22 Works

Natural enemy-herbivore networks along local management and landscape gradients in urban agroecosystems

Stacy Philpott, Azucena Lucatero, Peter Bichier, Monika Egerer, Shalene Jha, Brenda Lin & Heidi Liere
Ecological networks can provide insight into how biodiversity loss and changes in species interactions impact the delivery of ecosystem services. In agroecosystems that vary in management practices, quantifying changes in ecological network structure across gradients of local and landscape composition can inform both the ecology and function of productive agroecosystems. In this study, we examined natural enemy-herbivore co-occurrence networks associated with Brassica oleracea (cole crops), a common crop in urban agricultural systems. Specifically, we investigated...

Pluto and Charon limb profile topography

Jack Conrad
We derived updated and expanded topography datasets for Pluto and Charon. This is done through finding the body edge (i.e. the limb) in images, and with those body edge locations we can apply simple geographical techniques to produce limb profiles. The process involves some human intervention, but is primarily automation based. Our limb profile topography is useful for geologic and geophysical studies of Pluto and Charon. Additionally, we provide processed data of how we used...

Physical and biogeochemical drivers of alongshore pH and oxygen variability in the California Current System

Jerome Fiechter & Julia Cheresh
In the California Current System (CCS), the nearshore environment experiences natural exposure to low pH and reduced oxygen in response to coastal upwelling. Anthropogenic impacts further decrease pH and oxygen below biological thresholds, making the CCS particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification and hypoxia. Results from a coupled physical-biogeochemical model reveal a strongly heterogeneous alongshore pattern of nearshore pH and oxygen in the central CCS, both in their long-term means and trends. This spatial structuring is...

Field courses narrow demographic achievement gaps in ecology and evolutionary biology

Roxanne Beltran, Erin Marnocha, Alexandra Race, Don Croll, Gage Dayton & Erika Zavaleta
Disparities remain in the representation of marginalized students in STEM. Classroom-based experiential learning opportunities can increase student confidence and academic success; however, the effectiveness of extending learning to outdoor settings is unknown. Our objectives were to examine 1) demographic gaps in ecology and evolutionary biology (EEB) major completion, college graduation, and GPAs for students who did and did not enroll in field courses, 2) whether under-represented demographic groups were less likely to enroll in field...

Año Nuevo Island Animal Count: analyzing citizen science pinniped counts from drone imagery

Sarah Wood
Fluctuations in marine mammal abundance can reveal changes in local ecosystem health and inform conservation strategies. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) such as drones are increasingly being used to photograph and count marine mammals in remote locations; however, counting animals in images is a laborious task. Crowd-sourced science has the potential to considerably reduce the time required to conduct these censuses but must first be validated against expert counts to confirm accuracy. Our objectives were to...

Heat flux and temperature at depth beneath InSight landing site through time

Szilard Gyalay, Francis Nimmo, Ana-Catalina Plesa & Mark Wieczorek
The heat flux and thus temperature gradient of the Martian crust is critical for comparison with measurements of crustal properties. This allows for constraints upon the inferred thermal history of Mars. Each file contains the heat flux and temperature at several depths as a function of time after Mars formed, but assuming different crustal properties.

Gardener demographics, experience, and motivations drive differences in plant species richness and composition in urban gardens

Stacy Philpott, Monika Egerer, Peter Bichier, Hamutahl Cohen, Roseann Cohen, Heidi Liere, Shalene Jha & Brenda Lin
Urban agriculture has received considerable attention for its role in supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services, and health and well-being for growing urban populations. Urban gardens managed with agroecological practices and higher plant diversity support more biodiversity and may support higher crop production. Plant selection in gardens is a function of temperature and environmental conditions and also depends on gardener socio-demographic characteristics, motivations for gardening, and gardening experience. In this study, we examined how plant richness...

Data from: Global hotspots for coastal ecosystem-based adaptation

Holly P. Jones, Barry A. Nickel, Tanja Srebotnjak, Will Turner, Mariano Gonzalez-Roglich, Erika Zavaleta & David G. Hole
Helping the world’s coastal communities adapt to climate change impacts requires evaluating the vulnerability of coastal communities and assessing adaptation options. This includes understanding the potential for ‘natural’ infrastructure (ecosystems and the biodiversity that underpins them) to reduce communities’ vulnerability, alongside more traditional ‘hard’ infrastructure approaches. Here we present a spatially explicit global evaluation of the vulnerability of coastal-dwelling human populations to key climate change exposures and explore the potential for coastal ecosystems to help...

Walruses produce intense impulse sounds by clap-induced cavitation during breeding displays

Colleen Reichmuth & Ole Næsbye Larsen
Male walruses produce the longest continuous reproductive displays known in the animal kingdom to convey their individual fitness to potential rivals, and possibly to potential mates. Here we document the ability of a captive walrus to produce intense, rhythmic sounds through a non-vocal pathway involving deliberate, regular collision of the fore flippers. High-speed videography linked to an acoustic onset marker revealed sound production through cavitation, with the acoustic impulse generated by each forceful clap exceeding...

Microsatellite genotypes and extraction plate positions from publication: Genetic structure across urban and agricultural landscapes reveals evidence of resource specialization and philopatry in the Eastern carpenter bee, Xylocopa virginica L.

Kimberly Ballare & Shalene Jha
Human activity continues to impact global ecosystems, often by altering the habitat suitability, persistence, and movement of native species. It is thus critical to examine the population genetic structure of key ecosystem-service providers across human-altered landscapes to provide insight into the forces that limit wildlife persistence and movement across multiple spatial scales. While some studies have documented declines of bee pollinators as a result of human-mediated habitat alteration, others suggest that some bee species may...

Winter-run Chinook salmon resource selection function 2020

Peter Dudley
We use historic aerial redd surveys of Sacramento River winter-run Chinook salmon, coupled with 2D hydraulic modeling, and apply Bayesian, multivariate polynomial, logistic regression to calculate spawning resource selection functions (RSFs) based on water velocity and depth, and examine their interactions with water temperature. Our methods resulted in univariate and multivariate resource selection functions with no interaction between velocity and depth preference, but credible interactions between both velocity and depth preference with changing temperature. Preferred...

Exploring the effects of invasion on plant morphology of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)

Alexander Krohn, Caroline DeVan, Lizz Waring & Liz Shea
This dataset is for use in the CURE titled Effects of Invasion on Plant Morphology of Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). The dataset is meant to be used as a practice, or ready-to-use dataset for instructors so that all instructors can start from the same point with the same data. If you would like to download additional data, or use a species other than L. salicaria, please visit the CUREnet website and download the Data Download...

Ant-scale mutualism increases scale infestation, decreases folivory, and disrupts biological control in restored tropical forests

Andy Kulikowski
Ant-hemipteran mutualisms can have positive and negative effects on host plants depending on the level of hemipteran infestation and plant protection conferred by ants against folivory. Differential effects of such mutualisms on plant survival are well documented in undisturbed and ant-invaded systems, but few have explored how anthropogenic disturbance affects interactions between hemipterans and native ant species and what the consequences may be for recovering ecosystems. Within a fragmented landscape in Costa Rica, restored tropical...

Data from: Krill hotspot formation and phenology in the California Current Ecosystem

Jerome Fiechter
In the California Current Ecosystem (CCE), krill represent a key link between primary production and higher trophic level species owing to their central position in the food web and tendency to form dense aggregations. However, the strongly advective circulation associated with coastal upwelling may spatiotemporally decouple the occurrence and persistence of krill hotspots from phytoplankton biomass and nutrient sources. Results from a physical-biological model provide insights into fundamental mechanisms controlling the phenology of krill hotspots...

Chamorro grammar

Sandra Chung

The case of an arctic wild ass highlights the utility of ancient DNA for validating problematic identifications in museum collections

Alisa Vershinina, Joshua D. Kapp, Gennady Baryshnikov & Beth Shapiro
Museum collections are essential for reconstructing and understanding past biodiversity. Many museum specimens are, however, challenging to identify. Museum samples may be incomplete, have an unusual morphology, or represent juvenile individuals, all of which complicate accurate identification. In some cases, inaccurate identification can lead to false biogeographic reconstructions with cascading impacts on paleontological and paleoecological research. Here we analyze an unusual Equid mandible found in the Far North of the Taymyr peninsula that was identified...

The role of bioturbation-driven substrate disturbance in the Mesozoic brachiopod decline

Matthew Clapham & Marko Manojlovic
Brachiopods dominated the seafloor as a primary member of the Paleozoic fauna. Despite the devastating effects of the end-Permian extinction, the group recovered during the early Mesozoic only to gradually decline from the Jurassic to today. This decline likely had multiple causes, including increased predation and bioturbation-driven substrate disruption, but the role of changing substrate is not well understood. Given the importance of substrate for extant brachiopod habitat, we documented Mesozoic-Cenozoic lithological preferences and morphological...

How climate impacts the composition of wolf killed-elk in northern Yellowstone National Park

Christopher Wilmers, Matthew Metz, Daniel Stahler, Michel Kohl, Chris Geremia & Douglas Smith
1. While the functional response of predators is commonly measured, recent work has revealed that the age and sex composition of prey killed is often a better predictor of prey population dynamics because the reproductive value of adult females is usually higher than that of males or juveniles. 2. Climate is often an important mediating factor in determining the composition of predator kills, but we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of how the multiple facets...

Data From: Ecosystem size shapes antipredator trait evolution in estuarine threespine stickleback

Ben A. Wasserman, Antoine Paccard, Travis M. Apgar, Simone Des Roches, Rowan D.H. Barrett, Andrew P. Hendry & Eric P. Palkovacs
Ecosystem size is known to influence both community structure and ecosystem processes. Less is known about the evolutionary consequences of ecosystem size. A few studies have shown that ecosystem size shapes the evolution of trophic diversity by shaping habitat heterogeneity, but the effects of ecosystem size on antipredator trait evolution have not been explored. Ecosystem size may impact antipredator trait evolution by shaping predator presence (larger ecosystems have longer food chains) and habitat complexity (larger...

Data from: Geographic structuring of Antarctic penguin populations

Jarrod Santora, Michelle LaRue & David Ainley
We hypothesized that regional spatial organization of Antarctic penguin breeding populations was affected by social factors, i.e., proximity and size of adjacent colonies, and by physical factors, i.e., availability of breeding habitat and proximity of polynyas and submarine canyons where prey is abundant. The hypothesis of Furness & Birkhead (1984), that forage competition and density-dependence affect geographic structure of seabird populations, was tested previously for Antarctic penguins when biologging to quantify colony foraging areas was...

Northern elephant seal UAS mass estimates

Roxanne Beltran
Unmanned aerial system (UAS) photogrammetry offers a method that is safer for both animals and researchers and is logistically simpler than traditional weighing methods (Fiori et al. 2017). Additionally, UAS photogrammetry facilitates larger sample sizes because it allows measurement at larger spatial scales, thereby increasing statistical power (Sweeney et al. 2015). However, UAS photogrammetry requires calibration and validation prior to use in order to assess the error relative to known mass measurements. Species-specific calibration of...

An escape theory model for directionally moving prey and an experimental test in juvenile Chinook salmon

Megan Sabal, Joseph Merz, Suzanne Alonzo & Eric Palkovacs
Prey evaluate risk and make decisions based on the balance between the costs of predation and those of engaging in antipredator behavior. Economic escape theory has been valuable in understanding responses of stationary prey under predation risk; however, current models are not applicable for directionally moving prey. Here we present an extension of existing escape theory that predicts how much predation risk is perceived by directionally moving prey. Perceived risk is measured by the extent...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    22

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    21
  • Text
    1

Affiliations

  • University of California, Santa Cruz
    18
  • Seattle University
    2
  • Technical University of Berlin
    2
  • Delaware Museum of Natural History
    1
  • University of Montana
    1
  • University of Washington
    1
  • Utah State University
    1
  • The University of Texas at Austin
    1
  • Northern Illinois University
    1
  • The University of Texas System
    1