105 Works

Data from: The effects of temperature on the defensive strikes of rattlesnakes

Malachi D. Whitford, Grace A. Freymiller, Timothy E. Higham & Rulon W. Clark
Movements of ectotherms are constrained by their body temperature owing to the effects of temperature on muscle physiology. As physical performance often affects the outcome of predator–prey interactions, environmental temperature can influence the ability of ectotherms to capture prey and/or defend themselves against predators. However, previous research on the kinematics of ectotherms suggests that some species may use elastic storage mechanisms when attacking or defending, thereby mitigating the effects of sub-optimal temperature. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus spp.)...

Chemical profiles of Leach's storm-petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa) feathers collected on Bon Portage Island, Nova Scotia, Canada

Sarah Jennings & Susan Ebeler
Avian chemical communication, once largely overlooked, is a growing field that has revealed the important role that olfaction plays in the social lives of some birds. Leach’s storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa) have a remarkable sense of smell and a strong, musky scent. This long-lived, monogamous seabird relies on olfaction for nest relocation and foraging, but whether they use scent for communication is less well studied. They are nocturnally active at the breeding colony and yet successfully...

Estimating the costs of new mobility travel options: monetary and non-monetary factors

Lewis Fulton, Alimurtaza Kothawala & Junia Compostella
UC Davis researchers have developed a cost model of travel choices that individuals make related to urban vehicle travel. These choices can include deciding to own, ride in, and drive a private vehicle or use pooled or solo ridesourcing (e.g., Uber). The model considers both monetary and non-monetary factors that affect travel choice. Monetary factors include the costs of purchasing, maintaining, and fueling different types of privately owned vehicles; and the cost of using ridesourcing...

Data from: Resilience of an integrated crop-livestock system to climate change: a simulation analysis of cover crop grazing in southern Brazil

Caitlin Peterson, Lindsay Bell, Paulo Carvalho & Amelie Gaudin
Integrated crop-livestock systems are a form of sustainable intensification of agriculture that rely on synergistic relationships between plant and animal components to bolster critical agroecosystem processes. We simulated cash crop and cover crop productivity dynamics in an integrated beef-soybean cover crop grazing system typical of southern Brazil to gain a better understanding of the impacts of livestock integration on system performance. Long-term historical simulations in APSIM showed that the integrated system resulted in greater system-wide...

Adaptive changes in color vision from long-term filter usage in anomalous but not normal trichromacy

John S. Werner, Brennan Marsh-Armstrong & Kenneth Knoblauch
For over 150 years, spectrally selective filters have been proposed to improve the vision of observers with color vision deficiencies. About 6% of males and <1% of females have anomalies in their gene arrays coded on the X chromosome that result in significantly decreased spectral separation between their middle- (M-) and long- (L-) wave sensitive cone photoreceptors. These shifts alter individuals’ color-matching and chromatic discrimination such that they are classified as anomalous trichromats. Broad-band spectrally...

Asymmetry in fitness-related traits of later-generation hybrids between two invasive species

Mohsen Mesgaran, Chengjun Li & Sara Ohadi
Premise: Most studies on the importance of hybridisation to invasions have focused on the comparison of fitness-related traits between F1 hybrids and their parents whilst different fitness landscapes could emerge in later generations after hybrids cross with each other (i.e. F2) or backcross with their parents. Methods: In this study, artificial crosses were conducted to generate F1, F2 and backcrosses between two invasive species: Cakile edentula (self-compatible) and Cakile maritima (self-incompatible). Putative hybrids were also...

The effects of plant and epiphyte interactions on bark exfoliation in Arbutus menziesii

Sheena Cabal, Gavin Kellerman & Shannon McKillop-Herr
Bark provides trees with many important functions, such as nutrient transport and protection, yet the Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii) regularly exfoliates its bark. The mechanism for this exfoliation is largely unknown, but is possibly due to biotic pressures, such as epiphyte or poison oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum) growth, or abiotic pressures, like solar radiation exposure. In order to test potential drivers of shedding, we surveyed 49 madrones and neighboring oaks at Hastings Natural History Reserve. For...

Canopy reflectance informs in-season malting barley nitrogen management: an ex-ante classification approach data

Taylor Nelsen & Mark Lundy
Malting barley (Hordeum vulgare) requires precise nitrogen (N) fertilizer management to achieve a narrow range of grain protein content (≈9–10.5%) while maintaining yields, but practical tools to accomplish this are lacking. This study hypothesized that canopy reflectance (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) measured at tillering (Feekes 2–3) and expressed as a sufficiency index (SI), can estimate the likelihood of a site-specific response to in-season N fertilizer in malting barley. Canopy reflectance was measured from plots...

Towards the introgression of PvPdh1 for increased resistance to pod shattering in common bean

Travis Parker, Lorenna Lopes De Sousa, Talissa De Oliveira Floriani, Antonia Palkovic & Paul Gepts
Some varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) suffer from pod shattering, which can severely reduce yields, especially in arid conditions. The PvPdh1 locus on chromosome Pv03 has recently been described as a major locus controlling pod shattering in common bean and could be used to mitigate pod shattering in the future. Despite this, the role of a possible second locus on chromosome Pv08 remains unclear and patterns of dominance and epistasis between alleles of...

Differing, multi-scale landscape effects on genetic diversity and differentiation in eastern chipmunks

Elizabeth Kierepka, Sara Anderson, Robert Swihart &
Understanding how habitat loss and fragmentation impact genetic variation is a major goal in landscape genetics, but to date, most studies have focused solely on the correlation between intervening matrix and genetic differentiation at a single spatial scale. Several caveats exist in these study designs, among them is the inability to include measures of genetic diversity in addition to differentiation. Both genetic metrics help predict population persistence, but are expected to function at differing spatial...

VCC User Survey Results

Angela Sanguinetti
PROJECT: Strategies to promote plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption include consumer education about potential energy cost savings. However, the complexity of comparing gasoline and electricity prices makes it difficult to quantify. Vehicle energy cost calculators (VCCs) help consumers navigate this complexity, and research shows they can increase consumer knowledge and positive attitudes about PEVs. At least 12 of these calculators exist, but none appear to be based on behavioral research. They vary in terms of...

VELB watershed data 2005

Michael Dobbins, Theresa Talley & Marcel Holyoak
The Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle (“VELB,” Desmocerus californicus dimorphus) is a rare and cryptic species that is found on or near its host plant, blue elderberry (Sambucus mexicana), and is native to California’s Central Valley. Over the past 100 years, the riparian forests of Central California have shrunk by over 90%, resulting in highly fragmented, and often isolated, remaining VELB habitat patches. This has created the need for robust monitoring and demographic data to assess...

Utilizing Highway Rest Areas for Electric Vehicle Charging: Economics and Impacts of Renewable Energy Penetration in California

Behdad Kiani, Joan Ogden, F. Alex Sheldon & Lauren Cordano
California policy is incentivizing rapid adoption of zero emission electric vehicles for light duty and freight applications. In this project, we explored how locating charging facilities at California’s highway rest stops, might impact electricity demand, grid operation, and integration of renewables like solar and wind into California’s energy mix. Assuming a growing population of electric vehicles to meet state goals, we estimated state-wide growth of electricity demand, and identified the most attractive rest stop locations...

Data from: The effect of early burn injury on sensitivity to future painful stimuli in dairy heifers

Sarah Adcock & Cassandra Tucker
Animals that experience painful procedures as neonates are more sensitive to pain later in life. We evaluated whether disbudding with a heated iron at 3 (n=12), 35 (n=9), or 56 (n=20) d of age affected heifers’ pain responses to vaccine injections at 11 mo of age. Heifers responded to the injection procedure with struggling and changes in eye temperature and heart rate variability compared to a sham procedure the day before, and still had a...

Data from: Wildfire reveals transient changes to individual traits and population responses of a native bumble bee (Bombus vosnesenskii)

John Mola, Michael Miller, Sean O'Rourke & Neal Williams
1. Fire-induced changes in the abundance and distribution of organisms, especially plants, can alter resource landscapes for mobile consumers driving bottom-up effects on their population sizes, morphologies, and reproductive potential. We expect these impacts to be most striking for obligate visitors of plants, like bees and other pollinators, but these impacts can be difficult to interpret due to the limited information provided by forager counts in the absence of survival or fitness proxies. 2. Increased...

Standardized Measurement Error Demonstration Scripts

Andrew X. Stewart

Data from: Behavioral changes in calves 11 days after cautery disbudding: effect of local anesthesia

Cassandra Tucker, Sarah Adcock & Danielle Cruz
Hot-iron disbudding results in painful burn wounds that take weeks to heal. Spontaneous behaviors indicative of pain are apparent in the immediate hours after disbudding, but whether they occur later in the healing process is unknown. To evaluate whether ongoing pain was present around the time the necrotic tissue loosens from the scalp, we tested the effect of administration of local anesthetic 11 d after the procedure. Disbudded female Holstein and Jersey calves (n=24) were...

zigzag: A Hierarchical Bayesian Mixture Model for Inferring the Expression State of Genes in Transcriptomes

Ammon Thompson, Michael May, Brian Moore & Artyom Kopp
Transcriptomes are key to understanding the relationship between genotype and phenotype. The ability to infer the expression state (active or inactive) of genes in the transcriptome offers unique benefits for addressing this issue. For example, qualitative changes in gene expression may underly the origin of novel phenotypes, and expression states are readily comparable between tissues and species. However, inferring the expression state of genes is a surprisingly difficult problem, owing to the complex biological and...

0 ns and 75 ns configurations of glycosylated ACE2-FC and its interaction with SARS-CoV-2 binding domains

Roland Faller, Austen Bernardi, Yihan Huang, Bradley Harris, Yongao Xiong, Somen Nandi & Karen McDonald
These are initial and final (75ns) configurations in PDB format of glycosylated ACE2-FC fusion proteins which are promising targets for a COVID-19 therapeutic. Some of them are in interaction witha fragment of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the Spike Protein S of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We used two glycosylation variants for ACE2-FC, variant 1 is fully glycosylated with Man8 glycans, variant 2 is fully glycosylated with GnGnXF3. The Spike RBD is glycosylated with ANaF^6.

Delimitation of tribes in the subfamily Leptanillinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a description of the male of Protanilla lini Terayama, 2009

Zachary Griebenow
The subfamily Leptanillinae Emery, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) is a clade of cryptic subterranean ants, which is restricted to the tropics and warm temperate regions of the Old World. Due to acquisition bias against the minute and hypogaeic workers, most known leptanilline specimens are male, with four genera described solely from males. The sexes have been associated in only two out of 68 described species, meaning that redundant naming of taxa is likely. Herein the phylogeny...

Data from: Taxonomic revision of the New World members of the Trapdoor spider genus Ummidia Thorell (Araneae,: Mygalomorphae,: Halonoproctidae )

Rebecca Godwin & Jason Bond
This study documents a comprehensive taxonomic treatment of the New World Ummidia species. At the onset of this work the genus comprised 27 species and one subspecies with a cosmopolitan distribution that includes North America, South America, Asia, Northern Africa, and Europe; of these species the majority of the nominal diversity can be attributed to the New World where 20 species have been previously described. Ummidia oaxacana (Chamberlin, 1925) is considered a nomen dubium; U....

Recent bark beetle outbreaks influence wildfire severity in mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA

Rebecca Wayman & Hugh Safford
In temperate forests, elevated frequency of drought related disturbances will likely increase the incidence of interactions between disturbances such as bark beetle epidemics and wildfires. Our understanding of the influence of recent drought and insect-induced tree mortality on wildfire severity has largely lacked information from forests adapted to frequent fire. A recent unprecedented tree mortality event in California’s Sierra Nevada provides an opportunity to examine this disturbance interaction in historically frequent-fire forests. Using field data...

Data from: Ectothermy and the macroecology of home range scaling in snakes

Brian Todd & Aaron Nowakowski
Aim: A central question in ecology has been that of why animal home ranges scale more steeply with body size than do metabolic rates. Yet, the generality of this notion has scarcely been tested in non-model species like ectotherms, which have lower metabolic requirements than endotherms and which may therefore have different home range area requirements. Our aim was to examine how home range area scales with body size in snakes and to shed light...

Data for: Environmentally-driven escalation of host egg-rejection decimates success of an avian brood parasite

John Eadie & Bruce Lyon
The black-headed duck (Heteronetta atricapilla) of South America is the only known avian obligate brood parasite with precocial offspring. In Argentina, it relies on two species of coots as primary hosts, which typically reject 35-65% of duck eggs. We show that environmentally-driven increases in host egg-rejection behavior lead to substantial reductions in the reproductive success of the brood parasite. Episodes of flooding and vegetation loss caused dramatic shifts in host egg rejection behavior, resulting in...

Rancho Seco vernal pool community data

Julia Michaels
Disturbance often increases local-scale (α) diversity by suppressing dominant competitors. However, widespread disturbances may also reduce biotic heterogeneity (β diversity) by making the identities and abundances of species more similar among patches. Landscape-scale (γ) diversity may also decline if disturbance-sensitive species are lost. California’s vernal pool plant communities are species-rich due in part to two scales of β diversity: (1) within pools, as species composition changes with depth (referred to here as vertical β diversity),...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    105

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Affiliations

  • University of California, Davis
    92
  • University of California, Berkeley
    4
  • United States Geological Survey
    3
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • United States Department of Agriculture
    2
  • University of Florida
    2
  • University of California, Santa Cruz
    2
  • Cornell University
    2
  • SUNY Downstate Medical Center
    1
  • California State University, Northridge
    1