140 Works

CERN Yellow Reports: Monographs, Vol 7 (2019): Physics of the HL-LHC, and Perspectives at the HE-LHC

Editors: A. Dainese, M. Mangano, A. B. Meyer A. Nisati, G. Salam and M. Vesterinen This report comprises the outcome of five working groups that have studied the physics potential of the high-luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) and the perspectives for a possible future high-energy LHC (HE-LHC). The working groups covered a broad range of topics: Standard Model measurements, studies of the properties of the Higgs boson, searches for phenomena beyond the Standard Model,...

RF systems

R. Calaga, P. Baudrenghien, O. Capatina, E. Jensen & E. Montesinos
The HL-LHC beams are injected, accelerated, and stored to their nominal energy of 7 TeV by the existing 400 MHz superconducting RF system of the LHC. A novel superconducting RF system consisting of eight cavities per beam for transverse deflection (aka crab cavities) of the bunches will be used to compensate the geometric loss in luminosity due to the non-zero crossing angle and the extreme focusing of the bunches in the HL-LHC. Due to doubling...

IT string and hardware commissioning

M. Bajko & M. Pojer
The HL-LHC IT string (IT string) is a test stand for the HL-LHC, whose goal is to validate the collective behaviour of the IT magnets and circuits in conditions as near as possible to the operational ones. Each individual magnet circuit will be powered through a SC link and its associated current leads up to the ultimate operational current while cooled to 1.9 K in liquid helium. The test stand will be installed in the...


I. Dawson
This report documents the knowledge and experiences gained by the LHC experiments in running vertex and tracker detector systems in extreme radiation environments and concludes a series of workshops held at CERN. By the time of the workshops, the last one held on February 2019, the LHC machine had delivered a large fraction of the design luminosity to the experiments and the deleterious effects of radiation on detector performance and operation were being observed and...

HL - LHC acronyms

The Editorial Team
No abstract.

Controls technologies

J. Serrano
By the time of the commissioning and subsequent operation of the HL-LHC, many of the physical elements of the control system will have been upgraded due to obsolescence. This applies particularly to the front and back end CPUs and storage. It is not, however, foreseen that the overall control system strategy and architecture will change in its conceptual structure during this period, and many parts of the current controls infrastructure will still be sufficient for...

Measurements of radiation damage on silicon sensors

J.L. Agram, W. Barter, M. Baselga, M. Battaglia, J. Beyer, H.M. Borecka-Bielska, D. Brzhechko, P. Collins, A. De Cosa, I. Dawson, F. Djama, F. Feindt, A. Grummer, M. Hoeferkamp, J. Hunt, T. Kondo, V. Lima, A. Macchiolo, J. Llorente Merino, K. Mochizuki, B. Nachman, G. Sarpis, S. Seidel, J. Sonneveld, S. Tsuno … & R. Wang
This chapter is organized as follows. Section 5.1 introduces, for each experiment, aspects of the detector set-up and measurement methods particularly relevant for the measurements. Next, the models used to interpret the data are summarized in Section 5.2. Then, in Section 5.3, we present the measurements for the above observables. The chapter ends with discussion and outlook in Section 5.4.

FCC tau polarisation

S. Banerjee & Z. Was
No abstract.

Machine protection

D. Wollmann, R. Denz, B. Lindström, E. Ravaioli, F. Rodríguez Mateos, A. Siemko, J. Uythoven, A. Verweij, A. Will & M. Zerlauth
Since the previous TDR version 0.1, the hardware development has made significant progress. The universal quench detection system, CLIQ and energy extraction system prototypes have been successfully produced and tested and first units have been successfully deployed and used in SM18. This progress is reflected in the Sections below and some of the previously retained options have therefore been removed. In addition, the development of the quench heater power supplies for the HL-LHC is well...

CERN Yellow Reports: Monographs, Vol. 1 (2021): Radiation effects in the LHC experiments: Impact on detector performance and operation

Editor: I. Dawson This report documents the knowledge and experiences gained by the LHC experiments in running detector systems in radiation environments during 2010–2018, with a focus on the inner detector systems. During this time, the LHC machine has delivered a large fraction of the design luminosity to the experiments and the deleterious effects of radiation on detector operation are being observed and measured. It is timely to review the findings from across the experiments....

Infrastructure consolidation

P. Burdelski, F. Dragoni, S. Grau, J-C. Guillaume, D. Jaillet, S. Mcilwraith, M. Polenghi & E. Sanchez
Constructed in 1963, Building 157 is 113 m long and 43 m wide at ground level. The roof is 21.8 m high at the central point above a skylight running longitudinally down its centre; it has a slope of 20% running down to the longitudinal façade summits at 15.6 m. The roof is 47.4 m wide as the longitudinal façades include wings protruding 2.2 m from a height of 7.5 m to the summits, running...

CERN Yellow Reports: Monographs, Vol. 4 (2021): CERN Proton Synchrotron East Area Facility: Upgrades and renovation during Long Shutdown 2

Editors: Johannes Bernhard, Filipa Carvalho, Sébastien Evrard, Erwan Harrouch and Giulia Romagnoli. In this document, we present the upgrade of the East Experimental Area facility which took place during the Long Shutdown 2 (2019–2021). This document covers the renovation of the East Hall beamlines and infrastructure according to a new layout with the goal of improving the magnet and radiation situation in general. The performance of the new beamlines will be optimized in terms of...


D. Newbold
• In accordance with the recommendations of the 2020 update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the European Laboratory Directors Group has completed a year-long process to determine the status and prospects of particle accelerator R&D in five key areas, and has proposed R&D objectives for the next five-to-ten years with an outline delivery plan to achieve them. The analysis and planning have been conducted by five expert panels, with membership from the European...

High-gradient RF structures and systems

S. Bousson, H. Weise, G. Burt, G. Devanz, A. Gallo, F. Gerigk, A. Grudiev, D. Longuevergne, T. Proslier & R. Ruber
Radio frequency (RF) systems are the workhorse of most particle accelerators and achieve high levels of performance and reliability. Despite five decades of improvement the community is still advancing RF performance with several novel developments. The next generation of particle accelerators will likely be still based on RF technology, but will require operational parameters in excess of state of the art, requiring an advanced R&D program. The R&D covers superconducting RF (SRF), normal conducting RF...

R&D programmes oriented towards specific future facilities

P.N. Burrows, A. Faus-Golfe, D. Schulte & S. Stapnes
The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a multi-TeV high-luminosity linear e+e− collider under development by the CLIC accelerator collaboration. The CLIC accelerator has been optimised for three energy stages at centre-of-mass energies 380 GeV, 1.5 TeV and 3 TeV. Detailed studies of the physics potential and detector for CLIC, and R&D on detector technologies, have been carried out by the CLIC detector and physics (CLICdp) collaboration. CLIC provides excellent sensitivity to Beyond Standard Model physics,...

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