5,796 Works

Oxidation of gram-negative cell-wall proxy with OH radicals - kinetics and mechanism for water industry II

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Hydroxyl radicals may be used as disinfection agent in the advanced oxidation processes or tertiary treatment of waste and occasionally drinking water. We very recently oxidised a gram negative bacterial cell wall proxy at the liquid-solid interface with aqueous hydroxyl radical, the experiment (RB1820244) was a complete success and is being written up as a letter for publication. Our previous exploratory work, demonstrated the polysaccharides are an effective layer to resist oxidative attack, but did...

muSR Study on the Electron Transfer Mechanism of a Blue Copper Protein, Pseudoazurin

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In order to establish the method to apply polarized muon for study of biological functions and life sciences, we need to perform systematic study to know the behavior of muon in bio-molecules and know what information can be extracted from the implantation of muon in different macromolecules. Here we propose to study the electron transfer mechanism in blue Copper protein - Pseudoazurin(PAz) using muon. The PAz has single-copper ion binding site that serves as an...

QENS study of Proton Diffusion in Functional Metal-Organic Frameworks

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Complex proton conductors based upon metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted increasing interests for applications in fuel cells. We have developed new proton conductors based on stable and functionalised MOFs [MFM-300 (Cr) and MFM-300 (Cr)-SO3H]. Importantly, MFM-300(Cr)-SO3H exhibited remarkable proton conductivity (>10-2 S/cm at 25 oC under 98%RH), which is comparable with the current leading commercial material based upon Nifion polymers (10-1 S/cm at 60 to 80 oC under 98%RH). We request 7 days on IRIS...

Binding studies of Quantum Dots and Pore-Forming Proteins on multi-component model cell membranes

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Cell membrane being the first line of defence of a complex cell, it forms an important scientific topic to study its encounter with various external entities. Nanoparticles are an important topic because of its applications like drug delivery. On the other hand, pore-forming proteins like listeriolysin O, present in virulent bacteria, bind to target membrane and cause cell lysis. This study aims to use Neutron Reflectivity as a powerful technique to understand the binding profile...

Lipid nanoparticles-Apolipoprotein E interaction: the role of LNP surface composition and structure

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Therapeutic treatments based on the production of proteins by delivering messenger RNA (mRNA) represent a promising approach. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) formed by a cationic ionizable lipid (CIL), DSPC, cholesterol and a pegylated lipid have been successful to deliver small interference RNA. The bio-distribution and cellular uptake of LNPs are affected by their surface composition as well as by the extracellular proteins present at the site of LNPs administration, e.g. ApolipoproteinE (ApoE). ApoE plays a key...

NEW DIMENSIONS IN FORENSIC PROFILING: IMAGING BURNED HUMAN BONES AT IMAT

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Neutron imaging at IMAT will be applied to the study of burned human skeletal remains, for assessing heat-induced changes associated to alterations in bone´s microcrystallinity. This work follows successful experiments on MAPS, TOSCA and GEM which were the first studies on human burned bones by neutron techniques and allowed us to identify spectral biomarkers of heat-elicited alterations [1-7]. Combined spectroscopic (including FTIR and Raman), diffraction and imaging methods are expected to provide an improved understanding...

Mechanistic Investigation of Host-Guest Molecular Interactions of Drug Nanoconfined within the Pores of Metal Organic Frameworks

We propose to employ the TOSCA spectrometer to preform inelastic neutron scattering of novel biocomposite systems, designated as drug@MOF. The aim is to measure the detailed vibrational spectra of a porous hybrid framework (host) such as ZIF-8, encapsulating a guest molecule, such as aspirin, caffeine, and 5-FU anticancer drugs. The proposed experiments will enable us to study the effects of host crystal morphology and pore configurations have on the confinement of drug molecules of different...

Effect of formulation method and lipid composition on liposome lamellarity

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Liposomes are vesicles comprising a phospholipid membrane bilayer around an aqueous core. They are well-established in the fields of drug delivery and diagnostics. To translate formulations from bench to bedside, their structure and morphology must be precisely understood. Specifically, characterising lamellarity (number of bilayers) in vesicle populations is crucial as it influences release kinetics and encapsulation efficiency. We have characterised the effect of formulation method and lipid composition on vesicle lamellarity in phosphocholine vesicles. Here,...

Structral characterisation of a novel lead free perovskite layer structure antiferroelectric Sr2-xLaxTa2-xTixO3 (x ~ 0.32)

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Lead free antiferroelectric materials are the focus of much attention for the replacement of lead based materials in electronic devices, such as high energy storage capacitors, sensors, actuators. In this study, we present first lead free perovskite-like layer structure antiferroelectric material, strontium tantalum lanthanum titanate. The thermal variation of dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss indicate phase transitions from an antiferroelectric to a ferroelectric and finally to a paraelectric on heating. Using high resolution neutron diffraction,...

API-DES: improving drug solubility with deep eutectic solvents

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Improving the efficiency of existing drugs is currently one of the major goals of pharmaceutical industries. Rather than developing new drugs, which requires new clinical trials, the strategy is to improve the already tried-and-tested therapies. One of the characteristics with great ceiling for improvement is hydrophilicity; approximately 40% of approved drugs and nearly 90% of drugs under development are poorly water soluble, which leads to low bioavailability. In this sense, deep eutectic solvents comprising active...

Inelastic neutron scattering study on the one dimensional spin-chains

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One-dimensional (1D) spin chain is interesting to understand the low dimensional magnetism. For a 1D spin chain, long rang magnetic order cannot exists at finite temperature. On the other hand, the coupling between spin chains may govern the magnetic order although it is in general much weaker than intra-chain couplings. We had been given two days of beam time on MERLIN (RB1820213) to investigate magnetic excitations in Ba3CrS5 and Ba3CrSe5. Due to interesting dispersive excitations...

Development of new non-destructive analysis method by muonic X-ray imaging for extraterrestrial samples

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In 2020s, the asteroid explorer Hayabusa-2 will return to the earth and will bring extraterrestrial samples containing organics and water-related materials. We are aiming at applying a non-destructive muonic X-ray imaging method to the return-sample analysis in ~ 0.1 wt% accuracy. For this purpose, we are developing a new detector system composed of a new Ge detector array with Compton suppressor and a multi-wire drift chamber with a low-material component. Here, we propose a performance...

Acidity in zeolites - A MuSR perspective

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Zeolites are microporous materials that are used as heterogeneous acid catalysts in reactions. It is important to study reactive intermediates in zeolites in order to understand the catalytic reactions in these important materials. Avoided Level Crossing muon Spin Resonance will be used to characterize pyridine radicals in zeolites with the variation of Si/Al ratio and with temperature. The silica to aluminium ratio (Si/Al) of ZSM-5 should determine the number of available Brønsted acid sites that...

Acidity in zeolites - A MuSR perspective

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Zeolites are microporous materials that are used as heterogeneous acid catalysts in reactions. It is important to study reactive intermediates in zeolites in order to understand the catalytic reactions in these important materials. Avoided Level Crossing muon Spin Resonance will be used to characterize pyridine radicals in zeolites with the variation of Si/Al ratio and with temperature. The silica to aluminium ratio (Si/Al) of ZSM-5 should determine the number of available Brønsted acid sites that...

Structural organization of an acqeous biphasic system for the use of metal recycling

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Aqueous biphasic systems have been recently proposed for metal separation, using an acidic-ionic liquid based solution. Metals are dissolved in ternary mixture and migrate according to their preferential phase when the solution is heated above ~50 C and separates. Fundamental questions on the separation process are raised, such as the structure of the solution in each of the phases. Following a first characterization based on light scattering, we expect an organization at the nanoscale of...

Binding studies of Quantum Dots and Pore-Forming Proteins on multi-component model cell membranes

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Cell membrane being the first line of defence of a complex cell, it forms an important scientific topic to study its encounter with various external entities. Nanoparticles are an important topic because of its applications like drug delivery. On the other hand, pore-forming proteins like listeriolysin O, present in virulent bacteria, bind to target membrane and cause cell lysis. This study aims to use Neutron Reflectivity as a powerful technique to understand the binding profile...

How N-acyl amino acid surfactants adsorption at the air/water interface helps explaining “atypical” interaction with lipid membranes

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N-acyl amino acids are promising anionic amphiphilic molecules, which consist of a linear aliphatic chain (hydrophobic tail) and an amino-acid residue (polar head). Although they have been mainly employed in cosmetics as detergents and foaming agents, these molecules seem to be also promising for pharmaceutical applications. Anionic amphiphiles, in fact, are used as excipients in pharmaceutical technology to improve solubilisation of poorly-water soluble drugs, to increase the wettability of solid dosage forms and/or to enhance...

Tracking changes in the phonon density of states in differently coated LixFePO4 nanoparticles

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LiFePO4 (LFP) is a commercially used Li ion battery material for high power applications. Particle shape and surface play an important role in the Li diffusion and thus the electrochemical performance of the material. Additionally, the change of lithium content during cycling can affect the Li ion dynamics in the material. After the successful experiment addressing the particle shape, we propose to measure the phonon density of states of LFP as a function of surface...

In-situ measurement of 3D stress distribution in Inconel 625 alloy during compression

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This application is prepared according to the suggestion made by the panel for our RB1820187 application. In this application we request a day of Express time and will carry out a feasibility study for future work on in-situ hot compression experiments.Nickel based wrought Inconel 625 alloys are widely used for many applications due to their good mechanical properties, weldability and resistance to corrosion in aggressive environments. Hot extrusion technology is commonly used to manufacture Inconel...

Characterisation of Hybrid Lipid-Polymer Nanoparticles

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Hybrid lipid-polymer nanoparticles have demonstrated potential as drug delivery vehicles. The current proposal aims to use small angle neutron scattering (SANS) in combination with contrast variation to determine the detailed molecular structure of the drug-containing hybrid lipid-polymer nanoparticles, as well as their component lipid vesicles and polymeric nanoparticles. SANS coupled with contrast variation will allow us to establish precisely how much lipid is required to reproducibly and reliably coat the various sized polymeric NPs without...

Solubilisation of membrane protein REAMP in polymer-stabilised nanodiscs

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Poly(Styrene-Maleic Acid) (SMA) is increasingly used in the formation of lipid-nanodiscs for structural membrane studies and biophysics. These polymer-formed nanodiscs are an appealing choice compared to more traditional alternatives, as preparations are stable, quick, low cost and can be produced in large quantities. In this proposal we wish to study the membrane proteins gramicidin and REAMP within polymer-nanodiscs using SMA variants. REAMP is a de novo membrane protein containing four alpha-helical transmembrane domains while gramicidin...

To measure the length scale of magnetic domains across the metal to insulator transition in a Pr, Ca co-doped LaMnO3 thin film using GISANS

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Pr, Ca co-doped LaMnO3(LPCMO) exhibits a variety of complex physical properties owing to the co-existence and competition of different structural, magnetic and electronic degrees of freedom. The complex interplay of lattice, orbital, spin and charge interactions in LPCMO gives rise to a very rich phase diagram with properties such as a metal to insulator transition (MIT), colossal magneto-resistance and phase separation. In bulk hole-doped manganites, multiple electronic phases coexist as a consequence of non-uniform distributions...

Probing the dimensional crossover of critical fluctuations in ferromagnetic quantum critical system UCoSi2

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In recent times, study of quantum critical point(QCP) and quantum phase transition(QPT) has become one of the most appealing research topics. Notably, near the critical point one observes unconventional power-law type divergence of different physical properties such as electrical resistivity or heat capacity. Such unusual behavior solely depend on the dimensionality of the critical spin fluctuations. We have recently investigated UCoSi2 which is proposed to be situated very close to ferromagnetic (FM) quantum critical point....

Evolution of serpentinite oceanic textures across Alpine metamorphism: neutron radiography and computed tomography

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Serpentinisation of oceanic mantle is one of the most important mineralogical reactions in the Earth Science. This reaction involves the interaction between the upper mantle mineral with seawater at temperatures ranging from 100 to 350oC and produces a magnesium-rich hydrous silicate, serpentine ((Mg,Fe)3Si2O5(OH)4). Once subducted the seperntinised oceanic lithosphere is believed to play a major role in supplying water to the overlying mantle wedge and may trigger intermediate earthquakes. Recovered serpentinised rocks are useful in...

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  • 2019
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  • University of Edinburgh
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