39 Works

Pinniped censuses at Año Nuevo, California, 1967-2017

Richard Condit, Patricia Morris & Burney Le Boeuf
Regular pinniped censuses at Año Nuevo Island, California, were initiated by our research group in 1967 to support studies of reproductive behavior of male elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris. Research on elephant seals at the colony has continued since, expanding to cover female behavior, reproductive success, physiology and energetics, migrations and foraging, and more. The other species of pinnipeds, Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubata), California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), and harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), have been...

JAVA software for operating Alvin/Jason Heat Flow Probe

Andrew Fisher, Brecky Morris & Tess Weathers
The Alvin/Jason heat flow probe is operated from a PC (Windows or Mac) using a Java-based program that has a GUI for interaction with probe electronics. This software replaces C-based program that was delivered with the tools in 1996, communicating with the probe using a low-level command language, and allowing the user to monitor system performance during measurement. As described in this document, the system can be tested on the bench before deployment to assure...

A sample of Saturn interior density profiles derived with MCMC and gravity-based likelihood.

Naor Movshovitz, Jonathan Fortney, Chris Mankovich, Daniel Thorngren & Ravit Helled
We ran a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to derive the posterior distribution of density profiles for Saturn, where the likelihood function was a chi-squared distributed distance of each curve's gravity coefficients from the values reported for that planet by the Cassini radio science team (Iess et al., 2019). The result is a large sample of interior profiles of Saturn consistent with observation and minimally constrained by model assumptions. This sample is archived here in sufficiently...

An escape theory model for directionally moving prey and an experimental test in juvenile Chinook salmon

Megan Sabal, Joseph Merz, Suzanne Alonzo & Eric Palkovacs
Prey evaluate risk and make decisions based on the balance between the costs of predation and those of engaging in antipredator behavior. Economic escape theory has been valuable in understanding responses of stationary prey under predation risk; however, current models are not applicable for directionally moving prey. Here we present an extension of existing escape theory that predicts how much predation risk is perceived by directionally moving prey. Perceived risk is measured by the extent...

Northern elephant seal UAS mass estimates

Roxanne Beltran
Unmanned aerial system (UAS) photogrammetry offers a method that is safer for both animals and researchers and is logistically simpler than traditional weighing methods (Fiori et al. 2017). Additionally, UAS photogrammetry facilitates larger sample sizes because it allows measurement at larger spatial scales, thereby increasing statistical power (Sweeney et al. 2015). However, UAS photogrammetry requires calibration and validation prior to use in order to assess the error relative to known mass measurements. Species-specific calibration of...

Data from: Geographic structuring of Antarctic penguin populations

Jarrod Santora, Michelle LaRue & David Ainley
We hypothesized that regional spatial organization of Antarctic penguin breeding populations was affected by social factors, i.e., proximity and size of adjacent colonies, and by physical factors, i.e., availability of breeding habitat and proximity of polynyas and submarine canyons where prey is abundant. The hypothesis of Furness & Birkhead (1984), that forage competition and density-dependence affect geographic structure of seabird populations, was tested previously for Antarctic penguins when biologging to quantify colony foraging areas was...

Microaggressions Self-Defense: A Workshop for Responding to Microaggressions (Handout)

Christy Byrd
Microaggressions are subtle verbal and non-verbal slights based on group membership, and they are ubiquitous in the lives of racial minorities, women, and LGBTQ individuals (Sue 2010). This is a handout accompanying a paper introducing a role-playing based exercise on effective responses to microaggressions. The workshop draws on the two previous prejudice responding workshops of Plous (2000) and Lawson et al. (2010) but integrates research-based strategies.

Data for Drought-Net rainfall shelters did not cause non-drought effects on photosynthesis for California central coast plants.

Michael Loik
Rainfall interception shelters are frequently used to study the ecological consequences of drought. One common shelter design employs V-shaped plastic troughs spaced on a supporting frame to intercept rainfall. Shading, reflection, and infrared radiation may alter the radiative environment under shelters in ways independent of their intended effect on soil moisture. We measured microclimate and several photosynthetic variables for watered potted plants under rain-out shelters and in open-air, unsheltered plots. We tested whether the shelter...

Utilizing field collected insects for next generation sequencing: effects of sampling, storage, and DNA extraction methods

Kimberly Ballare, Nathaniel Pope, Antonio Castilla, Sarah Cusser, Richard Metz & Shalene Jha
DNA sequencing technologies continue to advance the biological sciences, expanding opportunities for genomic studies of non-model organisms for basic and applied questions. Despite these opportunities, many next-generation sequencing protocols have been developed assuming a substantial quantity of high molecular weight DNA (>100 ng), which can be difficult to obtain for many study systems. In particular, the ability to sequence field-collected specimens that exhibit varying levels of DNA degradation remains largely unexplored. In this study we...

Heat flux and temperature at depth beneath InSight landing site through time

Szilard Gyalay, Francis Nimmo, Ana-Catalina Plesa & Mark Wieczorek
The heat flux and thus temperature gradient of the Martian crust is critical for comparison with measurements of crustal properties. This allows for constraints upon the inferred thermal history of Mars. Each file contains the heat flux and temperature at several depths as a function of time after Mars formed, but assuming different crustal properties.

Gardener demographics, experience, and motivations drive differences in plant species richness and composition in urban gardens

Stacy Philpott, Monika Egerer, Peter Bichier, Hamutahl Cohen, Roseann Cohen, Heidi Liere, Shalene Jha & Brenda Lin
Urban agriculture has received considerable attention for its role in supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services, and health and well-being for growing urban populations. Urban gardens managed with agroecological practices and higher plant diversity support more biodiversity and may support higher crop production. Plant selection in gardens is a function of temperature and environmental conditions and also depends on gardener socio-demographic characteristics, motivations for gardening, and gardening experience. In this study, we examined how plant richness...

Data from: Global hotspots for coastal ecosystem-based adaptation

Holly P. Jones, Barry A. Nickel, Tanja Srebotnjak, Will Turner, Mariano Gonzalez-Roglich, Erika Zavaleta & David G. Hole
Helping the world’s coastal communities adapt to climate change impacts requires evaluating the vulnerability of coastal communities and assessing adaptation options. This includes understanding the potential for ‘natural’ infrastructure (ecosystems and the biodiversity that underpins them) to reduce communities’ vulnerability, alongside more traditional ‘hard’ infrastructure approaches. Here we present a spatially explicit global evaluation of the vulnerability of coastal-dwelling human populations to key climate change exposures and explore the potential for coastal ecosystems to help...

CT DICOM studies from: In vivo measurements of lung volumes in ringed seals: insights from biomedical imaging

Holly Hermann-Sorensen, Nicole Thometz, Kathleen Woodie, Sophie Dennison-Gibby & Colleen Reichmuth
This dataset supports: Hermann-Sorensen, H., Thometz, N.M., Woodie, K., Dennison-Gibby, S., and Reichmuth, C. In vivo measurements of lung volumes in ringed seals: insights from biomedical imaging. Journal of Experimental Biology. Marine mammals rely on oxygen stored in blood, muscle, and lungs to support breath-hold diving and foraging at sea. Here, we used biomedical imaging to examine lung oxygen stores and other key respiratory parameters in living ringed seals (Pusa hispida). Three-dimensional models created from...

A comparative study between outcomes of an in-person vs. online introductory field course

Alexandra Race, Maria De Jesus, Roxanne Beltran & Erika Zavaleta
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted many standard approaches to STEM education. Particularly impacted were field courses, which rely on specific natural spaces often accessed through shared vehicles. As in-person field courses have been found to be particularly impactful for undergraduate student success in the sciences, we aimed to compare and understand what factors may have been lost or gained during the conversion of an introductory field course to an online format. Using a mixed methods...

Supporting data for Loik et al. 2017 Wavelength-Selective Solar Photovoltaic Systems: Powering greenhouses for plant growth at the food-energy-water nexus. Earth's Future

Michael Loik
Global renewable electricity generation capacity has rapidly increased in the past decade. Increasing the sustainability of electricity generation and the market share of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require continued cost reductions or higher efficiencies. Wavelength-Selective Photovoltaics (WSPVs) combine luminescent solar cell technology with conventional Silicon-based PV, thereby increasing efficiency and lowering the cost of electricity generation. WSPVs absorb some of the blue and green wavelengths of the solar spectrum but transmit the remaining wavelengths that...

Hydrology, geochemistry, and microbiology data from meter-scale infiltration experiments exploring the impact of a woodchip soil amendment on nitrate removal during infiltration

Sarah Beganskas, Galen Gorski, Tess Weathers, Andrew Fisher, Calla Schmidt, Chad Saltikov, Kaitlyn Redford, Brendon Stoneburner, Ryan Harmon & Walker Weir
We present results from field experiments linking hydrology, geochemistry, and microbiology during infiltration at a field site that is used for managed aquifer recharge (MAR). These experiments measured how a horizontal permeable reactive barrier (PRB) made of woodchips impacted subsurface nitrate removal and microbial ecology. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon consistently increased in infiltrating water below the PRB, but not in un-amended native soil. The average nitrate removal rate in soils below the PRB was...

The case of an arctic wild ass highlights the utility of ancient DNA for validating problematic identifications in museum collections

Alisa Vershinina, Joshua D. Kapp, Gennady Baryshnikov & Beth Shapiro
Museum collections are essential for reconstructing and understanding past biodiversity. Many museum specimens are, however, challenging to identify. Museum samples may be incomplete, have an unusual morphology, or represent juvenile individuals, all of which complicate accurate identification. In some cases, inaccurate identification can lead to false biogeographic reconstructions with cascading impacts on paleontological and paleoecological research. Here we analyze an unusual Equid mandible found in the Far North of the Taymyr peninsula that was identified...

Data From: Ecosystem size shapes antipredator trait evolution in estuarine threespine stickleback

Ben A. Wasserman, Antoine Paccard, Travis M. Apgar, Simone Des Roches, Rowan D.H. Barrett, Andrew P. Hendry & Eric P. Palkovacs
Ecosystem size is known to influence both community structure and ecosystem processes. Less is known about the evolutionary consequences of ecosystem size. A few studies have shown that ecosystem size shapes the evolution of trophic diversity by shaping habitat heterogeneity, but the effects of ecosystem size on antipredator trait evolution have not been explored. Ecosystem size may impact antipredator trait evolution by shaping predator presence (larger ecosystems have longer food chains) and habitat complexity (larger...

Female Breeding Histories at Año Nuevo

R Condit, Joanne Reiter, Patricia Morris & Burney Le Boeuf
The elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) breeding colony at Año Nuevo, California, was founded in 1961, and since monitored closely until the present. Since 1968 a research group at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has studied it in detail. Individually identified females were monitored during the breeding season, and pupping records of many throughout their lifetimes were assembled. We address here the maximum reproductive success of females using the lifetime breeding histories. Females lived to...

Sperm morphology and count vary with fine-scale changes in local density in a wild lizard population

Matthew C Kustra, Ariel F Kahrl, Aaron M Reedy, Daniel A Warner & Robert M Cox
Given that sperm production can be costly, theory predicts that males should optimally adjust the quantity and/or quality of their sperm in response to their social environment to maximize their paternity success. Although experiments demonstrate that males can alter their ejaculates in response to manipulations of the social environment and studies show that ejaculate traits covary with social environment across populations, it is unknown whether individual variation in sperm traits corresponds to natural variation found...

Interspecific and intra-shell stable isotope variation among the Red Sea giant clams

Daniel Killam, Ryan Thomas, Matthew Clapham & Tariq Al-Najjar
The Gulf of Aqaba is home to three giant clam species with differing ecological niches and levels of photosymbiotic activity. Giant clams grow a two-layered shell where the outer layer is precipitated in close association with photosymbiont-bearing siphonal mantle, and the inner layer is grown in association with the light-starved inner mantle. We collected 38 shells of the three species (the cosmopolitan Tridacna maxima and T. squamosa, as well as the rare endemic T. squamosina),...

Understanding forest dynamics by integrating age and environmental change

Kai Zhu
How much carbon a forest ecosystem can sequester is determined by both post-disturbance regrowth and environmentally modified growth. Disturbance causes sharp declines in the short term and is followed by regrowth in the long term. Environmental change may alter carbon accumulation through increasing CO2, nitrogen deposition, and climate change. Regrowth and modified growth occur simultaneously, yet they are usually studied separately and assessed using an additive approach. Alternatively, an interactive approach using hierarchical models can...

How climate impacts the composition of wolf killed-elk in northern Yellowstone National Park

Christopher Wilmers, Matthew Metz, Daniel Stahler, Michel Kohl, Chris Geremia & Douglas Smith
1. While the functional response of predators is commonly measured, recent work has revealed that the age and sex composition of prey killed is often a better predictor of prey population dynamics because the reproductive value of adult females is usually higher than that of males or juveniles. 2. Climate is often an important mediating factor in determining the composition of predator kills, but we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of how the multiple facets...

Isotopic evidence for long-distance connections of the AD thirteenth century Promontory caves occupants

Jessica Metcalfe, John Ives, Sabrina Shirazi, Kevin Gilmore, Jennifer Hallson, Fiona Brock, Bonnie Clark & Beth Shapiro
The Promontory caves (Utah) and Franktown Cave (Colorado) contain high-fidelity records of short-term occupations by groups with material culture connections to the Subarctic/Northern Plains. This research uses Promontory and Franktown bison dung, hair, hide, and bone collagen to establish local baseline carbon isotopic variability and identify leather from a distant source. The ankle wrap of one Promontory Cave 1 moccasin had a δ13C value that indicates a substantial C4 component to the animal’s diet, unlike...

The WeAllWalk Data Set

German Flores & Roberto Manduchi
This data set contains time series from inertial sensors carried by blind subjects walking through pre-determined routes In two buildings in the UCSC campus. The sensors include two MetaWear CPRO (obtaining a tri-axial accelerometer and gyroscope) and two iPhone 6 containing try-axial accelerometer, gyroscopes, and magnetometers. This data set is described in the paper: Flores, German, and Roberto Manduchi. "WeAllWalk: An Annotated Data Set of Inertial Sensor Time Series from Blind Walkers", Proceedings of the...

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