### WP1 Integrated Electrical Heat - Integrated Electric Heat - Upgrade Analysis Final Report

This deliverable is the final report of the Integrated Electric Heat project. It includes the methodology for developing the upgrade pathways, the upgrade pathways for five HEMS homes and an assessment of how thermal storage can flatten energy demand profiles for domestic heat.There are extensive appendices covering the modelling methodology, verification and output, as well as the home surveys and technology suitability. A landscape review of domestic heat storage, produced by NEF, is included as...

### WP2 Bridgend Area Energy Strategy: Bridgend Local Area Energy Strategy –The Evidence Base

Bridgend County Borough Council has been working with a group of stakeholders consisting of Welsh Government, Western Power Distribution, Wales and West Utilities and the Energy Systems Catapult, to pilot an advanced whole system approach to local area energy planning. Bridgend is one of three areas including Newcastle and Bury in Greater Manchester participating in the pilot project as part of the Energy Technologies Institute (ETI) Smart Systems and Heat (SSH) Programme.

This Evidence Base provides...

### Glosten Feed Study - Key Findings - One Page Summary

Glosten Feed Study - Key Findings of the Offshore Wind Floating Platform Demonstration Project FEED Study

### Offshore Wind - Floating Turbines (Presentation)

ETI’s Strategy Manager Stuart Bradley presents “Offshore Wind - Floating Turbines” at the BIS Group Offshore Wind Operations and Maintenance Forum 2016.The slide set covers:Introduction to ETI and ESME, ETI’s modelling tool integrating power, heat, transport and infrastructure providing national / regional system designsEnergy System ScenariosOffshore WindWater DepthWind Resource and Water Depth ComparedOffshore Wind TurbinesWhat do we use for Offshore Wind today?Foundation TypesFloating WindTension Leg PlatformEngineering DesignCost Study - CAPEXLCoE ForecastConclusionsOffshore Wind has a significant...

### WP2 Manchester Local Area Energy Strategy: Greater Manchester Spatial Energy Plan Evidence Base Study Full Report

The Spatial Energy Plan for Greater Manchester Combined Authority project was commissioned as part of the Energy Technologies Institute (ETI) Smart Systems and Heat Programme and undertaken through collaboration between the Greater Manchester Combined Authority and the Energy Systems Catapult.The study has consolidated the significant data and existing evidence relating to the local energy system to provide a platform for future energy planning in the region and the development of suitable policies within the emerging...

### Infographic - 10 Years to Prepare - Floating wind

An infographic showing the route to floating offshore wind, and how it can contribute to preparing to transition to a low carbon energy system in the UK over ten years.

### Helm Wind: Final Feasibility Study - One Page Summary

Offshore Wind has huge potential to reduce carbon emissions and create economic prosperity, as well as increasing energy security of supply. For this potential to be unlocked, significant challenges that need to be overcome:Electricity costs need to be competitive with current (2010) onshore wind costs by 2020 and with conventional generation by 2050,Increased yields: annual offshore farm availability to be increased to 97%-98% or better,Reduce technical uncertainties to allow farms to be financed in a...

### Consumer Response and Behaviour - Quantifying heat energy needs and behaviours - Final Report

The delivery of consumer energy requirements is a key focus of the Smart Systems and Heat Programme.The Consumer Response and Behavior Project will identify consumer requirements and predict consumer response to Smart Energy System proposals, providing a consumer focus for the other Work Areas. This project involved thousands of respondents providing insight into consumer requirements for heat and energy services, both now and in the future. Particular focus was given to identifying the behaviour that...

### Consumer Response and Behaviour - Pilot Research Report Presentation

G. Morrell, L. Kahn, S. Junemann & T. Oreszczyn
The delivery of consumer energy requirements is a key focus of the Smart Systems and Heat Programme.The Consumer Response and Behavior Project will identify consumer requirements and predict consumer response to Smart Energy System proposals, providing a consumer focus for the other Work Areas. This project involved thousands of respondents providing insight into consumer requirements for heat and energy services, both now and in the future. Particular focus was given to identifying the behaviour that...

### WP1 Appliance Disaggregation: Pattern Mining

S. Mohamad, C. Mansourim & H. Bouchachia
The ETI commissioned the HEMS & ICT Market project to undertake an in depth study and assessment of HEMS along with what data, processes and controls andpotential additional services enabled via a linked ICT system.The project delivers key insights and findings in terms of potential future offerings and capabilities of these products along with market assessment information.The aim of the project was to characterise the existing market for HEMS and ICT systems and to quantify...

### ETI Insights Report - Domestic Energy Services

J. Batterbee
Our homes are becoming smarter and ever more connected, through technology from a wide range of innovative vendors.The new level of data and control created by technology is likely to lead to a profound change in energy retail. Over time, the possibility of retailing service experiences people value is likely to open up in place of being limited to the retail of units of energy which people simply don’t understand. While this may well happen...

### Energy From Waste : WP4.2 - UK Benefits Case - Syn Gas for Fuels and Chemicals

G. Hillier & S. Donegan
This report has been produced by the Centre for Process Innovation (CPI) for the Energy Technologies Institute’s (ETI) Energy from Waste (EFW) Project Consortium that forms part of the ETI Distributed Energy Programme.The ETI has commissioned a series of supporting pieces of work to augment the full project reports. This report discusses the opportunity of using syngas produced from the gasification of wastes for the production of fuels and chemicals. A separate report studies the...

### Energy Storage and Distribution Brochure

This brochure describes ETI’s Energy Storage & Distribution Programme:Adapting and developing network designs to enable delivery of a cost effective and secure future low carbon energy system in the UKDeveloping new infrastructure approachesDemonstrating new infrastructure technologiesWhat we have done to date

### Network Capacity - Executive Summary

This Network Capacity project was commissioned to: assess the feasibility of using new technologies to enable the installation of significantly increased levels of renewable energy sources in the UK and provide recommendations identifying possible technology development intervention opportunities derived from the analysis.The technologies considered in the project included: a range of power electronic based conversion systems and active network management techniques, reactive power compensation technologies, multi-terminal HVDC systems, and the feasibility of incorporating multi-terminal HVDC...

### 2050 Energy Infrastructure Outlook: Multi Vector Integration Analysis - Multi Vector Interaction Cases Shortlist

I. Walker, A. Stewart, T. Staw & E. Tiniou
The project aims to improve the understanding of the opportunity for and implications of moving to more integrated multi vector energy networks in the future. Future energy systems could use infrastructure very differently to how they are employed today. Several individual energy vectors - electricity, gas and hydrogen - are capable of delivering multiple services and there are other services that can be met or delivered by more than one vector or network.

This document is...

### Distinguishing between the Frenkel and Widom lines in supercritical Nitrogen

, , &
In recent years narrow transitions between gaslike and liquidlike behaviour of fluids at temperatures significantly exceeding the critical temperature Tc (above 6Tc) and densities over double the critical density were observed. Some explained this by extrapolating Widom lines (thermodynamic continuation of vapour pressure curve) from the critical point (CP) and others with newly proposed Frenkel line. The Frenkel line is unrelated to the CP, Widom lines and vapour pressure curve. It should follow P,T path...

### Investigating the effect of pH and functionalisation upon the self-assembly of NDIs

, &
Stimuli responsive naphthalene diimides (NDIs) have promising potential in devices such as smart windows. NDIs can be easily and reversibly reduced to a highly coloured radical anion or dianion from a transparent or transmissive state. We believe that these systems are particularly sensitive to small changes, for example differing the functionality of the NDI or altering pH. We hypothesise that there is a related change in aggregation and self-assembly of the molecules when these factors...

### Clarifying the origins of the low-temperature dielectric anomaly in BaZrO3

&
The proposed experiments will help to elucidate the origins of the dielectric anomaly in the cubic perovskite BaZrO3. This material finds use in proton-conducting fuel cells and microwave dielectrics. Recent studies demonstrated that the dielectric losses in BaZrO3 can be reduced dramatically by doping it with Nb and Ga, thus making the resulting material attractive for use in dielectric resonators for wireless communications. The observed drop in the losses has been correlated with the disappearance...

### Local structure in the hidden order phase of URu2Si2

, , &
URu2Si2 is one of the most actively studied materials exhibiting unconventional behaviour due to electronic correlations. The mystery of this compound is the nature of the so-called hidden order' state, which sets in below 17.5 K. This transition is characterised by an enormous change in entropy (~0.2R ln2). A small parasitic' antiferromagnetic order sets in in the HO phase, but its ordered moment is far too small to explain the change in entropy. The nature...

### Local structure in the hidden order phase of URu2Si2

, , &
URu2Si2 is one of the most actively studied materials exhibiting unconventional behaviour due to electronic correlations. The mystery of this compound is the nature of the so-called hidden order' state, which sets in below 17.5 K. This transition is characterised by an enormous change in entropy (~0.2R ln2). A small parasitic' antiferromagnetic order sets in in the HO phase, but its ordered moment is far too small to explain the change in entropy. The nature...

### Temperature responsive binary gelation of pNIPAM microgels and a neutral triblock-copolymer surfactant.

, &
SANS will be used to study the structure of an adsorbed polymermic surfactant on pNIPAM microgels. It has been observed that when mixtures of pNIPAM microgels and triblock-copolymer surfactant are heated above the volume phase transition temperature of pNIPAM, the sample transitions from a liquid to a gel. This transition is fully reversible. We have demonstrated that the gelation is a result of the association of the polymers at elevated temperatures, however the nature of...

### Investigating local charge- and vacancy-ordering in a sodium-ion cathode

, , , , &
Sodium-ion batteries (NIBs) are a cheaper alternative to lithium-ion batteries. At present, the capacity of NIBs is too low for practical applications and limited by the cathode; to increase this capacity, a detailed understanding of the charge compensation mechanism is required. We have been investigating a new cathode material, Na0.67[Mg0.28Mn0.72]O2, with a promisingly high capacity. Bulk structural invesitgations - using laboratory X-ray diffraction - reveal honeycomb ordering across the Mn/Mg sublattice. However, fits to the...

### Effects of Chiral Components on the Structure of Deep Eutectic Solvents

, , , , , , &
Deep eutectic solvents (DES) are novel liquids composed of inexpensive components, and are non-flammable, with a low volatility. One problem with DES is frequently their relatively high viscosity so selecting components which make a tractable liquid with low enough melting point and viscosity to be useful in applications is challenging. Here we wish to probe the structure of DES which have similar components but very different viscosities & melting points, based on tartaric acid (TA)...

### Negative Thermal Expansion in the (Bi0.5Na0.5)1-x(Ba0.4Sr0.6)xTiO3 System

, , , &
The (Bi0.5Na0.5)1-x(Ba0.4Sr0.6)xTiO3 (BNT-BST) is being investigated as a lead-free ferroelectric system for energy storage capacitors. At x = 0.2 BNT-BST exhibits a tetragonally distorted perovskite structure. Dielectric measurements reveal two anomalies at ca. 125 C (ferroelectric to relaxor-ferroelectric) and 360 C (relaxor-ferroelectric to paraelectric). The former is associated with a change in structure from tetragonal to cubic symmetry, which involves a 25 C range of negative thermal expansion (NTE), where a dynamic deformation of the...

### Muon spin spectroscopy to probe depth-dependent carrier lifetimes in silicon photovoltaics

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Crystalline silicon is used for >90% of photovoltaic solar cells. Electron-hole pairs are produced when light of certain frequencies is absorbed. Some of these charge carriers are lost due to recombination processes in the silicon before they are collected, and the lifetime (or diffusion length) of the carriers defines the quality of a silicon wafer. A new ISIS-developed muon spin spectroscopy technique has advantages over incumbent methods as it is possible to: (i) implant the...

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