3,967 Works

KazPV Project: Creation of Production of Photovoltaic Modules in the Republic of Kazakhstan

A. Betekbaev
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Strategic PV Project Development with Strengthened Renewable Energy Governance as a Solution to Sustainable Electrification in Eastern Africa, with Country Focuses of Tanzania and Uganda

E. Ergeneman & D. Gudopp
Solar photovoltaic power plants with their ease of implementation and minimal negative environmental and social impacts can be seen as the potential long-term solution for the rural electrification problem in Eastern African countries, namely Tanzania and Uganda, for reaching their targeted electricity access ratios for the next decades. Appropriate regulation of the renewable energy markets, innovative financing options and effective incentives for Solar PV power generation investments will prove decisive for the pace and extent...

Review of Solar PV Market Development in East Africa

U.E. Hansen, M. Brix Pedersen & I. Nygaard
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The Near Future (2030) Photovoltaic Energy Availability in Africa: Outcomes from a Climate-Aerosols Modelling Exercise

M. Gaetani, T. Huld, E. Vignati, F. Monforti-Ferrario & A. Dosio
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Silicon Solar Cell Emitter Profile Tailoring Using the DOSS Diffusion Technique

R. Chaoui, B. Mahmoudi, A. Messaoud, Y. Si Ahmed, A. Mefoued & Br. Mahmoudi
A tight control of the dopant surface concentration is important during phosphorus emitter diffusion due to the opposite requirements of a lowly doped emitter for good blue response and a sufficiently high surface concentration for a good ohmic contact. The Doped Oxide Solid Source (DOSS) diffusion technique is well suited for fine-tuning of the surface concentration. The sources are made in the laboratory using the standard POCl3 diffusion technique and the source doping level can...

A Promising Approach for Next Generation Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaics

A. Ennaoui
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PECVD Al2O3 for Surface Passivation: a Review of Solar Cell and Thin Layer Characteristics

S. Kühnhold, P. Saint-Cast, M. Hofmann, R. Paramanathan, M. El-Safoury, B. Kafle, D. Kania, L. Weiss, Y. Heo, E. Billot, P. Olwal, J. Rentsch & R. Preu
A review about Al2O3 surface passivation for Si solar cell applications is presented. Whereat, a focus to the industrially relevant deposition technique PECVD is given. Al2O3 was already adapted to several cell concepts including PERC, PERT, TOPCon, EWT and IBC. Latest record cell efficiencies using Al2O3 passivation are summarized in this publication. Further, the passivation mechanism and the structure of Al2O3 are discussed in detail.

Grid Integration of Solar Energy

K. Loudiyi, F.Z. Harmouch, K. Benabdelaziz, H. Darhmaoui & M. Maaroufi
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Securitization of PV-Power Plant Performance - Experience of 1,5 GWp Field Inspections, Failure Analysis, Minimization of Risks

W. Vaassen, U. Hupach, H. Becker & L. Van Rensburg
The economic success in operating photovoltaic systems depends essentially on the possibility of their long-term operation and delivery of the expected energy yield. Twenty to twenty-five years are often presupposed. These are high demands. A precondition is the good quality and long-term stability of the employed products, in particular the PV modules, as well as all other components and materials, and the non-appearance of damages to these items during transport and handling. In addition, the...

The Potential of Available Biomass for Energy Purpose Under Changing Conditions of Environment and Industry

J. Trischler, D. Sandberg & T. Thörnqvist
Wood is a lignocellulosic raw material that is used for a diversity of industrial products. Besides the traditional uses of wood in the construction, pulp- and papermaking and furniture industries, the energy recovery industry based on renewable resources such as wood has been growing strongly during recent years. Like all resources, wood is available only in limited amounts and an increasing demand leads to greater competition among the wood-using industries. By defining a strategic cube...

Demonstration of Handling and Logistics of Torrefied Pellets

T. Ranta, J. Föhr & H. Soininen
In this study torrefaction was demonstrated at a Torrec Ltd. pilot plant located in Mikkeli, eastern Finland. The pilot plant with a nominal capacity of 10,000 tonnes/year began operation in August 2014. The torrefaction solution is based on a vertical reactor, where biomass material flows by gravity without drives or actuators and torrefaction happens by steam inertization and accurate process control. Steam is supplied from the local biomass CHP plant next to the pilot plant....

Storage Stability Studies with Commercially Available Soy Bean Methyl Ester

K. Sirviö, S. Niemi & E. Hiltunen
Commercially available soy bean methyl ester was stored for 12 months. The material of the storing vessel and temperature varied. The materials used were steel and polyethylene and the temperatures 4°C and 20°C. Certain properties related to storing stability were monitored before and after storage. The properties were the ester content, viscosity, acid number and oxidation stability. The amounts of metals (Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Si, V, Zn) were also measured for fresh biodiesel and...

The Wood Pellet Business in Finland

S. Proskurina, J. Heinimö, M. Mikkilä & E. Vakkilainen
Finland is a leading country on European wood pellet markets. Wood pellet production volumes in the country have increased steadily during the last decades. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the current status of the Finnish wood pellet business. The paper identifies the main pellet producers by region and volume and describes domestic demand for wood pellets. The paper is based on a review of published scientific literature, latest Finnish...

Profitability of Drying Wood Chips Integrated into Heat Entrepreneurship

J. Raitila & V-P. Heiskanen
Moisture is the most important quality factor of fuelwood. It affects the profitability of supplying wood chips and the economy of running a heating plant. Most fuelwood is seasoned outdoors, therefore drying depends on the weather, and the desired moisture level of wood cannot always be achieved. To get rid of weather dependency, wood chips can easily be dried in driers connected to a heating plant. Most of the year small and medium-sized heating plants...

Characterisation, Analysis and Comparison of Multiple Biomass Fuels used in Co-Firing Trials

V. Lay, C. Kirk, R. Higginson, S. Hogg & C. Davis
The co-firing of biomass and coal is one method proposed for the reduction of CO2 emissions. This paper compares synthetic laboratory ash of hemp, coal and eucalyptus and their co-ashed blends with deposits formed during the co-combustion of hemp and coal and eucalyptus and coal. Results show that whilst the results are not in complete agreement a trend towards the formation of Ca-silicates, Ca-Mg silicates and K-Al-Silicates at high temperatures is present in both laboratory...

Real Tar Removal over a Fixed Bed of Biomass Char

Z. Abu El-Rub, E.A. Bramer & G. Brem
Tar removal in biomass gasification systems is one of the key challenges to overcome for the successful commercialization of this technology. In this study, the output producer gas from a BFB biomass gasifier was treated in a fixed bed tar cracker that used biomass char as a catalyst. The effect of the char bed temperature on tar conversion, tar composition and the simultaneous biomass char conversion was investigated. The average tar composition of the producer...

Techno-Economic Optimization of the Modification Process of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Adsorbent Material at Laboratory Scale

D.K. Sidiras, F.A. Batzias, C.G. Siontorou, I.G. Konstantinou, G.N. Katsamas, I.S. Salapa & S.P. Zervopoulou
In this work we focus primarily on optimization of biomass modification and adsorption processes and secondarily on desorption, on the basis of techno-economic criteria, such as (a) reduction of the conversion temperature for minimizing the energy cost, and (b) increase of the adsorption rate for reducing processing time so as to minimize the capital cost (estimated through depreciation) and the rest operating cost, provided that the processing time reduction is not associated with additional costs...

Detailed Long-Term Experimental Characterization of a Small-Sized Externally Fired Gas Turbine Power Plant

P. Leoni, M. Paci, N. Rossi, E. Tosi, S. Gasperetti, G. Coraggio & M. Faleni
The Externally-Fired Gas-Turbine (EFGT) technology represents a promising solution for the decentralized use of solid biomass in the power generation. In order to investigate the operating flexibility and the effects of the fuel quality on the operating parameters, EnelIngegneria e Ricerca carried out a detailed long-term experimental characterization of a 70-kWe EFGT power plant with four different biomass fuels: high-quality wood chips, olive kernel, chips of urban green waste, chips of giant reed (Arundodonax L.).For...

A Techno-Economic Analysis of Short Term Production of Renewable Jet Fuels

S. De Jong, R. Hoefnagels, A. Faaij, R. Slade, B. Mawhood & M. Junginger
This paper presents the preliminary results of a comparison of the techno-economic performance of the conversion technologies for the production of renewable jet fuel (RJF). RJF produced via the Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) pathway is currently the best option as it shows the lowest minimum fuel selling price and is produced on a commercial scale already. HTL and pyrolysis emerge as the most economically feasible alternatives for HEFA RJF on the short term.

Short Term Mobilisation of Biomass Potential in Critical Situations

K. Vávrová, J. Weger, J. Knápek &
Methodology for modelling of biomass potential mobilisation is using detailed spatial data and GIS tools. GIS model serves for identification of standard and additional biomass potentials, which can be used in critical situations. Standard biomass potential reflects availability of biomass from agriculture and forest land e.g. energy crops, residual straw and hay which is not used to maintain soil fertility and animal production and smallwood from forest logging. Mobilisation of biomass e.g. additional potential is...

Influence of Gasification and Methanation Parameters on Bio-SNG Production - Comparison of Experiments and Simulation Results

F. Fischer, S. Fendt & H. Spliethoff
Synthetic natural gas (SNG) can be produced by thermochemical gasification of biomass and subsequent catalytic syngas conversion. At the Institute for Energy Systems the complete process chain from biomass to raw-SNG is built up in a small-scale demonstration test rig of 5 kW. It consists of an allothermal fluidized bed gasifier, hot gas cleaning and a fixed bed methanation reactor. Experimental research with this test rig is used to determine the influence of several parameters...

The Method Development Sequex: Bioavailability of Trace Elements for Biogas Production

A. Feher, A. Loewen, T. Fritz & M. Nelles
The significance of the method of sequential extraction for the evaluation of the bioavailability of trace elements in biogas formation process was investigated by supplementation tests (batch tests and semi-continuous tests). According to their bioavailability, eleven nickel compounds were arranged in an order. The shift of nickel concentrations between the fractions while increasing the gas production rate determined by sequential extraction represents assumedly the adsorption process on the cell membrane. We found that the bioavailability...

Sleepy Eye Biogas Energy Biorefinery: Producing Biomethane Fuel for Vehicles, Carbon Dioxide Industrial Gas and Biofertilizers through the Thermophilic Dry Co-digestion of Turkey Litter, Industrial Food Processing Wastes and Crop Residues

J.G. Ingersoll, F.A. Hoover & C.A. Kaendler
The Sleepy Eye Biogas Energy is under development in the City of Sleepy Eye in Brown County, Minnesota. This bio-refinery will process annually a total amount of 200,000 tons of agricultural wastes comprised of turkey litter along with corn silage and corn juice, both from local canning operations, and corn stover from local farms into bio-methane fuel, carbon dioxide as industrial gas and bio-fertilizers through a thermophilic dry anaerobic co-digestion process. Sleepy Eye Biogas Energy...

Time-Integrated GHG Emissions in a Thermochemical Biorefinery Producing Ethanol from MSW in Andalusia

C. Aracil, P. Haro & P. Ollero
Andalusia is a region in the south of Spain where almost the 80% of the municipal solid waste (MSW) generated goes to landfill disposal. There are no waste-to-energy facilities in Andalusia, then the only option to eliminate the non-recyclable and non-compostable fraction of the MSW is landfilling. We propose the use of the MSW refuse converted into refuse derived fuel (RDF) as feedstock in a thermochemical biorefinery producing ethanol and electricity. The objective of this...

Conventional Fast Pyrolysis of Coated Biomass as an Alternative to the Valorization of Natural Thermoset Polymers

A. Moore, H. Grandon, N. Muller, C. Segura, S. Park & M. Carrier
The valorization of secondary streams such as extracted tannins and lignins is a key stage in the development of lignocellulosic biorefineries. Fast pyrolysis that converts biomass into a valuable liquid product is currently of particular interest for chemical production. However, conventional fast pyrolysis of thermoset biopolymers is technically complicate. Because of feeding issues, a new coating preparative method of the Pinus radiata feedstock was used to process a mixture of acid isolated lignin and sawdust...

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