68 Works

Birth timing after the long feeding migration in northern elephant seals

Richard Condit, Roxanne S. Beltran, Patrick W. Robinson, Daniel E. Crocker & Daniel P. Costa
A prominent phase of the annual cyle in migratory animals is the transition between migration and reproduction. The transition is a small part of the annual cycle, but details of its timing deserve attention. From a distant location, animals must initiate a long migration so that they arrive at the breeding ground on a precise schedule. Here we take advantage of a sample of female northern elephant seals that were tracked by satellite during their...

Field courses narrow demographic achievement gaps in ecology and evolutionary biology

Roxanne Beltran, Erin Marnocha, Alexandra Race, Don Croll, Gage Dayton & Erika Zavaleta
Disparities remain in the representation of marginalized students in STEM. Classroom-based experiential learning opportunities can increase student confidence and academic success; however, the effectiveness of extending learning to outdoor settings is unknown. Our objectives were to examine 1) demographic gaps in ecology and evolutionary biology (EEB) major completion, college graduation, and GPAs for students who did and did not enroll in field courses, 2) whether under-represented demographic groups were less likely to enroll in field...

Behavioral responses across a mosaic of ecosystem states restructure a sea otter-urchin trophic cascade

Joshua Smith, Joseph Tomoleoni, Michelle Staedler, Sophia Lyon, Jessica Fujii & Tim M. Tinker
Consumer and predator foraging behavior can impart profound trait-mediated constraints on community regulation that scale-up to influence the structure and stability of ecosystems. Here we demonstrate how the behavioral response of an apex predator to changes in prey behavior and condition can dramatically alter the role and relative contribution of top-down forcing, depending on the spatial organization of ecosystem states. In this study, a rapid and dramatic decline in the abundance of a meso-predator (Pycnopodia...

Soil nutrients

Karen Holl
Surface soil nutrients collected in 2007, 2012, 2017 from research plots described in Holl, K. D., J. L. Reid, R. J. Cole, F. Oviedo-Brenes, J. A. Rosales, and R. A. Zahawi. 2020. Applied nucleation facilitates tropical forest recovery: Lessons learned from a 15-year study. Journal of Applied Ecology 57:2316-2328 (https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13684).

Data from: Tropical forest restoration enriches vascular epiphyte recovery

John Leighton Reid, José Miguel Chaves-Fallas, Karen D. Holl & Rakan A. Zahawi
Vascular epiphytes constitute a large proportion of tropical forest plant biodiversity, but are among the slowest plants to recolonize secondary forests. We asked whether tree planting for ecological restoration accelerates epiphyte community recovery. Does the spatial configuration of tree planting matter? What landscape contexts are most suitable for epiphyte restoration? Location: Restored pastures in premontane Coto Brus County, Puntarenas, Costa Rica.

Data from: Rules of thumb for predicting tropical forest recovery

Karen D. Holl, John Leighton Reid, Federico Oviedo-Brenes, Andy J. Kulikowski & Rakan A. Zahawi
Natural regeneration is increasingly recognized as a potentially cost‐effective strategy to reach ambitious forest landscape restoration targets, but rates of recovery are notoriously variable. We asked how well initial habitat conditions after cessation of agriculture predict forest recovery after nearly a decade. We aimed to provide land managers with general rules of thumb to assess when it is necessary to invest resources in active restoration, such as tree planting, to accelerate forest recovery. Location: Coto...

Canopy cover data from: Applied nucleation facilitates tropical forest recovery

Karen D. Holl, J. Leighton Reid, Rebecca J. Cole, Federico Oviedo‐Brenes, Juan A. Rosales & Rakan A. Zahawi
Applied nucleation, mostly based upon planting tree islands, has been proposed as a cost‐effective strategy to meet ambitious global forest and landscape restoration targets. We review results from a 15‐year study, replicated at 15 sites in southern Costa Rica, that compares applied nucleation to natural regeneration and mixed‐species tree plantations as strategies to restore tropical forest. We have collected data on planted tree survival and growth, woody vegetation recruitment and structure, seed rain, litterfall, epiphytes,...

Elkhorn Slough eelgrass restoration

Kathryn Beheshti
The global decline of marine foundation species (kelp forests, mangroves, salt marshes, and seagrasses) has contributed to the degradation of the coastal zone and threatens the loss of critical ecosystem services and functions. Restoration of marine foundation species has had variable success, especially for seagrasses, where a majority of restoration efforts have failed. While most seagrass restorations track structural attributes over time, rarely do restorations assess the suite of ecological functions that may be affected...

Physical and biogeochemical drivers of alongshore pH and oxygen variability in the California Current System

Jerome Fiechter & Julia Cheresh
In the California Current System (CCS), the nearshore environment experiences natural exposure to low pH and reduced oxygen in response to coastal upwelling. Anthropogenic impacts further decrease pH and oxygen below biological thresholds, making the CCS particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification and hypoxia. Results from a coupled physical-biogeochemical model reveal a strongly heterogeneous alongshore pattern of nearshore pH and oxygen in the central CCS, both in their long-term means and trends. This spatial structuring is...

Fumigant use on California strawberry fields, 2004-2013

Julie Guthman
This dataset contains an analysis of chemical fumigant usage for nine major strawberry producing counties in California from 2004 to 2013. Five counties are production counties; four are nursery counties. Raw data on all pesticide applications on a county basis was collected from California's Pesticide Use Reporting System and filtered by pesticide category (fumigant) and commodity (strawberry). These data are geo-coded by Township-Range-Section. The data set also contains pivot tables and charts that show trend...

Data from: Scale-dependent effects of forest restoration on Neotropical fruit bats

J. Leighton Reid, Chase D. Mendenhall, Rakan A. Zahawi & Karen D. Holl
Neotropical fruit bats (family Phyllostomidae) facilitate forest regeneration on degraded lands by dispersing shrub and tree seeds. Accordingly, if fruit bats can be attracted to restoration sites, seed dispersal could be enhanced. We surveyed bat communities at 10 sites in southern Costa Rica to evaluate whether restoration treatments attracted more fruit bats if trees were planted on degraded farmlands in plantations or island configurations versus natural regeneration. We also compared the relative influence of tree...

Ant-scale mutualism increases scale infestation, decreases folivory, and disrupts biological control in restored tropical forests

Andy Kulikowski
Ant-hemipteran mutualisms can have positive and negative effects on host plants depending on the level of hemipteran infestation and plant protection conferred by ants against folivory. Differential effects of such mutualisms on plant survival are well documented in undisturbed and ant-invaded systems, but few have explored how anthropogenic disturbance affects interactions between hemipterans and native ant species and what the consequences may be for recovering ecosystems. Within a fragmented landscape in Costa Rica, restored tropical...

Walruses produce intense impulse sounds by clap-induced cavitation during breeding displays

Colleen Reichmuth & Ole Næsbye Larsen
Male walruses produce the longest continuous reproductive displays known in the animal kingdom to convey their individual fitness to potential rivals, and possibly to potential mates. Here we document the ability of a captive walrus to produce intense, rhythmic sounds through a non-vocal pathway involving deliberate, regular collision of the fore flippers. High-speed videography linked to an acoustic onset marker revealed sound production through cavitation, with the acoustic impulse generated by each forceful clap exceeding...

Exploring the effects of invasion on plant morphology of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)

Alexander Krohn, Caroline DeVan, Lizz Waring & Liz Shea
This dataset is for use in the Couse-based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) titled Effects of Invasion on Plant Morphology of Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). The dataset is meant to be used as a practice, or ready-to-use dataset for instructors so that all instructors can start from the same point with the same data. If you would like to download additional data, or use a species other than L. salicaria, please visit the CUREnet website and...

Parallel evolution of phenological isolation across the speciation continuum in serpentine-adapted annual wildflowers

Shelley Sianta & Kathleen Kay
Understanding the relative importance of reproductive isolating mechanisms across the speciation continuum remains an outstanding challenge in evolutionary biology. Here we examine a common isolating mechanism, reproductive phenology, between plant sister taxa at different stages of adaptive divergence to gain insight into its relative importance during speciation. We study 17 plant taxa that have independently adapted to inhospitable serpentine soils, and contrast each with a nonserpentine sister taxon to form pairs at either ecotypic or...

Predicting the population consequences of acoustic disturbance, with application to an endangered gray whale population

Elizabeth McHuron, Elizabeth McHuron, Lisanne Aerts, Glenn Gailey, Olga Sychenko, Daniel Costa, Marc Mangel & Lisa Schwarz
Acoustic disturbance is a growing conservation concern for wildlife populations because it can elicit physiological and behavioral responses that can have cascading impacts on population dynamics. State-dependent behavioral and life history models implemented via Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) provide a natural framework for quantifying biologically meaningful population changes resulting from disturbance by linking environment, physiology, and metrics of fitness. We developed an SDP model using the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) as a case...

Data from: Leaf litter arthropod responses to tropical forest restoration

Rebecca J. Cole, Karen D. Holl, Rakan A. Zahawi, Philipp Wickey & Alan R. Townsend
Soil and litter arthropods represent a large proportion of tropical biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, but little is known about the efficacy of different tropical forest restoration strategies in facilitating their recovery in degraded habitats. We sampled arthropods in four 7‐ to 8‐year‐old restoration treatments and in nearby reference forests. Sampling was conducted during the wet and dry seasons using extractions from litter and pitfall samples. Restoration treatments were replicated in 50 × 50‐m...

Data from: Krill hotspot formation and phenology in the California Current Ecosystem

Jerome Fiechter
In the California Current Ecosystem (CCE), krill represent a key link between primary production and higher trophic level species owing to their central position in the food web and tendency to form dense aggregations. However, the strongly advective circulation associated with coastal upwelling may spatiotemporally decouple the occurrence and persistence of krill hotspots from phytoplankton biomass and nutrient sources. Results from a physical-biological model provide insights into fundamental mechanisms controlling the phenology of krill hotspots...

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