10,519 Works

UK Domestic Appliance Level Electricity (UK-DALE) - High speed (16 kHz) aggregated whole house current/voltage

Jack Kelly

SEE response evaluation of robotic systems for the nuclear decommissionning

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With many nuclear power plants coming to the end of their life, the nuclear Decontamination and Decommissioning process needs: cost effective, environmentally friendly and low human risk solutions. A steadily increasing research field is targeting many of the challenges around the D&D such as the inspection of areas that are subjected to ionizing radiation, as well the sorting of the nuclear waste. The experimental campaign that we propose in this request for beam time is...

Investigation of isonicotinamide confined within mesoporous silicon at high pressure

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Our aim is to investigate the impact of confinement on the high pressure phase transition of isonicotinamide using PEARL. Confinement in a porous silicon guest host leads to nanocrystals with greater surface and greater free energy which should lead to an easier phase transition. Neutron diffraction will allow for greater detection of the isonicotinamide molecules confined within the pores of the host guest which heavily scatters X-rays.

Investigation of isonicotinamide confined within mesoporous silicon at high pressure

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Our aim is to investigate the impact of confinement on the high pressure phase transition of isonicotinamide using PEARL. Confinement in a porous silicon guest host leads to nanocrystals with greater surface and greater free energy which should lead to an easier phase transition. Neutron diffraction will allow for greater detection of the isonicotinamide molecules confined within the pores of the host guest which heavily scatters X-rays.

Analysis of water management in lung-inspired polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) using neutron imaging

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Cathode flow-fields inspired from the flow mechanism of air inside lungs can provide homogeneous, scalable and uniform reactant distributions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEFC). Lung-inspired PEFCs developed so far resulted in enhanced performance compared to conventional single-serpentine PEFCs, when tested under different reactant conditions. Through polarization analysis and other characterizations, the performance enhancement has been attributed to better water management in lung-inspired PEFC. At this stage, an in-situ diagnostic test like neutron radiography...

Magnetic ground state of the honeycomb iridate Ag1.5Li0.5IrO3

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We propose to explore the low temperature magnetic ground state of the nearly ideal honeycomb iridate Ag1.5Li0.5IrO3 to confirm that no magnetic ordering occurs and that the low temperature state is dynamic - key signatures of the onset of a novel ground state, such as a Kitaev spin liquid. This work builds off our successful observation of dynamic magnetism at very low temperatures for the honeycomb iridate Cu2IrO3. Moreover, this new silver based material is...

PERFECTA – A Superfluorinated Molecular Probe for MRI

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has had a transformative effect in modern medicine. A hot-spot imaging technique utilises another nucleus (such as 19F) to provide a second coloured layer, information which is independent to the anatomical details provided by the grey-scale proton NMR image. PERFECTA is a contrast agent which contains 36 equivalent 19F atoms and shows a single intense resonance peak. It is very stable and is easily synthesised using a one-step reaction. The hydrocarbon...

Neutron diffraction for non-destructive evaluation of composition and microstructure in highly heterogeneous ancient steel from Mongolia

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Recent analytical research on ancient metal objects recovered in Mongolia revealed that the early bronze and iron-making technologies can be clearly differentiated from those practiced in contemporaneous China. The nomadic life style of Mongolian population was not compatible with the production of large size artistic artefacts, typical of urban centres, therefore they developed a tradition of production of high quality transportable small size artistic objects.Iron artefacts recovered in Mongolia often display evidence of small-scale engineering...

Domain Size and Purity in the active Layers of Vacuum deposited Organic Solar Cells

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Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) offer a low-cost and environmentally friendly solution to the global energy transition given their scalable vacuum- or solution-based production processes and abundant inexpensive raw materials. Furthermore, their properties are highly tuneable due to wide range of possible organic molecules. Efficient OPVs consist of a photovoltaic active bulk hetero-junction (BHJ), i.e. a mix of donor molecules (D) and acceptor molecules (A). Their efficient operation relies on a particular microstructure in the BHJ, not...

In-situ tensile loading of additively manufactured (AM) Laser Beam Melted (LBM) AISI 316L

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Additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing is a rapidly developing field which produces parts in a layer wise fashion by selectively melting and solidifying to build a structure of a desired geometry. This method permits a greater freedom of design compared to conventional manufacturing processes. The material produced by AM can have a different structure of the metal grains which can lead to significantly different mechanical properties. In order to understand the origin of these...

Tracking CO2-mineralisation to magnesite and eco-cements

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Magnesite is essential to fertilizer, paper, glass, construction; most recently as eco-cement, at Mt-Gt scales. Mg2+ sources are plentiful recoverable via mineral carbonation of Mg-silicate, whose deposits are @ 10^5 Gt with magnesite being the most stable Mg-carbonate under all conditions. Yet, MgCO3-mineralisation is retarded by Mg-dehydration. Industrially magnesite is produced with high-T/P condition, unlike ambient formation in nature, accelerated by impurities in ground water (HS-, SiO4-2, RCOO-), as-yet irreproducible in the lab. Geochemical evidence...

SEC-SANS for structure determination for membrane proteins in polymer-stabilised nanodiscs

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This proposal is a continuation from our upcoming experiment aimed at using Size-Exclusion Chromatography coupled with SANS (SEC-SANS) to ensure accurate measurement of membrane proteins supported in Poly(Styrene-Maleic Acid) (SMA) lipid-nanodiscs. These polymer-formed nanodiscs are an appealing choice compared to more traditional alternatives for protein extraction and structural studies, as preparations are stable, quick, low cost and can be produced in large quantities. In this proposal we propose to use again the membrane proteins gramicidin...

From polymer molecular architecture to lubrication efficacy and CO2 emission reduction

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In collaboration with Infineum (a world-leading engine-oil additive company), we propose a SANS study of self-assembly of novel polymethacrylate (PMA) block copolymers as a function of concentration and temperature. Preliminary SANS results for a diblock polymer architecture have revealed a core-shell micelle structure in a model oil (deuterated n-dodecane). Here different polymer architectures will be investigated (multiblock, diblock, random, and homo). The results will complement our ongoing interfacial structure and friction/lubrication studies using XRR and...

Understand alcohol diffusivity and the influence of framework topology of some selected zeolites on methanol to hydrocarbons reaction.

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Short-chain alcohols (methanol and ethanol) have been explored as part of renewable energy sources to satisfy the ever-growing energy demands of the world. Zeolites have been one of the most reliable catalysts in the conversion of short-chain alcohols to very useful products with vast applications in the chemical industry. We could mention BEA, FER, ZSM-5 as some of the most common zeolites that have been applied in catalysis, etc. However, the reason for the superior...

Quasi-elastic Neutron Scattering Studies of Diffusion in Mordenite Catalysts for the Carbonylation of Dimethylether

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This proposal follows recent QENS measurements on mordenite zeolite catalysts used to convert dimethylether to methylacetate. The initial measurements have shown that propane as a simulant of both reactant and product undergoes motion in the zeolite on the QENS time scale, and that pyridine pretreatment of the catalyst modifies the propane motion. Our objectives now are to examine further the motion of the adsorbed pyridine, and to look at the effects of coke formation in...

Uranium minerals related to geochemical storage of spent nuclear fuels: a powder neutron diffraction study

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The safe storage of spent nuclear fuels is a complex challenge that belies a simple solution. The biggest scientific challenge is that storage must be over long periods of time, and knowledge of how the complex and interlinked chemistry changes is important to build robust safety cases for underground storage. One important uranium compound is studtite, [UO2(O2)(H2O)2].2H2O which dehydrates to metastudtite [UO2(O2)(H2O)2]. There are subtle structural changes that may impact on the chemical behaviour. In...

Do cardiolipins play a role for the mode of action of antimicrobial peptides? A study using free floating lipid model membranes

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Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides, are part of the innate immune system of essentially all species, from bacteria themselves to mammals to protect against bacterial pathogens. Although the exact microscopic mechanism(s) is still debated, this chemical structure allows them to target bacterial cell membranes which have net negative charge, selectively. One hypotheses of the mode of action is that AMPs interacts with cardiolipins (CL), and important anionic lipid present in bacterial membranes...

Unravelling the source of anomalously large spin Seebeck effect in Fe3O4:Pt bilayer thin films

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The spin Seebeck effect is a newly discovered phenomenon that if harnessed, could result in a significant improvement of the efficiency of thermoelectric energy generators. Spin polarised neutron reflectivity, with the addition of the off-specular information provided by the OSMOND detector, will provide us with complementary measurements that enable determination of the spin polarisation of the film as well as surface morphology at the interface. This is especially important as the influence of the interface...

Unravelling the source of anomalously large spin Seebeck effect in Fe3O4:Pt bilayer thin films

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The spin Seebeck effect is a newly discovered phenomenon that if harnessed, could result in a significant improvement of the efficiency of thermoelectric energy generators. Spin polarised neutron reflectivity, with the addition of the off-specular information provided by the OSMOND detector, will provide us with complementary measurements that enable determination of the spin polarisation of the film as well as surface morphology at the interface. This is especially important as the influence of the interface...

Investigating the composition of small Hellenistic silver coins using negative muons

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The quality of ancient silver coinage is often seen as a comment on the fiscal health of the issuing states. This is nowhere more apparent than with Roman coinages, which witnessed heavy debasements during the first three centuries of our era. Two processes are detectable: a reduction in the fineness of the alloys; and a reduction in weight standards. However, the hypothesis here is that the two processes are interlinked, and that the second is...

Oxygen Dynamics in Y2O3 doped Bi2O3: (Bi0.8Y0.2)2O3 and (Bi0.6Y0.4)2O3

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The high ionic conducting delta-phase of Bi2O3 can be stabilized at ambient temperature in a range of compositions, viz., (Bi1-xYx)2O3 (x=0.1 -0.5). We would measure inelastic (vibrational) as well as quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) spectra for (Bi0.8Y0.2)2O3 and (Bi0.6Y0.4)2O3 from 300 K to 1100 K. The diffusion in (Bi1-xYx)2O3 starts at a low temperature of around 500 K. Our ab-inito molecular dynamics simulations show that diffusion of oxygen (at 1000 K) in (Bi0.7Y0.3)2O3 is much...

Exploration for Spin Liquid State in Spinel Titanates

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We explore for the spin liquid state. Recently, the theoretical studies suggest that not only the frustrated lattice but also a structural fluctuation and disorder are important for the spin liquid state. The spinel titanate MgTi2O4 undergoes the structural transition from the cubic to tetragonal phase. The Ti ions are dimerized and form the spin singlet pairs. In the Mg-substituted Mg1+xTi2-xO4, though the tetragonal phase collapses, the Ti structural fluctuation remains and can induce the...

Investigation of the magnetic structure of the charge transfer compound CuTCNQ

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Organic materials are playing an increasingly important role in electronic devices. An area of device technology where organics may make an impact is as memresistors, possibly in resistive random access memories . One material with potential is the charge transfer compound CuTCNQ (TCNQ = 7,7,8,8, -Tetracyanoquinodimethane), which exhibits electrical switching between low and high resistance states. One structural form of this material also exhibits magnetic order at low temperatures, the magnetism being associated with free...

Quantum critical dynamics in the presence of disorder

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Quantum phase transitions are abrupt qualitative changes of a system's groundstate occurring only at exactly zero temperature. Such critical points - although never reachable in their vicinity strongly impact many physical properties, even at comparably high temperatures. In fact, properties of many exotic materials are now linked to quantum phase transitions and these are studied intensely. Magnetic insulators make excellent model systems for such studies, as it is often possible to induce quantum phase...

Quantum spin-liquid state in a triangular lattice of S = 1/2 spin trimers in KBa3Ca4Cu3V7O28

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Geometrical frustration conspiring with quantum fluctuations in low-dimensional antiferromagnets has been demonstrated over the past years to lead to novel quantum states in condensed matter. Quantum spin liquids (QSL) on two-dimensional lattices are particularly intriguing, as they are extremely elusive and therefore poorly understood. Triangular lattice antiferromagnets are candidates for a QSL ground state if perturbations to the nearest-neighbour isotropic interactions are present. Here we focus on a novel triangular lattice of Cu2+ trimers in...

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