47 Works

Walruses produce intense impulse sounds by clap-induced cavitation during breeding displays

Colleen Reichmuth & Ole Næsbye Larsen
Male walruses produce the longest continuous reproductive displays known in the animal kingdom to convey their individual fitness to potential rivals, and possibly to potential mates. Here we document the ability of a captive walrus to produce intense, rhythmic sounds through a non-vocal pathway involving deliberate, regular collision of the fore flippers. High-speed videography linked to an acoustic onset marker revealed sound production through cavitation, with the acoustic impulse generated by each forceful clap exceeding...

Winter-run Chinook salmon resource selection function 2020

Peter Dudley
We use historic aerial redd surveys of Sacramento River winter-run Chinook salmon, coupled with 2D hydraulic modeling, and apply multivariable polynomial, logistic regression to calculate spawning resource selection functions (RSFs) based on water velocity and depth, and examine their interactions with water temperature. Our methods resulted in univariate and multivariate resource selection functions with interactions between both velocity and depth preference with changing temperature. Preferred depth increased and preferred velocity decreased with increasing temperature.

Supporting data for Loik et al. 2017 Wavelength-Selective Solar Photovoltaic Systems: Powering greenhouses for plant growth at the food-energy-water nexus. Earth's Future

Michael Loik
Global renewable electricity generation capacity has rapidly increased in the past decade. Increasing the sustainability of electricity generation and the market share of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require continued cost reductions or higher efficiencies. Wavelength-Selective Photovoltaics (WSPVs) combine luminescent solar cell technology with conventional Silicon-based PV, thereby increasing efficiency and lowering the cost of electricity generation. WSPVs absorb some of the blue and green wavelengths of the solar spectrum but transmit the remaining wavelengths that...

Hydrology, geochemistry, and microbiology data from meter-scale infiltration experiments exploring the impact of a woodchip soil amendment on nitrate removal during infiltration

Sarah Beganskas, Galen Gorski, Tess Weathers, Andrew Fisher, Calla Schmidt, Chad Saltikov, Kaitlyn Redford, Brendon Stoneburner, Ryan Harmon & Walker Weir
We present results from field experiments linking hydrology, geochemistry, and microbiology during infiltration at a field site that is used for managed aquifer recharge (MAR). These experiments measured how a horizontal permeable reactive barrier (PRB) made of woodchips impacted subsurface nitrate removal and microbial ecology. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon consistently increased in infiltrating water below the PRB, but not in un-amended native soil. The average nitrate removal rate in soils below the PRB was...

The case of an arctic wild ass highlights the utility of ancient DNA for validating problematic identifications in museum collections

Alisa Vershinina, Joshua D. Kapp, Gennady Baryshnikov & Beth Shapiro
Museum collections are essential for reconstructing and understanding past biodiversity. Many museum specimens are, however, challenging to identify. Museum samples may be incomplete, have an unusual morphology, or represent juvenile individuals, all of which complicate accurate identification. In some cases, inaccurate identification can lead to false biogeographic reconstructions with cascading impacts on paleontological and paleoecological research. Here we analyze an unusual Equid mandible found in the Far North of the Taymyr peninsula that was identified...

The role of bioturbation-driven substrate disturbance in the Mesozoic brachiopod decline

Matthew Clapham & Marko Manojlovic
Brachiopods dominated the seafloor as a primary member of the Paleozoic fauna. Despite the devastating effects of the end-Permian extinction, the group recovered during the early Mesozoic only to gradually decline from the Jurassic to today. This decline likely had multiple causes, including increased predation and bioturbation-driven substrate disruption, but the role of changing substrate is not well understood. Given the importance of substrate for extant brachiopod habitat, we documented Mesozoic-Cenozoic lithological preferences and morphological...

Data From: Ecosystem size shapes antipredator trait evolution in estuarine threespine stickleback

Ben A. Wasserman, Antoine Paccard, Travis M. Apgar, Simone Des Roches, Rowan D.H. Barrett, Andrew P. Hendry & Eric P. Palkovacs
Ecosystem size is known to influence both community structure and ecosystem processes. Less is known about the evolutionary consequences of ecosystem size. A few studies have shown that ecosystem size shapes the evolution of trophic diversity by shaping habitat heterogeneity, but the effects of ecosystem size on antipredator trait evolution have not been explored. Ecosystem size may impact antipredator trait evolution by shaping predator presence (larger ecosystems have longer food chains) and habitat complexity (larger...

Female Breeding Histories at Año Nuevo

R Condit, Joanne Reiter, Patricia Morris & Burney Le Boeuf
The elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) breeding colony at Año Nuevo, California, was founded in 1961, and since monitored closely until the present. Since 1968 a research group at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has studied it in detail. Individually identified females were monitored during the breeding season, and pupping records of many throughout their lifetimes were assembled. We address here the maximum reproductive success of females using the lifetime breeding histories. Females lived to...

Sperm morphology and count vary with fine-scale changes in local density in a wild lizard population

Matthew C Kustra, Ariel F Kahrl, Aaron M Reedy, Daniel A Warner & Robert M Cox
Given that sperm production can be costly, theory predicts that males should optimally adjust the quantity and/or quality of their sperm in response to their social environment to maximize their paternity success. Although experiments demonstrate that males can alter their ejaculates in response to manipulations of the social environment and studies show that ejaculate traits covary with social environment across populations, it is unknown whether individual variation in sperm traits corresponds to natural variation found...

Interspecific and intra-shell stable isotope variation among the Red Sea giant clams

Daniel Killam, Ryan Thomas, Matthew Clapham & Tariq Al-Najjar
The Gulf of Aqaba is home to three giant clam species with differing ecological niches and levels of photosymbiotic activity. Giant clams grow a two-layered shell where the outer layer is precipitated in close association with photosymbiont-bearing siphonal mantle, and the inner layer is grown in association with the light-starved inner mantle. We collected 38 shells of the three species (the cosmopolitan Tridacna maxima and T. squamosa, as well as the rare endemic T. squamosina),...

Understanding forest dynamics by integrating age and environmental change

Kai Zhu
How much carbon a forest ecosystem can sequester is determined by both post-disturbance regrowth and environmentally modified growth. Disturbance causes sharp declines in the short term and is followed by regrowth in the long term. Environmental change may alter carbon accumulation through increasing CO2, nitrogen deposition, and climate change. Regrowth and modified growth occur simultaneously, yet they are usually studied separately and assessed using an additive approach. Alternatively, an interactive approach using hierarchical models can...

How climate impacts the composition of wolf killed-elk in northern Yellowstone National Park

Christopher Wilmers, Matthew Metz, Daniel Stahler, Michel Kohl, Chris Geremia & Douglas Smith
1. While the functional response of predators is commonly measured, recent work has revealed that the age and sex composition of prey killed is often a better predictor of prey population dynamics because the reproductive value of adult females is usually higher than that of males or juveniles. 2. Climate is often an important mediating factor in determining the composition of predator kills, but we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of how the multiple facets...

Microhabitats associated with solar energy development alter demography of two desert annuals

Karen Tanner, Kara Moore-O'Leary, Ingrid Parker, Bruce Pavlik, Sophia Haji & Rebecca Hernandez
Political and economic initiatives intended to increase energy production while reducing carbon emissions are driving demand for solar energy. Consequently, desert regions are now targeted for development of large-scale photovoltaic solar energy facilities. Where vegetation communities are left intact or restored within facilities, ground-mounted infrastructure may have negative impacts on desert-adapted plants because it creates novel rainfall runoff and shade conditions. We used experimental solar arrays in the Mojave Desert to test how these altered...

Cordillera Huayhuash Water Quality 2010-2011

Timothy Norris
The Cordillera Huayhuash is the second highest mountain range in the Peruvian Andes and is important for tourism, mining, and local livelihoods. These three economic activities all share an interest in the water quality of the over 50 lakes and associated drainages that exist in the region. Water quality monitoring can help ease tensions between interests from these distinct economic sectors. This dataset reports on two rounds of water quality sampling and testing performed at...

Kenneth D. Mankoff Dissertation Data

Kenneth D. Mankoff

Raw Kinect data (from \"kinect_record\") from subglacial conduit under Hansbreen, Svalbard

Kenneth D. Mankoff

Pinniped censuses at Año Nuevo, California, 1967-2017

Richard Condit, Patricia Morris & Burney Le Boeuf
Regular pinniped censuses at Año Nuevo Island, California, were initiated by our research group in 1967 to support studies of reproductive behavior of male elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris. Research on elephant seals at the colony has continued since, expanding to cover female behavior, reproductive success, physiology and energetics, migrations and foraging, and more. The other species of pinnipeds, Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubata), California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), and harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), have been...

JAVA software for operating Alvin/Jason Heat Flow Probe

Andrew Fisher, Brecky Morris & Tess Weathers
The Alvin/Jason heat flow probe is operated from a PC (Windows or Mac) using a Java-based program that has a GUI for interaction with probe electronics. This software replaces C-based program that was delivered with the tools in 1996, communicating with the probe using a low-level command language, and allowing the user to monitor system performance during measurement. As described in this document, the system can be tested on the bench before deployment to assure...

A sample of Saturn interior density profiles derived with MCMC and gravity-based likelihood.

Naor Movshovitz, Jonathan Fortney, Chris Mankovich, Daniel Thorngren & Ravit Helled
We ran a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to derive the posterior distribution of density profiles for Saturn, where the likelihood function was a chi-squared distributed distance of each curve's gravity coefficients from the values reported for that planet by the Cassini radio science team (Iess et al., 2019). The result is a large sample of interior profiles of Saturn consistent with observation and minimally constrained by model assumptions. This sample is archived here in sufficiently...

An escape theory model for directionally moving prey and an experimental test in juvenile Chinook salmon

Megan Sabal, Joseph Merz, Suzanne Alonzo & Eric Palkovacs
Prey evaluate risk and make decisions based on the balance between the costs of predation and those of engaging in antipredator behavior. Economic escape theory has been valuable in understanding responses of stationary prey under predation risk; however, current models are not applicable for directionally moving prey. Here we present an extension of existing escape theory that predicts how much predation risk is perceived by directionally moving prey. Perceived risk is measured by the extent...

Northern elephant seal UAS mass estimates

Roxanne Beltran
Unmanned aerial system (UAS) photogrammetry offers a method that is safer for both animals and researchers and is logistically simpler than traditional weighing methods (Fiori et al. 2017). Additionally, UAS photogrammetry facilitates larger sample sizes because it allows measurement at larger spatial scales, thereby increasing statistical power (Sweeney et al. 2015). However, UAS photogrammetry requires calibration and validation prior to use in order to assess the error relative to known mass measurements. Species-specific calibration of...

Data from: Geographic structuring of Antarctic penguin populations

Jarrod Santora, Michelle LaRue & David Ainley
We hypothesized that regional spatial organization of Antarctic penguin breeding populations was affected by social factors, i.e., proximity and size of adjacent colonies, and by physical factors, i.e., availability of breeding habitat and proximity of polynyas and submarine canyons where prey is abundant. The hypothesis of Furness & Birkhead (1984), that forage competition and density-dependence affect geographic structure of seabird populations, was tested previously for Antarctic penguins when biologging to quantify colony foraging areas was...

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