184 Works

First Results of the Ground Layer Adaptive Optics System ARGOS

Gilles Orban De Xivry, Marco Bonaglia, Jose Borelli, Lorenzo Busoni, Matthias Deysenroth, Simone Esposito, Wolfgang Gaessler, Martin Kulas, Tommaso Mazzoni, Diethard Peter, Sebastian Rabien, Gustavo Rahmer, Julian Ziegleder, Alexander Sivitilli, Jesper Storm, Hans Gemperlein, Michael Lefebvre, Alfio Puglisi & Walfried Raab

Preliminary design of the MICADO calibration unit

Gabriele Rodeghiero, Jörg-Uwe Pott & Friedrich Müller

The Global Value of Mangroves for Risk Reduction Technical Report

Íñigo J. Losada, Pelayo Menéndez, Antonio Espejo, Saúl Torres, Pedro Díaz Simal, Sheila Abad, Michael W. Beck, Siddharth Narayan, Dania Trespalacios, Kerstin Pfliegner, Peter Mucke & Lotte Kirch

Hydrology, geochemistry, and microbiology data from meter-scale infiltration experiments exploring the impact of a woodchip soil amendment on nitrate removal during infiltration

Sarah Beganskas, Galen Gorski, Tess Weathers, Andrew Fisher, Calla Schmidt, Chad Saltikov, Kaitlyn Redford, Brendon Stoneburner, Ryan Harmon & Walker Weir
We present results from field experiments linking hydrology, geochemistry, and microbiology during infiltration at a field site that is used for managed aquifer recharge (MAR). These experiments measured how a horizontal permeable reactive barrier (PRB) made of woodchips impacted subsurface nitrate removal and microbial ecology. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon consistently increased in infiltrating water below the PRB, but not in un-amended native soil. The average nitrate removal rate in soils below the PRB was...

Chamorro grammar

Sandra Chung

The case of an arctic wild ass highlights the utility of ancient DNA for validating problematic identifications in museum collections

Alisa Vershinina, Joshua D. Kapp, Gennady Baryshnikov & Beth Shapiro
Museum collections are essential for reconstructing and understanding past biodiversity. Many museum specimens are, however, challenging to identify. Museum samples may be incomplete, have an unusual morphology, or represent juvenile individuals, all of which complicate accurate identification. In some cases, inaccurate identification can lead to false biogeographic reconstructions with cascading impacts on paleontological and paleoecological research. Here we analyze an unusual Equid mandible found in the Far North of the Taymyr peninsula that was identified...

The role of bioturbation-driven substrate disturbance in the Mesozoic brachiopod decline

Matthew Clapham & Marko Manojlovic
Brachiopods dominated the seafloor as a primary member of the Paleozoic fauna. Despite the devastating effects of the end-Permian extinction, the group recovered during the early Mesozoic only to gradually decline from the Jurassic to today. This decline likely had multiple causes, including increased predation and bioturbation-driven substrate disruption, but the role of changing substrate is not well understood. Given the importance of substrate for extant brachiopod habitat, we documented Mesozoic-Cenozoic lithological preferences and morphological...

Data From: Ecosystem size shapes antipredator trait evolution in estuarine threespine stickleback

Ben A. Wasserman, Antoine Paccard, Travis M. Apgar, Simone Des Roches, Rowan D.H. Barrett, Andrew P. Hendry & Eric P. Palkovacs
Ecosystem size is known to influence both community structure and ecosystem processes. Less is known about the evolutionary consequences of ecosystem size. A few studies have shown that ecosystem size shapes the evolution of trophic diversity by shaping habitat heterogeneity, but the effects of ecosystem size on antipredator trait evolution have not been explored. Ecosystem size may impact antipredator trait evolution by shaping predator presence (larger ecosystems have longer food chains) and habitat complexity (larger...

Female Breeding Histories at Año Nuevo

R Condit, Joanne Reiter, Patricia Morris & Burney Le Boeuf
The elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) breeding colony at Año Nuevo, California, was founded in 1961, and since monitored closely until the present. Since 1968 a research group at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has studied it in detail. Individually identified females were monitored during the breeding season, and pupping records of many throughout their lifetimes were assembled. We address here the maximum reproductive success of females using the lifetime breeding histories. Females lived to...

Sperm morphology and count vary with fine-scale changes in local density in a wild lizard population

Matthew C Kustra, Ariel F Kahrl, Aaron M Reedy, Daniel A Warner & Robert M Cox
Given that sperm production can be costly, theory predicts that males should optimally adjust the quantity and/or quality of their sperm in response to their social environment to maximize their paternity success. Although experiments demonstrate that males can alter their ejaculates in response to manipulations of the social environment and studies show that ejaculate traits covary with social environment across populations, it is unknown whether individual variation in sperm traits corresponds to natural variation found...

Interspecific and intra-shell stable isotope variation among the Red Sea giant clams

Daniel Killam, Ryan Thomas, Matthew Clapham & Tariq Al-Najjar
The Gulf of Aqaba is home to three giant clam species with differing ecological niches and levels of photosymbiotic activity. Giant clams grow a two-layered shell where the outer layer is precipitated in close association with photosymbiont-bearing siphonal mantle, and the inner layer is grown in association with the light-starved inner mantle. We collected 38 shells of the three species (the cosmopolitan Tridacna maxima and T. squamosa, as well as the rare endemic T. squamosina),...

Understanding forest dynamics by integrating age and environmental change

Kai Zhu
How much carbon a forest ecosystem can sequester is determined by both post-disturbance regrowth and environmentally modified growth. Disturbance causes sharp declines in the short term and is followed by regrowth in the long term. Environmental change may alter carbon accumulation through increasing CO2, nitrogen deposition, and climate change. Regrowth and modified growth occur simultaneously, yet they are usually studied separately and assessed using an additive approach. Alternatively, an interactive approach using hierarchical models can...

How climate impacts the composition of wolf killed-elk in northern Yellowstone National Park

Christopher Wilmers, Matthew Metz, Daniel Stahler, Michel Kohl, Chris Geremia & Douglas Smith
1. While the functional response of predators is commonly measured, recent work has revealed that the age and sex composition of prey killed is often a better predictor of prey population dynamics because the reproductive value of adult females is usually higher than that of males or juveniles. 2. Climate is often an important mediating factor in determining the composition of predator kills, but we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of how the multiple facets...

Microhabitats associated with solar energy development alter demography of two desert annuals

Karen Tanner, Kara Moore-O'Leary, Ingrid Parker, Bruce Pavlik, Sophia Haji & Rebecca Hernandez
Political and economic initiatives intended to increase energy production while reducing carbon emissions are driving demand for solar energy. Consequently, desert regions are now targeted for development of large-scale photovoltaic solar energy facilities. Where vegetation communities are left intact or restored within facilities, ground-mounted infrastructure may have negative impacts on desert-adapted plants because it creates novel rainfall runoff and shade conditions. We used experimental solar arrays in the Mojave Desert to test how these altered...

Data from: A fast and efficient single-stranded genomic library preparation method optimized for ancient DNA

Joshua Kapp, Richard Green & Beth Shapiro
We present a protocol to prepare extracted DNA for sequencing on the Illumina sequencing platform that has been optimized for ancient and degraded DNA. Our approach, the Santa Cruz Reaction or SCR, uses directional splinted ligation of Illumina’s P5 and P7 adapters to convert natively single-stranded DNA and heat denatured double-stranded DNA into sequencing libraries in a single enzymatic reaction. To demonstrate its efficacy in converting degraded DNA molecules, we prepare five ancient DNA extracts...

Variation in purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) morphological traits in relation to resource availability

Joshua Smith & Sabrina Garcia
Flexible resource investment is a risk-sensitive reproductive strategy where individuals trade resources spent on reproduction for basic metabolic maintenance and survival. This study examined morphological variation in herbivorous sea urchin grazers across a mosaic landscape of macroalgae-dominated habitats interspersed with patches of sea urchin barrens to determine whether sea urchins shift energy allocation in response to food limitation. Extensive underwater surveys of habitat attributes (e.g., sea urchin density, algae cover) were paired with detailed laboratory...

Forest Survey data 2012-2013

Karen Holl
Vegetation composition of 6 representative forest fragments adjacent to restoration study plots in the Islas Project.

Data from: Effects of dispersal‐ and niche‐based factors on tree recruitment in tropical wet forest restoration

Leland K. Werden, Karen D. Holl, Juan Abel Rosales, Janelle M. Sylvester & Rakan A. Zahawi
Both dispersal‐ and niche‐based factors can impose major barriers on tree establishment. Our understanding of how these factors interact to determine recruitment rates is based primarily on findings from mature tropical forests, despite the fact that a majority of tropical forests are now secondary. Consequently, factors influencing seed limitation and the seed‐to‐seedling transition (STS) in disturbed landscapes, and how those factors shift during succession, are not well understood. We used a 3.5‐yr record of seed...

Site description

Karen Holl
Descriptions of 15 original sites from Islas project. Used in various publications and described in Holl, K. D., J. L. Reid, R. J. Cole, F. Oviedo-Brenes, J. A. Rosales, and R. A. Zahawi. 2020. Applied nucleation facilitates tropical forest recovery: Lessons learned from a 15-year study. Journal of Applied Ecology 57:2316-2328.

Bird Frugivore Abundance data from: Applied nucleation facilitates tropical forest recovery

Karen D. Holl, J. Leighton Reid, Rebecca J. Cole, Federico Oviedo‐Brenes, Juan A. Rosales & Rakan A. Zahawi
Applied nucleation, mostly based upon planting tree islands, has been proposed as a cost‐effective strategy to meet ambitious global forest and landscape restoration targets. We review results from a 15‐year study, replicated at 15 sites in southern Costa Rica, that compares applied nucleation to natural regeneration and mixed‐species tree plantations as strategies to restore tropical forest. We have collected data on planted tree survival and growth, woody vegetation recruitment and structure, seed rain, litterfall, epiphytes,...

Data from: Reduced aboveground tree growth associated with higher arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in tropical forest restoration

Ellen K. Holste, Karen D. Holl, Rakan A. Zahawi & Richard K. Kobe
Establishing diverse mycorrhizal fungal communities is considered important for forest recovery, yet mycorrhizae may have complex effects on tree growth depending on the composition of fungal species present. In an effort to understand the role of mycorrhizal fungi community in forest restoration in southern Costa Rica, we sampled the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community across eight sites that were planted with the same species (Inga edulis, Erythrina poeppigiana, Terminalia amazonia, and Vochysia guatemalensis) but varied...

Data from: Litterfall and nutrient dynamics shift in tropical forest restoration sites after a decade of recovery

Karen D. Holl, Fernando Casanoves, Rakan A. Zahawi, Danielle Celentano, Diego Delgado & Oscar Lanuza
Multi‐year studies comparing changes in litterfall biomass and nutrient inputs in sites under different restoration practices are lacking. We evaluated litterfall dynamics and nutrient inputs at 5 yr and after a decade of recovery in four treatments (natural regeneration—no planting, plantation—entire area planted, tree islands—planting in patches, and reference forest) at multiple sites in an agricultural landscape in southern Costa Rica. We inter‐planted two native species (Terminalia amazonia and Vochysia guatemalensis) and two naturalized N‐fixing...

Data from: Seed dispersal limitations shift over time in tropical forest restoration

J. Leighton Reid, Karen D. Holl & Rakan A. Zahawi
Past studies have shown that tropical forest regeneration on degraded farmlands is initially limited by lack of seed dispersal, but few studies have tracked changes in abundance and composition of seed rain past the first few years after land abandonment. We measured seed rain for 12 months in 10 6–9‐year‐old restoration sites and five mature, reference forests in southern Costa Rica in order to learn (1) if seed rain limitation persists past the first few...

Data from: Ant–scale mutualism increases scale infestation, decreases folivory, and disrupts biological control in restored tropical forests

Andy J. Kulikowski & Karen Holl
Ant–hemipteran mutualisms can have positive and negative effects on host plants depending on the level of hemipteran infestation and plant protection conferred by ants against folivory. Differential effects of such mutualisms on plant survival are well documented in undisturbed and ant‐invaded systems, but few have explored how anthropogenic disturbance affects interactions between hemipterans and native ant species and what the consequences may be for recovering ecosystems. Within a fragmented landscape in Costa Rica, restored tropical...

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