278 Works

Evolved differences in energy metabolism and growth dictate the impacts of ocean acidification on abalone aquaculture

Daniel Swezey, Sara Boles, Kristin Aquilino, Haley Stott, Doug Bush, Andrew Whitehead, Tessa Hill, Eric Sanford, Laura Rogers-Bennett, Tessa Hill & Eric Sanford
Ocean acidification (OA) poses a major threat to marine ecosystems and shellfish aquaculture. A promising mitigation strategy is the identification and breeding of shellfish varieties exhibiting resilience to acidification stress. We experimentally compared the effects of OA on two populations of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens), a marine mollusck important to fisheries and global aquaculture. Results from our experiments simulating captive aquaculture conditions demonstrated that abalone sourced from a strong upwelling region were tolerant of ongoing...

Mean flow direction modulates non-Fickian transport in a heterogeneous alluvial aquifer-aquitard system

Rich Pauloo
Regional-scale groundwater quality degradation from nonpoint source pollution threatens the long-term sustainability of major alluvial aquifer-aquitard systems worldwide. Upscaled models can efficient represent nonpoint source transport, but fail to accurately characterize non-Fickian (anomalous) transport caused by mean flow direction transience. In this study, we demonstrate that hydrogeologic factors explain this failure. Specifically, vertical anisotropy in K and seasonal pumping and recharge in typical alluvial aquifer systems can fundamentally change hydraulic gradients and shift the mean...

Data from: The effects of temperature on the kinematics of rattlesnake predatory strikes in both captive and field environments

Malachi Whitford, Grace Freymiller, Timothy Higham & Rulon Clark
The outcomes of predator-prey interactions between endotherms and ectotherms can be heavily influenced by environmental temperature, owing to the difference in how body temperature affects locomotor performance. However, as elastic energy storage mechanisms can allow ectotherms to maintain high levels of performance at cooler body temperatures, detailed analyses of kinematics are necessary to fully understand how changes in temperature might alter endotherm-ectotherm predator-prey interactions. Viperid snakes are widely distributed ectothermic mesopredators that interact with endotherms...

Data and code for simulation study and case study in \"A Bayesian Dirichlet process community occupancy model to estimate community structure and species similarity\"

Rahel Sollmann, Mitchell Eaton, William Link, Paul Mulondo, Samuel Ayebare, Sarah Prinsloo & Devin Johnson
This dataset contains the R and JAGS code underlying the simulation study, as well as the data and code underlying the case study on bird occurrence in Murchison Falls National Park, presented in the paper "A Bayesian Dirichlet process community occupancy model to estimate community structure and species similarity".

Slowing the body slows down time (perception)

Rose De Kock, Weiwei Zhou, Wilsaan Joiner & Martin Wiener
Interval timing is a fundamental component of action, and is interestingly susceptible to motor-related temporal distortions. Several experiments have shown that temporal expansion and compression can occur in systematic ways with modifications of movement direction, speed, and length. These studies have largely shown that movement biases temporal estimates, but have primarily considered self-modulated movement only. However, real-world encounters often include situations in which movement is restricted or perturbed by environmental factors. Thus, in the following...

Phylogenomic species delimitation in the ants of the Temnothorax salvini Group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): An integrative approach

Matthew Prebus
The members of the Temnothorax salvini species group are rarely collected, arboreally nesting ants of Central American forests. Previously thought to consist of two broadly dispersed species, recent collections have revealed a diversity of specimens that defy the two-species salvini group concept, but these are difficult to distinguish from each other based solely on morphology. I contrast several model-based approaches to species delimitation based on target-enriched genomic data. With molecular data from thousands of ultraconserved...

Data and analysis from: Two centuries of monarch butterfly collections reveal contrasting effects of range expansion and migration loss on wing traits

Micah Freedman, Hugh Dingle, Sharon Strauss & Santiago Ramírez
Migratory animals exhibit traits that allow them to exploit seasonally variable habitats. In environments where migration is no longer beneficial, such as oceanic islands, migration-association traits may be selected against or be under relaxed selection. Monarch butterflies are best known for their continent-scale migration in North America but have repeatedly become established as non-migrants in the tropical Americas and on Atlantic and Pacific Islands. These replicated non-migratory populations provide natural laboratories for understanding the rate...

Data from: Habitat primarily structures seagrass epifaunal communities: a regional-scale assessment in the Chesapeake Bay

Claire Murphy, Jonathan Lefcheck & Robert Orth
Epifaunal invertebrates play an important role in seagrass systems, both by grazing epiphytic algae from seagrass blades and by acting as a major food source for higher trophic levels. However, while many studies have described epifaunal community properties at small spatial scales (1 – 10 m2) and across very large gradients (from continental coastlines to the entire globe), few have examined regional-scale (100 ­– 1000 km2) patterns or, more importantly, disentangled the drivers of these...

Data from: Injury alters motivational trade-offs in calves during the healing period

Cassandra Tucker & Sarah Adcock
Injury can produce long-lasting motivational changes that may alter decisions made under risk. Our objective was to determine whether a routine painful husbandry procedure, hot-iron disbudding, affects how calves trade off risk avoidance against a competing motivation (i.e., feeding), and whether this response depends on time since injury. We used a startle test to evaluate this trade-off in calves disbudded 0 or 21 days previously and non-injured control calves. For 3 days, calves were individually...

Compositional variation in early life parenting structures alters oxytocin and vasopressin 1a receptor development in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

Forrest Rogers, Sara Freeman, Marina Anderson, Michelle Palumbo & Karen Bales
Paternal absence can significantly alter bio-behavioral development in many biparental species. This effect has generally been demonstrated by comparing the development of offspring reared under biparental care with those reared after removal of the father. However, studies employing this design conflate two significant modifications to early life experience: removal of father-specific qualities and the general reduction of offspring-directed care. In the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), the experience of paternal absence without substitution during...

Data from: An improved and highly efficient geometry for facemasks

Christopher Cappa, William Ristenpart & Sanziana Roman
The dataset provided here is associated with the work "An improved and highly efficient geometry for facemasks," by Cappa et al, currently submitted for publication. This includes measurements made of the influence of a new cloth mask, designed originally for singing, on the emission of micron-scale aerosols from various expiratory activities (singing, speaking) and on inhalation of ambient particles. The dataset provided here includes *.txt files exported from an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer that contain time-series...

Effects of size selection versus density dependence on life histories: a first experimental probe

Kelsey Lyberger, Thomas Schoener & Sebastian Schreiber
When prey experience size-based harvesting by predators, they are not only subject to selection due to larger individuals being preferentially harvested but also selection due to reductions in population density. Density-dependent selection represents one of the most basic interactions between ecology and evolution. Yet, the reduction in density associated with exploitation has not been tested as a possible driving force of observed evolutionary changes in populations harvested size-dependently. Using an artificial selection experiment with a...

Predicted asymmetrical effects of warming on nocturnal and diurnal soil-dwelling ectotherms

Marshall McMunn & Adam Pepi
Climate is expected to have broad effects on ecological communities, but this occurs in the context of significant daily temperature variation in many localities. Because many ectotherms can restrict activity to thermally suitable places and times, daily temperature variation offers the potential to buffer impacts of warming. Using thermal activity data from a montane ground-nesting ant community, we explore how a simulated increase in temperature is expected to alter the duration of suitable activity windows....

Data and analysis scripts for: Co-occurrence patterns at four spatial scales implicate reproductive processes in shaping community assembly in clovers

Kyle Christie, Susan Harrison, Maren L. Friesen & Sharon Y. Strauss
1. Competition, niche differences, and chance all contribute to community assembly, yet the role of reproductive interactions between species is often less appreciated. Closely related plant species that share floral form, phenology, and habitat often interact through pollination. They potentially facilitate pollinator attraction, compete for pollination services, and/or exchange pollen. If reproductive processes are important to co-occurrence, we predicted that fitness costs of heterospecific pollen transfer or pollen limitation should result in lower rates of...

Variation in immunity and health in response to introduced avian malaria in an endemic Hawaiian songbird

Gabrielle Names, Elizabeth Schultz, Thomas Hahn, Kathleen Hunt, Frederic Angelier, Cécile Ribout & Kirk Klasing
Emerging infectious diseases are spreading at unprecedented rates and affecting wildlife worldwide, with particularly strong effects on islands. Since the introduction of avian malaria to Hawaii a century ago, the disease has contributed to the decline and extinction of several endemic Hawaiian honeycreeper species. At low elevation, where avian malaria is prevalent, Hawaii Amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens) honeycreeper populations have experienced strong selection by the disease and have evolved increased malaria resilience, the ability to recover...

Stress in paradise: effects of elevated corticosterone on immunity and avian malaria resilience in a Hawaiian passerine

Gabrielle Names, Elizabeth Schultz, Jesse Krause, Thomas Hahn, John Wingfield, Molly Heal, Jamie Cornelius, Kirk Klasing & Kathleen Hunt
Vertebrates confronted with challenging environments often experience an increase in circulating glucocorticoids, which result in morphological, physiological, and behavioral changes that promote survival. However, chronically elevated glucocorticoids can suppress immunity, which may increase susceptibility to disease. Since the introduction of avian malaria to Hawaii a century ago, low elevation populations of Hawaii Amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens) have undergone strong selection by avian malaria and evolved increased resilience (the ability to recover from infection), while populations at...

Lipid mediators detected in COVID-19 patients and healthy controls

Cindy McReynolds, Irene Cortes_Puch, Resmi Ravindran, Imran Khan, Pei-An Betty Shih, Bruce D. Hammock, Jun Yang & Bruce G. Hammock
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are metabolized into regulatory lipids important for initiating inflammatory responses in the event of disease or injury and for signaling the resolution of inflammation and return to homeostasis. The epoxides of linoleic acid (leukotoxins) regulate skin barrier function, perivascular and alveolar permeability and have been associated with poor outcomes in burn patients and in sepsis. It was later reported that blocking metabolism of leukotoxins into the vicinal diols ameliorated the deleterious effects...

Data for impact of “non-lethal” tarsal clipping on bumble bees (Bombus vosnesenskii) may depend on queen stage and worker size

John Mola, Clara Stuligross, Maureen Page, Danielle Rutkowski & Neal Williams
Recent bumble bee declines have prompted the development of novel population monitoring tools, including the use of putatively non-lethal tarsal clipping to obtain genetic material. However, the potential side effects of tarsal clipping have only been tested in the worker caste of a single domesticated species, prompting the need to more broadly test whether tarsal clipping negatively affects sampled individuals. To determine if tarsal clipping reduces queen survivorship and colony establishment, we collected wild queens...

A solitary ground-nesting wasp truncates its parental investment in response to detection of parasites

Jay Rosenheim
1. Parental investment by solitary nest-building wasps and bees is predicted to be plastic, responding to variation in the sex of the offspring, the availability of food used as provisions (‘resource limitation’), the female’s inventory of mature oocytes (‘egg limitation’), and risk imposed by nest parasites. 2. I observed nest provisioning by Ammophila dysmica, a solitary, ground-nesting wasp that provisions its nest with one or two caterpillar prey to evaluate the hypotheses that provisioning is...

Phylogenomics and biogeography of leptonetid spiders (Araneae : Leptonetidae)

Jason Bond, Joel Ledford & Marshal Hedin
Leptonetidae are rarely encountered spiders, usually associated with caves and mesic habitats, and are disjunctly distributed across the Holarctic. Data from ultraconserved elements (UCEs) were used in concatenated and coalescent-based analyses to estimate the phylogenetic history of the family. Our taxon sample included close outgroups, and 90% of described leptonetid genera, with denser sampling in North America and Mediterranean Europe. Two data matrices were assembled and analysed; the first ‘relaxed’ matrix includes the maximum number...

Data from: Wolbachia in the spittlebug Prosapia ignipectus: variable infection frequencies, but no apparent effect on host reproductive isolation

Timothy Wheeler, Vinton Thompson, William Conner & Brandon Cooper
Animals serve as hosts for complex communities of microorganisms, including endosymbionts that live inside their cells. Wolbachia bacteria are perhaps the most common endosymbionts, manipulating host reproduction to propagate. Many Wolbachia cause cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which results in reduced egg hatch when uninfected females mate with infected males. Wolbachia that cause intense CI spread to high and relatively stable frequencies, while strains that cause weak or no CI tend to persist at intermediate, often variable,...

Mucilage-binding to ground protects seeds of many plants from harvester ants: a functional investigation

Vincent Pan, Marshall McMunn, Richard Karban, Jake Goidell, Eric LoPresti & Marjorie Weber
The seeds of many plant species produce mucilage on their surfaces that when wetted and dried, firmly adheres seeds to surfaces and substrates. Previous studies have demonstrated that seed anchorage to the ground can reduce seed predation, though only a few species have thus far been tested. Here we investigated whether binding to the ground reduces seed removal by harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex subdentatus), an important granivore, for 53 species with mucilaginous seeds. We also explored...

Data from: Early-life experience influences dispersal in coyotes (Canis latrans)

Emily Zepeda, Ashley Wurth, Stanley Gehrt, Eric Payne & Andy Sih
Natal dispersal plays an important role in connecting individual animal behavior with ecological processes at all levels of biological organization. As urban environments are rapidly increasing in extent and intensity, understanding how urbanization influences these long distance movements is critical for predicting the persistence of species and communities. There is considerable variation in the movement responses of individuals within a species, some of which is attributed to behavioral plasticity which interacts with experience to produce...

Modeling dynamic processes in the California ZEV market (2014-2016)

Debapriya Chakraborty, David Bunch & David Brownstone
The market for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) that primarily include battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) has been rapidly growing in California for the past few years. Given the targets for PEV penetration in the state, it is important to have a better understanding of the pattern of technology diffusion and the factors that are driving the process. Using spatial analysis and Poisson count models we identify the importance of a neighborhood...

Limnological data for Lake Tahoe seasonal and long-term clarity trend analysis report

Shohei Watanabe & Geoffry Schladow
This data set includes imnological data used for a report "Lake Tahoe Seasonal and Long-Term Clarity Trend Analysis Report." The clarity of Lake Tahoe, observed using a Secchi disk, continues to be a sentinel metric. It is influenced by both physical and biological processes and has had a declining trend over decades of monitoring, with differences apparent between summer and winter patterns. The report summarized key findings of an investigation on Lake Tahoe water clarity,...

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Affiliations

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