426 Works

Phylogenomic species delimitation in the ants of the Temnothorax salvini Group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): An integrative approach

Matthew Prebus
The members of the Temnothorax salvini species group are rarely collected, arboreally nesting ants of Central American forests. Previously thought to consist of two broadly dispersed species, recent collections have revealed a diversity of specimens that defy the two-species salvini group concept, but these are difficult to distinguish from each other based solely on morphology. I contrast several model-based approaches to species delimitation based on target-enriched genomic data. With molecular data from thousands of ultraconserved...

Phylogenomics and biogeography of leptonetid spiders (Araneae : Leptonetidae)

Jason Bond, Joel Ledford & Marshal Hedin
Leptonetidae are rarely encountered spiders, usually associated with caves and mesic habitats, and are disjunctly distributed across the Holarctic. Data from ultraconserved elements (UCEs) were used in concatenated and coalescent-based analyses to estimate the phylogenetic history of the family. Our taxon sample included close outgroups, and 90% of described leptonetid genera, with denser sampling in North America and Mediterranean Europe. Two data matrices were assembled and analysed; the first ‘relaxed’ matrix includes the maximum number...

Data from: The effects of temperature on the kinematics of rattlesnake predatory strikes in both captive and field environments

Malachi Whitford, Grace Freymiller, Timothy Higham & Rulon Clark
The outcomes of predator-prey interactions between endotherms and ectotherms can be heavily influenced by environmental temperature, owing to the difference in how body temperature affects locomotor performance. However, as elastic energy storage mechanisms can allow ectotherms to maintain high levels of performance at cooler body temperatures, detailed analyses of kinematics are necessary to fully understand how changes in temperature might alter endotherm-ectotherm predator-prey interactions. Viperid snakes are widely distributed ectothermic mesopredators that interact with endotherms...

Lipid mediators detected in COVID-19 patients and healthy controls

Cindy McReynolds, Irene Cortes_Puch, Resmi Ravindran, Imran Khan, Pei-An Betty Shih, Bruce D. Hammock, Jun Yang & Bruce G. Hammock
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are metabolized into regulatory lipids important for initiating inflammatory responses in the event of disease or injury and for signaling the resolution of inflammation and return to homeostasis. The epoxides of linoleic acid (leukotoxins) regulate skin barrier function, perivascular and alveolar permeability and have been associated with poor outcomes in burn patients and in sepsis. It was later reported that blocking metabolism of leukotoxins into the vicinal diols ameliorated the deleterious effects...

Effects of size selection versus density dependence on life histories: a first experimental probe

Kelsey Lyberger, Thomas Schoener & Sebastian Schreiber
When prey experience size-based harvesting by predators, they are not only subject to selection due to larger individuals being preferentially harvested but also selection due to reductions in population density. Density-dependent selection represents one of the most basic interactions between ecology and evolution. Yet, the reduction in density associated with exploitation has not been tested as a possible driving force of observed evolutionary changes in populations harvested size-dependently. Using an artificial selection experiment with a...

Sisters or strangers: How does relatedness affect foraging in carpenter ants?

Lauren Hwang-Finkelman, Marissa Lopez, Alondra Murguia & Nathalie Treminio
Optimal foraging theory (OFT) states that animals will forage in a way that maximizes energy intake while minimizing energy expenditure. Eusocial insects are examples of species that exhibit OFT. One type of eusocial insect is the carpenter ant (Camponotus). Carpenter ants use pheromone trails as a form of communication. In using chemical cues to communicate with one another, carpenter ants fulfill OFT by maximizing energy rewards and minimizing energy spent searching for resources. We conducted...

Investigating unburned understory “halos” post-fire under blue oak (Quercus douglasii) canopies

Skyler Bennis, Sam Cormier, Angela Ma & Madeline Perreault
Oak trees profoundly impact California’s oak landscape biodiversity. Oaks influence growth in their understories and these community interactions have important ecological implications. Oaks can facilitate (positive) or interfere (negative) with understory productivity depending on tree characteristics such as variation in root morphology. Historically, California oak communities have been negatively affected by fire suppression, but they are now being impacted by increasing wildfire frequency. Despite their dominance in the woodland and savanna landscapes, there is a...

Evidence of niche partitioning among small mammals in the Eastern Mojave Desert from scat distribution

Jacob Ferrall, Lucy Malamud-Roam, Roxana Ramirez &
Species that occupy similar ecological niches rely on niche partitioning to avoid direct competition. Our study aimed to detect niche partitioning between four abundant small mammal species residing in the Eastern Mojave Desert. By varying resource usage over space and time, the desert cottontail (Sylvilagus audubonii), the blacktailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus), the desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida), and the white-tailed antelope squirrel (Ammospermophilus leucurus) are able to coexist along the mountains’ ridge. We investigated their niche...

Data from: Early-life experience influences dispersal in coyotes (Canis latrans)

Emily Zepeda, Ashley Wurth, Stanley Gehrt, Eric Payne & Andy Sih
Natal dispersal plays an important role in connecting individual animal behavior with ecological processes at all levels of biological organization. As urban environments are rapidly increasing in extent and intensity, understanding how urbanization influences these long distance movements is critical for predicting the persistence of species and communities. There is considerable variation in the movement responses of individuals within a species, some of which is attributed to behavioral plasticity which interacts with experience to produce...

Slowing the body slows down time (perception)

Rose De Kock, Weiwei Zhou, Wilsaan Joiner & Martin Wiener
Interval timing is a fundamental component of action, and is interestingly susceptible to motor-related temporal distortions. Several experiments have shown that temporal expansion and compression can occur in systematic ways with modifications of movement direction, speed, and length. These studies have largely shown that movement biases temporal estimates, but have primarily considered self-modulated movement only. However, real-world encounters often include situations in which movement is restricted or perturbed by environmental factors. Thus, in the following...

Natural causes of white-tailed deer morbidity and mortality in New York State

Sophie Zhu, Elizabeth Buckles, Elizabeth Bunting, Kevin Hynes & Krysten Schuler
White-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus are the most popular big game animal in the United States. Recreational harvest of these animals is a critical tool in population management, as well as an important financial resource for state economies and wildlife agencies. Thus, herd health evaluations can provide information to wildlife managers tasked with developing sustainable harvest practices while monitoring for emergent problems. The purpose of our study was to document causes of illness and natural mortality...

Data from: Wolbachia in the spittlebug Prosapia ignipectus: variable infection frequencies, but no apparent effect on host reproductive isolation

Timothy Wheeler, Vinton Thompson, William Conner & Brandon Cooper
Animals serve as hosts for complex communities of microorganisms, including endosymbionts that live inside their cells. Wolbachia bacteria are perhaps the most common endosymbionts, manipulating host reproduction to propagate. Many Wolbachia cause cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which results in reduced egg hatch when uninfected females mate with infected males. Wolbachia that cause intense CI spread to high and relatively stable frequencies, while strains that cause weak or no CI tend to persist at intermediate, often variable,...

Acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) behavior varies in response to intra- and interspecific calls

Josephine Collier, Skye Hoolihan, Ethan Jakob & Hannah St. John
Acorn woodpeckers are a community-oriented species that, like other birds, uses and responds to vocalizations as a form of communication. The calls of certain competitors, predators, and intraspecific individuals change the behavior of a listener in different ways. The behaviors of three acorn woodpecker colonies were observed in response to four recordings: Steller’s jay, sharp-shinned hawk, an acorn woodpecker distress call, and a control. An ethogram was recorded for pre-call and post-call behavior of each...

Host tree circumference, litter depth, and slope affect snow plant (Sarcodes sanguinea) size at James San Jacinto Mountain Reserve

Sean Hinson & Mina Sadek
Plant-ectomycorrhizal relationships dominate temperate forest ecosystems, and for many Pinaceae tree species, this mutualistic relationship is an essential aspect of their ability to gather nutrients. The snow plant (Sarcodes sanguinea) is an ectomycorrhizal parasite that steals nutrients from host trees by accessing their root systems via the mycorrhizae. We examine microhabitat variables that affect snow plant size and phenology by measuring 5 snow plants within the James San Jacinto Mountain Reserve. We investigate the effects...

Predaceous diving beetles, Ilybius walsinghami, prefer organic debris for shelter in the San Jacinto Mountains, Indian Creek

Marley O’Connor, Emily Mun, Cole Dawdy & Isa Rosario-Martinez
Due to climatic changes, stream habitats are projected to be exposed to more frequent and intense floods. Floods can dramatically alter the stream ecosystem by lowering aquatic invertebrate abundance and richness, changing stream substrate composition, and impacting microhabitat availability. Depending on the substrate preferences of individual species, aquatic invertebrate populations could be impacted not only directly by floods, but also in their ability to re-populate highly altered stream habitats. In this study, we focused on...

A cross species analysis of various stressors among three pine species in the San Jacinto Mountains suggest Pinus jeffreyi is the most susceptible to environmental changes

Mona Broukhim, Benjamin Early & Luis Orozco Sanchez
Pine species in the southern fringes of their range are experiencing changes related to climatic pressures which may in turn affect their susceptibility to bark beetle invasions. These environmental stressors can lead to changes in a pines ability to produce resin as a defensive measure. This study of Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus coulteri, and Pinus lambertiana aims to identify the species of most concern and the overall health of the pines in the San Jacinto Mountains....

Data for impact of “non-lethal” tarsal clipping on bumble bees (Bombus vosnesenskii) may depend on queen stage and worker size

John Mola, Clara Stuligross, Maureen Page, Danielle Rutkowski & Neal Williams
Recent bumble bee declines have prompted the development of novel population monitoring tools, including the use of putatively non-lethal tarsal clipping to obtain genetic material. However, the potential side effects of tarsal clipping have only been tested in the worker caste of a single domesticated species, prompting the need to more broadly test whether tarsal clipping negatively affects sampled individuals. To determine if tarsal clipping reduces queen survivorship and colony establishment, we collected wild queens...

Data and analysis scripts for: Co-occurrence patterns at four spatial scales implicate reproductive processes in shaping community assembly in clovers

Kyle Christie, Susan Harrison, Maren L. Friesen & Sharon Y. Strauss
1. Competition, niche differences, and chance all contribute to community assembly, yet the role of reproductive interactions between species is often less appreciated. Closely related plant species that share floral form, phenology, and habitat often interact through pollination. They potentially facilitate pollinator attraction, compete for pollination services, and/or exchange pollen. If reproductive processes are important to co-occurrence, we predicted that fitness costs of heterospecific pollen transfer or pollen limitation should result in lower rates of...

Exploring effects of geologic substrate on plant growth and fitness in the White Mountains, Eastern California

Rhea Amatya, Brianne Roxbrough, Aria Schwartz & Halle Sunabe
Soil properties greatly influence the structure and health of plant communities and are determined by the geologic substrate from which the soil originates. In this study, we explored the impact of soils from different geologic substrates on plant fitness and health in the White Mountains of California. We examined physical and chemical properties of dolomite, shale, and granite-derived soils and their effects on plant growth and fitness through a plant survey and germination bioassay. We...

Microhabitat selection of rock outcrops in yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris)

Anne Burdette, Anna Catherine Klaassen, Mario Rodriguez &
The occupation of habitat by animals depends on their habitat preference as well as the accessibility of the space. Knowing how specific animals choose habitats, not only at large scales but also at micro scales, is critical to their conservation. We studied how yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) in the White Mountains, CA, choose between different rock outcrop microhabitats, using scat as a proxy for marmot abundance and density. We found that yellow-bellied marmots have no...

Exploring insect specialization on A. tridentata and A. rothrockii

Naomi Charlet, Elise Cypher, Anu Sethuraman & Tamar Viz
Invertebrates have been shown to specialize to different host environments, both with and without geographic isolation. Some plants emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to deter invertebrate herbivory. Specialist invertebrates have been shown to adapt to host plants regardless of VOC deterrents. Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) is a plant which exhibits this damage-induced resistance. In the White Mountains, Artemisia tridentata and Artemisia rothrockii occupy the same general areas and are closely related yet differ in their chemistry...

Modeling dynamic processes in the California ZEV market (2014-2016)

Debapriya Chakraborty, David Bunch & David Brownstone
The market for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) that primarily include battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) has been rapidly growing in California for the past few years. Given the targets for PEV penetration in the state, it is important to have a better understanding of the pattern of technology diffusion and the factors that are driving the process. Using spatial analysis and Poisson count models we identify the importance of a neighborhood...

Predicted asymmetrical effects of warming on nocturnal and diurnal soil-dwelling ectotherms

Marshall McMunn & Adam Pepi
Climate is expected to have broad effects on ecological communities, but this occurs in the context of significant daily temperature variation in many localities. Because many ectotherms can restrict activity to thermally suitable places and times, daily temperature variation offers the potential to buffer impacts of warming. Using thermal activity data from a montane ground-nesting ant community, we explore how a simulated increase in temperature is expected to alter the duration of suitable activity windows....

Stress in paradise: effects of elevated corticosterone on immunity and avian malaria resilience in a Hawaiian passerine

Gabrielle Names, Elizabeth Schultz, Jesse Krause, Thomas Hahn, John Wingfield, Molly Heal, Jamie Cornelius, Kirk Klasing & Kathleen Hunt
Vertebrates confronted with challenging environments often experience an increase in circulating glucocorticoids, which result in morphological, physiological, and behavioral changes that promote survival. However, chronically elevated glucocorticoids can suppress immunity, which may increase susceptibility to disease. Since the introduction of avian malaria to Hawaii a century ago, low elevation populations of Hawaii Amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens) have undergone strong selection by avian malaria and evolved increased resilience (the ability to recover from infection), while populations at...

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