8,366 Works

Introduction to flavor physics

Y Grossman
In this set of lectures we cover the very basics of flavour physics. The lectures are aimed to be an entry point to the subject of flavour physics. A lot of problems are provided in the hope of making the manuscript a self-study guide.

Particle Physics Instrumentation

W Riegler
This report summarizes a series of three lectures aimed at giving an overview of basic particle detection principles, the interaction of particles with matter, the application of these principles in modern detector systems, as well techniques to read out detector signals in high-rate experiments.

Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays

MT Dova
The origin of the ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies above E > 10 17 eV, is still unknown. The discovery of their sources will reveal the engines of the most energetic astrophysical accelerators in the universe. This is a written version of a series of lectures devoted to UHECR at the 2013 CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics. We present anintroduction to acceleration mechanisms of charged particles to the highest energies in astrophysical...

LHC Results Highlights

O Gonzalez
The good performance of the LHC provided enough data at 7 TeV and 8 TeV to allow the experiments to perform very competitive measurements and to expand the knowledge about the fundamental interaction far beyond that from previous colliders. This report summarizes the highlights of the results obtained with these data samples by the four large experiments, covering all the topics of the physics program and focusing on those exploiting the possibilities of the LHC.

QCD under extreme conditions: an informal discussion

ES Fraga
We present an informal discussion of some aspects of strong interactions under extreme conditions of temperature and density at an elementary level. This summarizes lectures delivered at the 2013 CERN -- Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics and is aimed at students working in experimental high-energy physics.

2013 CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics

M Mulders & G Perez
The CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lecture notes on the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics, quantum chromodynamics under extreme conditions, cosmic-ray physics, cosmology, recent highlights of LHC results, practical statistics for particle physicists and a short introduction to the principles of particle physics instrumentation.

Particle Physics Instrumentation

W Riegler
This report summarizes a series of three lectures aimed at giving an overview of basic particle detection principles, the interaction of particles with matter, the application of these principles in modern detector systems, as well techniques to read out detector signals in high-rate experiments.

Basics of QCD for the LHC: pp → H + X as a case study

F Maltoni
Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) provides the theoretical framework for any study of TeV scale physics at LHC. Being familiar with the basic concepts and techniques of QCD is therefore a must for any high-energy physicist. In these notes we consider Higgs production via gluon fusion as an example on how accurate and flexible predictions can be obtained in perturbative QCD. We start by illustrating how to calculate the total cross section at the leading order...

Neutrino physics

P. Hernandez
This is the writeup of the lectures on neutrino physics delivered at various schools: TASI and Trieste in 2013 and the CERN-Latin American School in 2015. The topics discussed in this lecture include: general properties of neutrinos in the SM, the theory of neutrino masses and mixings (Dirac and Majorana), neutrino oscillations both in vacuum and in matter, as well as an overview of the experimental evidence for neutrino masses and of the prospects in...

Higgs Physics

C. Grojean
The cause of the screening of the weak interactions at long distances puzzled the high-energy community for more nearly half a century. With the discovery of the Higgs boson a new era started with direct experimental information on the physics behind the breaking of the electroweak symmetry. This breaking plays a fundamental role in our understanding of particle physics and sits at the high-energy frontier beyond which we expect new physics that supersedes the Standard...

An introduction to cosmology

K.E. Kunze
Cosmology is becoming an important tool to test particle physics models. We provide an overview of the standard model of cosmology with an emphasis on the observations relevant for testing fundamental physics.

Relativistic heavy-ion physics: three lectures

L McLerran
These lectures provide an introduction to the physics issues which are being studied in the collisions of ultrarelativistic heavy ions. The lectures are focused on the production of new states of matter. The quark-gluon plasma is thermal matter which once existed in the Big Bang. The colour glass condensate is a universal form of high energy density gluonic matter which is part of a hadron wavefunction and which controls the high-energy limit of strong interactions....

Machine Protection Strategy for LHC Commissioning and Outlook for Future Challenges

B Salvachua, C Bracco, R Bruce, V Chetvertkova, L Ponce, S Redaelli, R Schmidt, J Uythoven, G Valentino, J Wenninger, D Wollmann & M Zerlauth
During Run 2, when operating at 6.5 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing, the LHC will accelerate and store beams with an energy of up to 372MJ. A very tiny fraction of this beam can cause severe damage to accelerator equipment if the energy is released in an uncontrolled way. The note addresses the machine protection considerations for the initial commissioning with and without beam and discusses the required (re-)qualifications for subsequent changes of beam/optics...

BLM Threshold Strategy (UFOs and Quenches)

B Auchmann, T Baer, R Bruce, F Cerutti, B Dehning, L Esposito, EB Holzer, A Lechner, O Picha, S Redaelli, M Sapinski, N Shetty & E Skordis
The interaction of the LHC's proton beam with falling macroparticles (dust) in the beam tube causes beam losses with durations ranging from tens of microseconds to several milliseconds. After the long shutdown, the beam energy will be increased from 4 towards 6.5 TeV, as a consequence of which some of these beam-particle interactions, colloquially called "UFOs", are predicted to cause quenches in superconducting magnets. In-depth experimental and numerical studies have been performed to make the...

Linac4: Progress on Hardware and Beam Commissioning

AM Lombardi
Linac4 has been commissioned, with a temporary source, up to an energy of 12 MeV. The dynamics in the LEBT, in the RFQ and in the chopper line have been verified, as well as the acceleration to 12 MeV with the first DTL tank. Future plans foresee stages of commissioning at the energy of 50, 100 and finally 160 MeV interlaced with periods of installation and followed by a year-long reliability run. In this talk...

Concerns with Low Emittance Beam Operation

V Kain, C Bracco, M Fraser, Y Kadi, A Lechner, F Maciariello, M Maddahi, A Mereghetti, G Steele, F Velotti & J Uythoven
New techniques for the production of 25 ns bunch trains in the LHC injector chain have been successfully tested in the last year of the LHC run 1. These new techniques can produce bunches with unprecedented brightness for bunch intensities similar to the nominal scheme, but with significantly reduced emittances. The material damage potential depends however roughly on the ratio of intensity to emittance. The effect of the new beams in case of impact on...

Nominal Cycle and Options

M Solfaroli Camillocci, M Lamont & J Wenninger
During Run 2 the LHC operation will be based on the experience gained in Run 1. However the LHC will be operated near to its design energy. Many operational configurations can be considered to improve efficiency and reduce the impact of the longer time required by each operational phase. The expected changes in the magnetic model and the impact of the data updates with the corrections calculated during LS1 are presented together with a general...

Beyond the Standard Model

C Csáki & P Tanedo
We introduce aspects of physics beyond the Standard Model focusing on supersymmetry, extra dimensions, and a composite Higgs as solutions to the Hierarchy problem. Lectures given at the 2013 European School of High Energy Physics, Parádfürdo, Hungary, 5 – 18 June 2013.

Detection of Equipment Faults Before Beam Loss

J. Galambos
High-power hadron accelerators have strict limits on fractional beam loss. In principle, once a high-quality beam is set up in an acceptable state, beam loss should remain steady. However, in practice, there are many trips in operational machines, owing to excessive beam loss. This paper deals with monitoring equipment health to identify precursor signals that indicate an issue with equipment that will lead to unacceptable beam loss. To this end, a variety of equipment and...

Machine Protection and Operation for LHC

J. Wenninger
Since 2010 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the accelerator with the highest stored energy per beam, with a record of 140 MJ at a beam energy of 4 TeV, almost a factor of 50 higher than other accelerators. With such a high stored energy, machine protection aspects set the boundary conditions for operation during all phases of the machine cycle. Only the low-intensity commissioning beams can be considered as relatively safe. This document discusses...

Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

S. Redaelli
Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems...

Laser Wakefield Accelerators

Z. Najmudin
The one-dimensional wakefield generation equations are solved for increasing levels of non-linearity, to demonstrate how they contribute to the overall behaviour of a non-linear wakefield in a plasma. The effect of laser guiding is also studied as a way to increase the interaction length of a laser wakefield accelerator.

An Overview of Recent Progress in LaserWakefield Acceleration Experiments

S.P.D. Mangles
The goal of this paper is to examine experimental progress in laser wakefield acceleration over the past decade (2004–2014), and to use trends in the data to understand some of the important physical processes. By examining a set of over 50 experiments, various trends concerning the relationship between plasma density, accelerator length, laser power and the final electron beam energy are revealed. The data suggest that current experiments are limited by dephasing and that current...

Flavour Physics and CP Violation

J.F. Kamenik
These notes represent a summary of three lectures on flavour and CP violation, given at the CERN’s European School of High Energy Physics in 2014. They cover flavour physics within the standard model, phenomenology of CP violation in meson mixing and decays, as well as constraints of flavour observables on physics beyond the standard model. In preparing the lectures (and consequently this summary) I drew heavily from several existing excellent and exhaustive sets of lecture...

CMS: Cosmic muons in simulation and measured data

Lars Sonnenschein
A dedicated cosmic muon Monte-Carlo event generator CMSCGEN has been developed for the CMS experiment. The simulation makes use of parameterisations of the muon energy and the incidence angle, based on measured and simulated data of the cosmic muon flux, taking the energy dependence of the incidence angle into account. The geometry and materiel density of the CMS cavern and access shafts are taken into account, too. The event generator is integrated in the CMS...

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