4,444 Works

KazPV Project: Creation of Production of Photovoltaic Modules in the Republic of Kazakhstan

A. Betekbaev

Strategic PV Project Development with Strengthened Renewable Energy Governance as a Solution to Sustainable Electrification in Eastern Africa, with Country Focuses of Tanzania and Uganda

E. Ergeneman & D. Gudopp
Solar photovoltaic power plants with their ease of implementation and minimal negative environmental and social impacts can be seen as the potential long-term solution for the rural electrification problem in Eastern African countries, namely Tanzania and Uganda, for reaching their targeted electricity access ratios for the next decades. Appropriate regulation of the renewable energy markets, innovative financing options and effective incentives for Solar PV power generation investments will prove decisive for the pace and extent...

Review of Solar PV Market Development in East Africa

U.E. Hansen, M. Brix Pedersen & I. Nygaard

The Near Future (2030) Photovoltaic Energy Availability in Africa: Outcomes from a Climate-Aerosols Modelling Exercise

M. Gaetani, T. Huld, E. Vignati, F. Monforti-Ferrario & A. Dosio

Silicon Solar Cell Emitter Profile Tailoring Using the DOSS Diffusion Technique

R. Chaoui, B. Mahmoudi, A. Messaoud, Y. Si Ahmed, A. Mefoued & Br. Mahmoudi
A tight control of the dopant surface concentration is important during phosphorus emitter diffusion due to the opposite requirements of a lowly doped emitter for good blue response and a sufficiently high surface concentration for a good ohmic contact. The Doped Oxide Solid Source (DOSS) diffusion technique is well suited for fine-tuning of the surface concentration. The sources are made in the laboratory using the standard POCl3 diffusion technique and the source doping level can...

A Promising Approach for Next Generation Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaics

A. Ennaoui

PECVD Al2O3 for Surface Passivation: a Review of Solar Cell and Thin Layer Characteristics

S. Kühnhold, P. Saint-Cast, M. Hofmann, R. Paramanathan, M. El-Safoury, B. Kafle, D. Kania, L. Weiss, Y. Heo, E. Billot, P. Olwal, J. Rentsch & R. Preu
A review about Al2O3 surface passivation for Si solar cell applications is presented. Whereat, a focus to the industrially relevant deposition technique PECVD is given. Al2O3 was already adapted to several cell concepts including PERC, PERT, TOPCon, EWT and IBC. Latest record cell efficiencies using Al2O3 passivation are summarized in this publication. Further, the passivation mechanism and the structure of Al2O3 are discussed in detail.

Grid Integration of Solar Energy

K. Loudiyi, F.Z. Harmouch, K. Benabdelaziz, H. Darhmaoui & M. Maaroufi

Securitization of PV-Power Plant Performance - Experience of 1,5 GWp Field Inspections, Failure Analysis, Minimization of Risks

W. Vaassen, U. Hupach, H. Becker & L. Van Rensburg
The economic success in operating photovoltaic systems depends essentially on the possibility of their long-term operation and delivery of the expected energy yield. Twenty to twenty-five years are often presupposed. These are high demands. A precondition is the good quality and long-term stability of the employed products, in particular the PV modules, as well as all other components and materials, and the non-appearance of damages to these items during transport and handling. In addition, the...

Energy from Poultry Manure via Gasification: an Italian Case Study

F. Cotana, V. Coccia, A. Petrozzi & G. Cavalaglio
According with EU Directives, waste management is a major task with respect to the industrial productive cycles. Getting energy from residues can be possible by means of several technologies, to be chosen as a function of the waste main properties. The present paper will present an example of energetic valorization of poultry manure in an innovative gasification thermal power plant (300 kWt). Such experience has been developed by CRB (Biomass Research Center – University of...

Decomposition Modeling Using Thermogravimetry with a Multivariate Approach

A. Persson, P. Holmgren & M. Broström
There exists a need for simple and reliable characterization methods for biomass in several scientific areas. Not many publications report on multivariate statistical treatment of thermogravimetric data, and therefore the objectives of this study were to i) evaluate the potential for using a multivariate statistical approach for modeling degree of decomposition of thermally pretreated wood using data from conventional thermogravimetric analysis, ii) compare the predictions from the multivariate chemometric model with a gaussian curve fit...

Biomass CHP with Micro-Fluidized-Bed Combustion

D. Müller & J. Karl
The high demand for micro scale combined heat and power plants fired with renewable energy sources based on biomass requires new technological concepts. Central issue is the ash melting behaviour of solid biofuels, which leads to fouling of heat exchangers and reduces the reliability during the operation. In this contribution, the concept of linking a Stirling engine with a fluidized bed combustion applied for small-scale combustion is presented. First tests at the Institute of Energy...

Biogas Production from Sewage Sludge and Integrated Solution into a CHP Plant

I. Ionel, I. Neamt & I. Vlaicu
Stabilization of the sludge is a necessity before being removed for storage or subsequent recovery. Purpose of stabilization is to reduce or to eliminate potential decay and bad odours, as well to reduce the pathogen potential. This article focuses on research with issues related to biological stabilization of sludge in Timisoara waste water treatment plant, by anaerobic and aerobic digestion, processes that, in addition to reducing or eliminating pollution risks, offers two very important green...

Biomass Conditioning - Degradation of Biomass during the Storage of Woodchips

S. Heinek, S. Polanz, M.B. Huber, A. Hofmann, G. Monthaler, H.P. Fuchs, C. Larch & A. Giovannini
One big problem of energy production by combustion of woodchips is the storage related loss of biomass. Wood­destroying fungi metabolizing cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are able to cause economic relevant material losses. Beside water content, particle size, height and shape of woodchip piles are important factors that have to be considered. On the basis of two test set­ups and laboratory analyses, the project aims to find an optimized storage and pre­treatment method for woodchips. Biomass...

Zero Fossil Fuel on Galapagos: Floreana Island’s Off Grid Pure Jatropha Oil/ PV Hybrid System: Results on Three Years’ Engine Operation, Emissions, Sustainable Jatropha Oil Production

G. Gruber
After Galapagos Islands suffered from two tank ship accidents causing death of 10,000 marine iguanas and other species, the “Zero Fossil Fuel for Galapagos Islands Initiative” was started by the Ecuadorian Government. On Floreana Island, a 100% renewable energy hybrid system of two 69 kWel. Jatropha oil generators supplied from VWP-Gruber and a 21 kWpeak photovoltaic are successfully providing electricity for the inhabitants since 2010. After 20,000 hours no engine defect occurred and the emissions...

Evaluation of The Sustainability of Biohydrogen Production by Microalgae

A.F. Ferreira & C. Silva
The search for sustainable production of energy from renewable sources is imperative due to the exhaustion of fossil fuels and risk of global warming. Biohydrogen is one of the promise future alternative energy resources. Aiming a future implementation of biohydrogen for use in road transportation, the scale­up is highly relevant to determine the potential of competitiveness of the biohydrogen fuel comparatively to conventional fossil fuels when used in specific road vehicle fleets. In this research...

Intelligent Urban Heating

A. Dyrelund
The world population and cities are growing, and we have to reduce climate gas emissions. We have to use energy more efficient and use more renewable energy, not least biomass in a cost effective way. In cities, district heating is a precondition for large scale and cost effective integration of biomass in combination with the power, gas and district cooling systems and the buildings. Whereas it is a problem to use biomass in small scale,...

Combustion Modeling of a Biomass Packed Bed in Moving Grate Furnaces

N. Troccia, F. Palmieri, F. Gallucci & M. Amalfi
The article presents a 2-D steady state mathematical model developed to simulate woody biomass combustion in moving grate furnaces. The model simulates: moisture evaporation, devolatilization of volatile matter and char formation, heterogeneous reactions of char, mass and heat transfer between solid and gas phase and bed shrinkage. The model gives as results the contour of the mass concentration of moisture, char and ash along the grate. Furthermore, mass concentration, temperature and velocity field of gas...

Using Solid Waste of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Sugar Cane Pretreated with Diluted Acid

N.R. Mori, S. Castro, M.R. Capri & A.R. Gonçalves
Studying the use of sugarcane straw as raw material for bioethanol production, this study aimed to reuse the solid residue of the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane straw pretreated with diluted acid in order to increase cellulosic ethanol production. For this purpose, sugarcane straw was submitted to the pretreatment with H2SO4 (1% w/v) at 120 ° C for 10 minutes. Then, the pretreated material was delignificated with NaOH 1% (w/v) at 100 ° C for 1...

Environmental Life-cycle Analyses of Soy Biodiesel

F. Spina, M.F. Milazzo, P. Primerano & J. Bart
This paper reviews the performance and prospects of soy biodiesel production on a global basis as emerging from some 30 life-cycle assessments relative to the main soybean production areas (USA, Brazil, Argentina and P.R. China). Opportunities have been identified to improve the biodiesel life-cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact. The consequences of large-scale renewable action plans in the European Union and biodiesel mandates elsewhere are critically considered in terms of sustainability.

An Innovative Bio-digester for Biogas Production and Energetic Enhancement in a Little Sized Engine

F. Cotana, A. Petrozzi, V. Coccia, M. Gelosia, G. Cavalaglio & A. L. Pisello
In the Fortress of S. Apollinare di Marsciano, the Biomass Research Centre of the University of Perugia, in cooperation with the Foundation for Agricultural Education in Perugia, Italy, has developed a laboratory for biogas testing and treatments, equipped with systems for dehumidification, desulphurization and continuous monitoring, that are able to analyze the gases contained in biogas and the exhaust post-combustion gases in an engine. The Fortress, currently subjected to an overall intensive retrofit intervention, will...

Sener'’s High Efficiency Biomass Firing Power Plants

J. Fernando Díaz
Approach to SENER High Efficiency Developments and description about how they are implemented to biomass power plants. SENER configurations are well-tested solutions to reduce corrosion/fouling problems and achieve higher efficiency than conventional cycles. High efficiency will make the new facilities more sustainable and enhance the cost/benefits ratio of investments. The experiences in specific projects evidence these solutions very attractive and reliable to developers.

Pressure Resistance During Ventilation of Different Types of Wood Chips as a Function of Particle Size and Particle Form

D. Kuptz, P. Turowski & H. Hartmann
Pressure resistance during ventilation was measured for a high variety of wood chips (n = 95). Samples were produced using different raw materials and chipper settings. Physical fuel properties were analyzed according to European standards (bulk density, particle size distribution) but also by using a continuously measuring image analysis device (particle length, particle form). Pressure resistance (Pa m-1) was measured within a custom build flow cylinder (2 m height, 0.4 m³ filling volume) and was...

A Challenge in the Waste Sector: The Use of Organic Urban Waste for Biomethane Production

D. Rutz, R. Mergner, R. Janssen, U. Hoffstede, H. Hahn, B. Kulišić, R. Bosnjak, M. Kruhek, B. Ribic, D. Sinčič, M. Surowiec, M.A. Nogueira, F. Duarte, M. Do Céu Albuquerque, M. Martins, I. Dzene, M. Niklass, E. Meissner, K. Kalandyk & D. Zapora
The simultaneous energetic use of organic waste, such as municipal solid waste (MSW) and catering/food waste, and the creation of a closed nutrient cycle is one of the main advantages of anaerobic digestion (AD) biogas plants as they turn waste materials to “desirable” feedstock. When compared to other treatment opportunities of the organic fraction of MSW, AD has several advantages. In comparison to waste incineration plants, AD plants usually need lower investments and the distances...

Life Cycle Assessment of Waste to Energy Processes: Incineration and Anaerobic Digestion

A Tawatsin
Municipal solid waste poses environmental and health risks to the community. In selecting methods to deal with the waste, environmental impacts considerations are important criteria. Environmentally sustainable waste management processes should also decrease greenhouse gases. Waste to energy (WtE) processes lessens the use of fossil fuels, reducing greenhouse gases. The research aims to assess the environmental impacts and energy recovery of WtE processes, specifically incineration (combustion of waste) and anaerobic digestion (AD) to select suitable...

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