44 Works

The biogeography of community assembly: latitude and predation drive variation in community trait distribution in a guild of epifaunal crustaceans

Collin Gross, Collin Gross, J Duffy, Kevin Hovel, Melissa Kardish, Pamela Reynolds, Christoffer Boström, Katharyn Boyer, Mathiew Cusson, Johan Eklöf, Aschwin Engelen, Klemens Eriksson, Joel Fodrie, John Griffin, Clara Hereu, Masakazu Hori, A Randall Hughes, Mikhail Ivanov, Pablo Jorgensen, Claudia Kruschel, Kun-Seop Lee, Jonathan Lefcheck, Karen McGlathery, Per-Olav Moksnes, Masahiro Nakaoka … & Jay Stachowicz
While considerable evidence exists of biogeographic patterns in the intensity of species interactions, the influence of these patterns on variation in community structure is less clear. Using a model selection approach on measures of trait dispersion in crustaceans associated with eelgrass (Zostera marina) spanning 30º of latitude in two oceans, we found that dispersion strongly increased with increasing predation and decreasing latitude. Ocean and epiphyte load appeared as secondary predictors; Pacific communities were more overdispersed...

Validation and demonstration of a pericarp disc system for studying blossom-end rot of tomatoes

Nicholas Reitz & Elizabeth J. Mitcham
Abstract Background Blossom-end rot in tomatoes is often used as a model system to study fruit calcium deficiency. The study of blossom-end rot development in tomatoes has been greatly impeded by the difficulty of directly studying and applying treatments to the affected cells. This manuscript presents a novel method for studying blossom-end rot development after harvest in immature whole fruit and in pericarp discs. Results Pericarp discs removed from the bottom pericarp of immature healthy...

The effect of locomotion mode on body shape evolution in teleost fishes

Sarah T. Friedman, Samantha A. Price & Peter C. Wainwright
Teleost fishes vary in their reliance on median and paired fins (MPF) or undulation of the body (BCF) to generate thrust during straight-line, steady swimming. Previous work indicates that swimming mode is associated with different body shapes, though this has never been empirically demonstrated across the diversity of fishes. As the body does not play as active a mechanical role in steady swimming by MPF swimmers, this may relax constraints and spur higher rates of...

Leveraging spatial patterns in precipitation forecasts using deep learning to support risk-averse flood management

Chen Zhang, Zachary Brodeur, Scott Steinschneider & Jonathan Herman
Short-term forecasts of heavy precipitation are critical to regional flood control operations, particularly in the Western U.S. where atmospheric rivers can be predicted reliably days in advance. However, spatial error in these forecasts may reduce their utility for risk-averse system operations, where false negatives could be especially costly. Here we investigate whether deep learning methods can leverage spatial patterns in precipitation forecasts to (1) improve the skill of predicting the occurrence of heavy precipitation events...

Anchorage by seed mucilage prevents seed dislodgement in high surface flow: a mechanistic investigation

Vincent Pan, Cecilia Girvin & Eric LoPresti
Background and Aims: Seed mucilage is a common and highly diverse trait shared among thousands of angiosperm species. While long recognized that mucilage allows seeds to anchor to substrates (antitelechory), resisting abiotic and biotic dislodgement, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of this process. Methods: We propose a mechanistic model of how mucilage affects substrate anchorage and fluid resistance, ultimately contributing to dislodgement resistance. To test this model, we subjected mucilaginous seeds of 52 species,...

Data from: Limitations of separate cloud and rain categories in parameterizing collision-coalescence for bulk microphysics schemes

Adele Igel
Warm rain collision coalescence has been persistently difficult to parameterize in the bulk microphysics schemes used by weather forecast models, climate models, and higher resolution models of the atmosphere. The Arbitrary Moment Predictor (AMP) has been run in a variety of configurations for collision-coalescence to investigate reasons for the difficulty. The simulations suggest that the primary reason traditional bulk schemes struggle with warm rain formation is the use of separate cloud and rain categories. When...

Behavioural correlations across multiple stages of the antipredator response: do animals that escape sooner hide longer?

Chelsea Ortiz-Jimenez, Marcus Michelangeli, Erika Pendleton, Andrew Sih & Jennifer Smith
A fundamental assumption in predator–prey ecology is that prey responses comprise two main stages: escape when attack occurs or appears imminent and avoid the threat by seeking refuge until it has passed. While numerous studies have examined either initial prey responses to an approaching predator (flight initiation distance, FID), or subsequent hiding behaviour (e.g. latency to resume activity), to our knowledge, no previous studies have repeatedly tested multiple individuals in nature to quantify whether initial...

Sacramento bike share surveys

Dillon Fitch & Susan Handy
This tabular dataset describes the travel behavior and travel mode related attitudes of residents and bike-share users in the greater Sacramento region. The data includes the socio-demographics, travel and mode related attitudes, and mode use pattern of both users and non-users of the bike-share service. The data was collected from both stratified random mail-to-web and intercept flier-to-web recruitment methods during time periods from 2016 to 2019. This includes surveys before bike share existing in the...

Local adaptation in a marine foundation species: implications for resilience to future global change

Katherine DuBois & John Stachowicz
Environmental change is multidimensional, with local anthropogenic stressors and global climate change interacting to differentially impact populations throughout a species’ geographic range. Within species, the spatial distribution of phenotypic variation and its causes (i.e. local adaptation or plasticity) will determine species’ adaptive capacity to respond to a changing environment. However, comparatively little is known about the spatial scale of adaptive differentiation among populations and how these patterns of local adaptation might drive vulnerability to global...

Demographic data collection in STEM organizations

Nicholas Burnett, Alyssa Hernandez, Emily King, Richelle Tanner & Kathryn Wilsterman
Professional organizations in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) can use demographic data to quantify recruitment and retention (R&R) of underrepresented groups within their memberships. However, variation in the types of demographic data collected can influence the targeting and perceived impacts of R&R efforts - e.g., giving false signals of R&R for some groups. We obtained demographic surveys from 73 U.S.-affiliated STEM organizations, collectively representing 712,000 members and conference-attendees. We found large differences in the...

Rapid parallel morphological and mechanical diversification of South American Pike Cichlids (Crenicichla)

Edward Burress
Explosive bouts of diversification are one of the most conspicuous features of the tree of life. When such bursts are repeated in similar environments it suggests some degree of predictability in the evolutionary process. We assess parallel adaptive radiation of South American pike cichlids (Crenicichla) using phylogenomics and phylogenetic comparative methods. We find that species flocks in the Uruguay and Iguazú River basins rapidly diversified into the same set of ecomorphs that reflect feeding ecology....

Photographs of 15-day wound closure progress in C57BL/6J mice

Hsin-Ya Yang, Michelle Bagood, Hector Carrion & Rivkah Isseroff
Evaluating and tracking wound size is a fundamental metric for the wound assessment process. Good location and size estimates can enable proper diagnosis and effective treatment. Traditionally, laboratory wound healing studies include a collection of images at uniform time intervals exhibiting the wounded area and the healing process in the test animal, often a mouse. These images are then manually observed to determine key metrics —such as wound size progress— relevant to the study. However,...

Experimental disruption of social structure reveals totipotency in the orchid bee, Euglossa dilemma

Nicholas Saleh
Eusociality has evolved multiple times across the insect phylogeny. Social insects with greater levels of social complexity tend to exhibit specialized castes with low levels of individual phenotypic plasticity. In contrast, species with simple social groups may consist of totipotent individuals that transition among behavioral and reproductive states. However, recent work has shown that in simple social groups, there can still be constraint on individual plasticity, caused by differences in maternal nourishment or social interaction....

Direct measurements of ozone response to emissions perturbations in California

Shenglun Wu, Hyung Joo Lee, Andrea Rohrbacher, Shang Liu, Toshihiro Kuwayama, John Seinfeld & Michael Kleeman
A new technique was used to directly measure O3 response to changes in precursor NOx and VOC concentrations in the atmosphere using three identical Teflon “smog chambers” equipped with UV lights. One chamber served as the baseline measurement for O3 formation, one chamber added NOx, and one chamber added surrogate VOCs (ethylene, m-xylene, n-hexane). Comparing the O3 formation between chambers over a three-hour UV cycle provides a direct measurement of O3 sensitivity to precursor concentrations....

The causes and consequences of pest population variability in agricultural landscapes

Daniel Paredes, Jay Rosenheim & Daniel Karp
Variability in population densities is key to the ecology of natural systems but also has great implications for agriculture. Farmers’ decisions are heavily influenced by their risk-aversion to pest outbreaks that result in major yield losses. However, the need for long-term pest population data across many farms has prevented researchers from exploring the drivers and implications of pest population variability. Here, we demonstrate the critical importance of population variability for sustainable farming by analyzing 13-yrs...

Data from: Germination niche breadth of invasive Iris pseudacorus (L.) suggests continued recruitment from seeds with climate warming

Brenda J. Grewell, Morgane B. Gillard, Jesús M. Castillo, Mohsen B. Mesgaran & Caryn J. Futrell
Understanding recruitment processes of invasive species is central to conservation and management strategies. Iris pseudacorus,an emergent macrophyte, has established invasive populations across a broad global range where it reduces biodiversity in wetland ecosystems. Climate warming is altering cues that drive germination, yet studies on the invasion of wetland macrophytes often ignore germination ecology despite its importance to their establishment and spread. The dataset includes data generated from a series of experiments conducted to improve understanding...

Contrasting genetic trajectories of endangered and expanding red fox populations in the western U.S.

Cate Quinn, Sophie Preckler-Quisquater, Jocelyn Akins, Patrick Cross, Preston Alden, Stevi Vanderzwan, John Stephenson, Pete Figura, Gregory Green, Tim Hiller & Benjamin Sacks
As anthropogenic disturbances continue to drive habitat loss and range contractions, the maintenance of evolutionary processes will increasingly require targeting measures to the population level, even for common and widespread species. Doing so requires detailed knowledge of population genetic structure, both to identify populations of conservation need and value, as well as to evaluate suitability of potential donor populations. We conducted a range-wide analysis of the genetic structure of red foxes in the contiguous western...

A hierarchical N-mixture model to estimate behavioral variation and a case study of Neotropical birds

Alison Ke, Rahel Sollmann, Luke Frishkoff & Daniel Karp
Understanding how and why animals use the environments where they occur is both foundational to behavioral ecology and essential to identify critical habitats for species conservation. However, some behaviors are more difficult to observe than others, which can bias analyses of raw observational data. To our knowledge, no method currently exists to model how animals use different environments while accounting for imperfect behavior-specific detection probability. We developed an extension of a binomial N-mixture model (hereafter...

Bee-associated fungi mediate effects of fungicides on bumble bees

Danielle Rutkowski, Eliza Litsey, Isabelle Maalouf & Rachel Vannette
Bumble bees are important pollinators that face threats from multiple sources, including agrochemical application. Declining bumble bee populations have been linked to fungicide application, which could directly affect the fungi often found in the stored food and gastrointestinal (GI) tract of healthy bumble bees. We test the hypothesis that fungicides impact bee health by disrupting bee–fungi interactions. We examined the interactive effects of the fungicide propiconazole and fungal supplementation on the survival, reproduction and microbiome...

Saliva protein profiling for subject identification and potential medical applications

Cecilia Giulivi
This study delineates a protocol to obtain a set of proteins from human saliva to distinguish objectively among individual donors. A small subset of proteins (<10%) of those identified by mass spectrometry from wet saliva samples allowed to discriminate among donors supporting the notion that most of the salivary proteome is highly conserved across subjects. Most of these discriminating proteins were involved with immunity, tissue metabolism and regeneration. They were already identified in other saliva...

Assessing the three Es— environment, economy, and equity – in CAPs Survey, Responses, and Results

Mark Lozano, Alissa Kendall & Gwen Arnold
The range of efforts to address climate change can span from international collaboration to personal action. This study looks at environmental efforts at the local jurisdictional level. Over the last decade, cities and counties have released climate action plans (CAPs) to set emissions reduction targets and outline actions that will help meet those goals. However, the range of information included in CAPs varies dramatically across jurisdictions. This study examines CAPs released by jurisdictions in California,...

Linked networks reveal dual roles of insect dispersal and species sorting for bacterial communities in flowers

Ash Zemenick, Rachel Vannette & Jay Rosenheim
Due to the difficulty of tracking microbial dispersal, it is rarely possible to disentangle the relative importance of dispersal and species sorting for microbial community assembly. Here, we leverage a detailed multilevel network to examine drivers of bacterial community assembly within flowers. We observed flower visitors to 20 focal plant species in a coflowering community in the Sierra Nevada, revealing 289 species of arthropods. We also analyzed bacterial communities on flowers of each species. We...

Load lifting and body size measurements in bees

Nicholas Burnett, Emily Keliher & Stacey Combes
Maximum vertical force production (Fvert) is an integral measure of flight performance that generally scales with size. Numerous methods of measuring Fvert and body size exist, but few studies have compared how these methods affect the conclusions of scaling analyses. We compared two common techniques for measuring Fvert in bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) and mason bees (Osmia lignaria), and examined Fvert scaling using five size metrics. Fvert results were similar with incremental or asymptotic load-lifting, but...

Divergent processes drive parallel evolution in marine and freshwater fishes

Sarah Friedman, Mike Collyer, Samantha Price & Peter Wainwright
Evolutionary comparisons between major environmental divides, such as between marine and freshwater systems, can reveal the fundamental processes governing diversification dynamics. Although processes may differ due to the different scales of their biogeographic barriers, freshwater and marine environments nevertheless offer similar opportunities for diversification in benthic, demersal, and pelagic habitats. Here, we compare the evolutionary patterns and processes shaping teleost diversity in each of these three habitats and between marine and freshwater systems. Using specimens...

Wolbachia frequency data from: Why did the Wolbachia transinfection cross the road? Drift, deterministic dynamics and disease control

Michael Turelli & Nicholas Barton
Maternally inherited Wolbachia transinfections are being introduced into natural mosquito populations to reduce the transmission of dengue, Zika and other arboviruses. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility provides a frequency-dependent reproductive advantage to infected females that can spread transinfections within and among populations. However, because transinfections generally reduce host fitness, they tend to spread within populations only after their frequency exceeds a critical threshold. This produces bistability with stable equilibrium frequencies at both 0 and 1, analogous to...

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  • 2022
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  • University of California, Davis
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