3, is a much-studied ceramic showing both dielectric and magnetic ordering at relatively high temperatures. In order to improve its properties there has been much interest in doping BiFeO3, but rarely has there been structural characterisation of these materials. We have shown that it is possible to replace bismuth ions by strontium together with oxygen vacancies. Increasing composition of strontium lowers the transition temperatures so that the high-symmetry cubic phase becomes stable at...

Substrate-dependent structure of grafted polymer films

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Hydrogels are water-rich polymer networks made from natural or synthetic polymers, which are widely used in biomaterials, medicine and antifouling. We explore PEG-based hydrogels grafted through a UV-initiated free-radical polymerization, primarily for antifouling applications. Their preparation can be tuned to produce a given polymer mass per surface area, but growth rates vary between substrate types, and is 2-4 times faster on gold than on silicon; two substrate types which are important for biosensors. Previous data...

ChipIR Commercial Access Infineon OX12 - week51/2019

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High-voltage power semiconductor devices, such as IGBTs, diodes and MOSFETs are susceptible to destructive failure due to terrestrial cosmic radiation (CR), notably the nucleon part. As a consequence, device development has to ensure adequate radiation hardness for every device technology. This aim can only partly be met by device and technology simulations and, therefore, also calls for extensive device tests. In order to reduce testing times accelerated irradiation tests at facilities with a nucleon energy...

Registration Year

  • 2019
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  • University of Edinburgh
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