140 Works

Collider-experiment interface

F. Sanchez Galan, H. Burkhardt, F. Cerrutti, A. Gaddi, J.L. Grenard, L. Krzempek, M. Lino Diogo Dos Santos, J. Perez Espinos, M. Raymond & P. Santos Diaz
The HL-LHC targeted luminosities for the four main experiments will require upgrades of multiple subsystems in In particular, the LHCb experiment subsystems as the vertex locator (VELO), the ring-imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors and the tracking system will undergo a major upgrade in LS2, and its surrounding protection systems will be upgraded with neutral absorbers (TANB) to allow to reach the HL-LHC foreseen peak luminosity as from Run 3. Also, in LS2, ALICE will replace its...

Insertion magnets

E. Todesco & P. Ferracin
In general, magnets will be tested individually in a vertical test station, and then horizontally in the final cold mass assembly within the final cryostat, with the exception of Q2 and D2 whose length does not allow vertical testing. Many power tests will be done in laboratories collaborating with CERN (BNL for vertical test of Q1/Q3, FNAL for horizontal test of Q1/Q3, KEK for vertical test of D1, LASA for vertical test of high order...

List of machine and beam parameters

The Editorial Team
No abstract.

Overview of radiation effects on detector systems

I. Dawson, F. Faccio, M. Moll & A. Weidberg
In this section we give an overview of the effects of radiation on silicon detector systems in the LHC experiments. We divide the sections into: sensors; electronics; optoelectronics; services. While the physics of the energy loss between these categories is similar, the radiation quantities of interest used to evaluate damage are usually different. As an example, sensor radiation studies typically focus on the effects of bulk displacement damage, whereas degradation in electronics is generally more...

The LHC machine and experiments

A. Alici, M. Bomben, I. Dawson & J. Sonneveld
The Large Hadron Collider is a 26.7 km circular accelerator based on a twin aperture superconducting magnet design with a design proton beam energy of 7 TeV. The four particle physics experiments ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb are located around the ring. The LHC was first operated with beams for short periods in 2008 and 2009. In 2010, a first experience with the machine was gained at a beam energy of 3.5 TeV, with moderate...

Precision predictions for Higgs decays in the (N)MSSM

F. Domingo, S. Heinemeyer, S. Paßehr & G. Weiglein
No abstract.

Acknowledgements

No abstract.

Safety

T. Otto, C. Adorisio, C. Gaignant, A. Infantino & M. Maietta
CERN declares in its safety policy that it will ensure the best possible protection in health and safety matters of all persons participating in the Organization’s activities or present on its site, as well as of the population living in the vicinity of its installations, limit the impact of the Organization’s activities on the environment, and guarantee the use of best practice in matters of safety. A safety organisation accompanies the life cycle of every...

Energy deposition and radiation to electronics

F. Cerutti, R. Garcia Alia, G. Lerner, M. Sabaté Gilarte & A. Tsinganis
Proton–proton inelastic collisions taking place inside the four LHC detectors generate a large number of secondary particles with an average multiplicity of approximately 120 per single proton–proton interaction with 7 TeV beams, but with very substantial fluctuations over different events. Moving away from the interaction point (IP), this multiform population evolves, even before touching the surrounding material, because of the decay of unstable particles (in particular neutral pions decaying into photon pairs).

Beam injection and dumping systems

C. Bracco, M.J. Barnes & A. Lechner
The beam transfer into the LHC is achieved by the two transfer lines TI2 and TI8, together with the septum and injection kickers, plus associated systems to ensure the protection of the LHC elements in case of a mis- steered beam. The foreseen increase in injected intensity and brightness for the HL-LHC means that the protection functionality of the beam-intercepting devices (TDI) needs upgrading. In addition, the higher beam current significantly increases the beam-induced power...

Bright muon beams and muon colliders

D. Schulte, M. Palmer, T. Arndt, A. Chancé, J.P. Delahaye, A. Faus-Golfe, S. Gilardoni, P. Lebrun, K. Long, E. Métral, N. Pastrone, L. Quettier, T. Raubenheimer, C. Rogers, M. Seidel, D. Stratakis & A. Yamamoto
Muon collider (MC) technology must overcome several significant challenges to reach the maturity of electron-positron colliders. An increased level of R&D effort is justified at the current time, because the muon collider promises an alternative path toward high-energy, high-luminosity lepton collisions that extends beyond the expected reach of linear colliders. The strong suppression of synchrotron radiation compared to electrons allows beam acceleration in rings making efficient use of the RF systems for acceleration. The overall...

Chapter 2: Higgs and EW Symmetry Breaking Studies

R. Contino Et Al.
This Chapter summarises the physics opportunities for the study of Higgs bosons and the dynamics of electroweak symmetry breaking at the 100 TeV pp collider.

Chapter 4: Heavy Ions at the Future Circular Collider

A. Dainese Et Al.
The Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study is aimed at assessing the physics potential and the technical feasibility of a new collider with centre-of-mass energies, in the hadron–hadron collision mode, seven times larger than the nominal LHC energies. Operating such machine with heavy ions is an option that is being considered in the accelerator design studies. It would provide, for example, Pb–Pb and p–Pb collisions at √sNN = 39 and 63 TeV, respectively, per nucleon–nucleon collision,...

CERN Yellow Reports: Monographs, Vol 2 (2017): Handbook of LHC Higgs cross sections: 4. Deciphering the nature of the Higgs sector

Edited by D. de Florian, C. Grojean, F. Maltoni, C. Mariotti, A. Nikitenko, M. Pieri, P. Savard, M. Schumacher, R. Tanaka CERN-2017-002-M, ISBN (Print) 978–92–9083–442–7, ISBN (PDF) 978–92–9083–443–4

Simulation of radiation environments

A. Alici, I. Azhgirey, I. Dawson, M. Huhtinen, V. Ivantchenko, D. Kar, M. Karacson, S. Mallows, T. Manousos, I. Mandić, A. Di Mauro, S. Menke, P.S. Miyagawa, A. Oblakowska-Mucha, S. Pospisil, T. Szumlak & V. Vlachoudis
Simulating radiation environments is crucial in the design phase of new hadron collider experiments or upgrades, especially when extrapolating to new centre of mass collision energies where previous experience cannot be relied on. The generation of radiation fields in the LHC experiments is dominated by proton–proton collisions, with contributions from beam-gas interactions and other machine losses. It is therefore essential to first reproduce the proton–proton collisions, using Monte Carlo event generators such as PYTHIA8 and...

11 T dipole and new connection cryostat for the dispersion suppressor collimators

F. Savary & D. Schörling
In Run 3 the intensity of the ion beams (usually Pb ions) for ion–ion collisions is planned to be increased by a factor of three: from 40 × 109 to 120 × 109 circulating particles. This intensity increase will amplify the losses in the cold zone at P2 and P7 and may drive the beam induced heat losses in the main dipoles in the dispersion suppressor (DS) region above the quench limit. To avoid limiting...

Electron–positron annihilation processes in MCSANCee

A. Arbuzov, S. Bondarenko, Y. Dydyshka, L. Kalinovskaya, L. Rumyantsev, R. Sadykov & V. Yermolchyk
No abstract.

Cryogenics for the HL-LHC

S. Claudet, G. Ferlin, E. Monneret, A. Perin, O. Pirotte, M. Sisti & R. Van Weelderen
The upgrade of the cryogenics for the HL-LHC will consist of the following: • - The design and installation of two new cryogenic plants at P1 and P5 for high luminosity insertions. This upgrade will be based on a new sectorization scheme aimed at separating the cooling of the magnets in these insertion regions from the arc magnets and considering the newt feedboxes and superconducting links located in underground infrastructures. • - The design and...

Cold powering of the superconducting circuits

A. Ballarino, P. Cruikshank, J. Fleiter, Y. Leclercq, V. Parma & Y. Yang
For the HL-LHC project, a novel concept for the cold powering of superconducting magnets has been developed. It is based on a new type of superconducting lines (hereafter referred to as Superconducting (SC) Links) that have been developed to transfer the current to the new HL-LHC insertion region magnets from remote distances. Power converters and current leads will in fact be located in the new underground areas (UR) excavated for the HL-LHC (technical galleries running...

CERN Yellow Reports: Monographs, Vol. 4 (2020): LHC fixed target experiments: Report from the LHC Fixed Target Working Group of the CERN Physics Beyond Colliders Forum

Corresponding editor: Stefano.Redaelli@cern.ch Several fixed-target experiments at the LHC are being proposed and actively studied. Splitting of beam halo from the core by means of a bent crystal combined with a second bent crystal after the target has been suggested in order to study magnetic and electric dipole moments of short-lived particles. A similar scheme without the second crystal or other schemes with more conventional solid or gas targets have been proposed to study hadronic...

Precision quantum chromodynamics

D. D’Enterria
The unprecedentedly small experimental uncertainties expected in the electron–positron mea- surements at the FCC-ee, key to searches for physics beyond the SM up to Λ ≈ 50 TeV, impose precise calculations for the corresponding theoretical observables. At the level of theoretical pre- cision required to match that of the FCC-ee experimental measurements, the current relevant QCD uncertainties have to be reduced at at least four different levels.

Inclusion of mixed QCD–QED resummation effects at higher orders

G.F.R. Sborlini
In this section, we review some recent results concerning the inclusion of mixed QCD–QED corrections in the computation of physical observables. First, we comment on the extension of the Dokshitzer–Gribov–Lipatov–Altarelli–Parisi (DGLAP) equations to deal with the presence of mixed QCD–QED interactions. We describe the calculation of the full set of higher-order corrections to the splitting kernels, through the Abelianization algorithm. This procedure al- lows us to build the functional form of the QCD–QED corrections, starting...

Scalar one-loop Feynman integrals in arbitrary space–time dimension d – an update

T. Riemann & J. Usovitsch
No abstract.

Unsubtractions at NNLO

J.J. Aguilera-Verdugo, F. Driencourt-Mangin, J. Plenter, S. Ramírez-Uribe, G. Rodrigo, G.F.R. Sborlini, W.J. Torres Bobadilla & S. Tracz
Computations in perturbative quantum field theory (pQFT) feature several aspects that, although intrinsically non-physical, are traditionally successfully eluded by modifying the dimen- sions of space–time. Closed loops in pQFT implicitly extrapolate the validity of the Standard Model (SM) to infinite energies—equivalent to zero distance—much above the Planck scale. We should expect this to be a legitimate procedure if the loop scattering amplitudes that contribute to the physical observables are either suppressed at very high energies,...

Control system

D. Fernandez
No abstract.

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