This study consists of data on building permits issued in 1980 based on reports submitted by building permit officials in U.S. municipalities (unless otherwise noted). The data include statistics on new construction, additions and alterations, and demolitions authorized by building permits. The variables include: number of families or type of structure; number of buildings; number of rooms; number of units; and cost of construction.
Reproduction Materials for: Despite Appearances: Comparing Emotion Recognition in Abstract and Humanoid Avatars Using Nonverbal Behavior in Social Virtual RealityYilu Sun & Andrea Stevenson Won
PI-Provided Abstract: Poverty is prevalent in the small-farm sector of many developing countries. A large literature suggests that contract farming—a pre-harvest agreement between farmers and buyers—can facilitate smallholder market participation, improve household welfare, and promote rural development. These findings have influenced the development policy debate, but the external validity of the extant evidence is limited. Available studies typically focus on a single contract scheme or on a small geographical area in one country. We generate...
Reproduction Materials for the Chapter: \"The Empirical Analysis of Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Agriculture\" (Handbook of Agricultural Economics)Ariel Ortiz-Bobea
Agriculture is arguably the most climate-sensitive sector of the economy. Growing concerns about anthropogenic climate change have increased research interest in assessing its potential impact on the sector and in identifying policies and adaptation strategies to help farmers cope with a changing climate, but also how to contribute to climate change mitigation. This chapter reviews recent advancements in the analysis of climate change impacts and adaptation in agriculture with an emphasis on econometric and statistical...
PI-Provided Abstract: In 2010, primary school in Malawi began in September, three months earlier than in 2009. We show that this change forced households to sell crops early, when prices are low. The effect is limited to households with school children, increases in the number of children, and is present only for poor households. Households that financed school by selling crops early missed out on an expected 17.3-26.5% increase in output prices over three months....
Immersive virtual reality (VR) has enormous potential for education, but classroom resources are limited. Thus, it is important to identify whether and when VR provides sufficient advantages over other modes of learning to justify its deployment. In a between-subjects experiment, we compared three methods of teaching Moon phases (a hands-on activity, VR, and a desktop simulation) and measured student improvement on existing learning and attitudinal measures. While a substantial majority of students preferred the VR...
This collection contains data relating to social protest and resulting policy innovation in Italy in the 1960s and 1970s. Data were collected from Italian newspapers such as Corriere della Sera, as well as other sources of data. The data tabulate "protest events", which are defined as encounters in which protestors, organized or unorganized, take direct action to disrupt either private or public authority or both to demand changes in policy, benefits, or institutions. The changes...
Reproduction Materials for: Anthropogenic Climate Change Has Slowed Global Agricultural Productivity GrowthAriel Ortiz-Bobea, Toby R. Ault, Carlos M. Carrillo, Robert G. Chambers & David B. Lobell
Agricultural research has fostered productivity growth, but the historical influence of anthropogenic climate change on that growth has not been quantified. We develop a robust econometric model of weather effects on global agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) and combine this model with counterfactual climate scenarios to evaluate impacts of past climate trends on TFP. Our baseline model indicates that anthropogenic climate change has reduced global agricultural TFP by about 21% since 1961, a slowdown that...
This dataset contains characteristics of protest events that occurred in the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vaal area of South Africa between 1970 and 1984. It consists of files representing regional and city-level data. Event characteristics include dates and duration, type of event (for example, boycott, strike, riot, spontaneous meeting), principal actors and their composition or group affiliation, extent of civilian and security force involvement, number of victims, level of violence, and estimated extent of property damage. Contextual variables include...
Student Responses on Critical Thinking Instruments in Biology and Physics in Fall 2020 and Spring 2021Michelle Smith, N.G. Holmes & Ashley Heim
This data was collected to evaluate the efficacy of critical thinking assessment questions to probe students’ critical thinking skills in the context of biology and physics. The researchers used two research-based standardized critical thinking instruments known as the Biology Lab Inventory of Critical Thinking in Ecology (Eco-BLIC) and Physics Lab Inventory of Critical Thinking (PLIC). These instruments provide experimental scenarios and pose questions asking students to evaluate what to trust and what to do regarding...
Cornell National Social Survey is a random-sample survey of adults aged 18 and over. In 2020, participants were asked their opinions on a range of topics.
The Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics has conducted the second round of the Violence Against Women (VAW) survey in 2015. The main objective of the survey was to generate official national statistics on the prevalence of violence against women and to observe the overall situation including the forms of violence along with their magnitude in Bangladesh.
**PI-Provided Abstract**: A growing literature is analyzing the effects of weather on agricultural outcomes. In these studies, constructing weather variables requires researchers to define a “season”, a period over which weather conditions are considered relevant to the outcome. We explore the consequences of assuming an incorrect season in such analyses. We show in simulations that imposing an incorrect season introduces non-classical measurement error in weather regressors, causing unknown biases. We propose an approach to recover...
This study examines trends in couples’ work and earnings in the years following childbirth and the implications of these couple-level processes for changes in aggregate inequality over time. We address critical gaps in the literature regarding how couples sort into marriage and how they negotiate roles within marriage. We use four decades of successive, short-run panels from the Current Population Survey (CPS) to assess changes in husbands’ and wives’ work and earnings following a first...
This experiment examined the effects of social presence and perceived location of a virtual environment on participants’ pain thresholds in a pre-registered, within-subjects experiment. First, we examined the effects of social interaction vs being alone in a virtual environment. Second, we compared a virtual environment representing a remote location to a replication of the lab environment. While the "location" of the virtual environment did affect social presence, such that participants reported greater social presence with...
Cornell National Social Survey is a random-sample survey of adults aged 18 and over. In 2019, participants were asked their opinions on a range of topics.
**PI-Provided Abstract**: Why do leaders of organizations cooperate with players whom they may never transact with again? Such transactions can involve the incentives to exploit the other party because these interactions are not recurrent or embedded in networks. Yet in a market economy, organizational actors learn to cooperate with strangers; otherwise they risk closure from new ideas and business opportunities outside of their local community. With a large random sample of CEOs of manufacturing firms...
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