613,171 Works

Possible Functional Moving Toes Syndrome

Nora Vanegas-Arroyave, Pattamon Panyakaew, Dronacharya Lamichhane, Lisa Shulman & Mark Hallett
Background: Moving toes syndrome has been classically described as an organic movement disorder, on occasion related to peripheral nerve injuries. The association between nerve trauma and movement disorders has become a controversial topic, and the functional etiology of moving toes syndrome has recently been proposed. Case Report: We describe two cases of moving toes syndrome with clinical features typically suggestive of a functional movement disorder. Discussion: The presence of entrainability and distractibility in the described...

Pivot-based Statistical Machine Translation for Morphologically Rich Languages

Ahmed El Kholy
This thesis describes the research efforts on pivot-based statistical machine translation (SMT) for morphologically rich languages (MRL). We provide a framework to translate to and from morphologically rich languages especially in the context of having little or no parallel corpora between the source and the target languages. We basically address three main challenges. The first one is the sparsity of data as a result of morphological richness. The second one is maximizing the precision and...

Conditional Exceedance Probabilities

Simon J. Mason, Jacqueline S. Galpin, Lisa M. Goddard, Nicholas E. Graham & Balakanapathy Rajaratnam
Probabilistic forecasts of variables measured on a categorical or ordinal scale, such as precipitation occurrence or temperatures exceeding a threshold, are typically verified by comparing the relative frequency with which the target event occurs given different levels of forecast confidence. The degree to which this conditional (on the forecast probability) relative frequency of an event corresponds with the actual forecast probabilities is known as reliability, or calibration. Forecast reliability for binary variables can be measured...

Sustainable Hazard Mitigation: Exploring the Importance of Green Infrastructure in Building Disaster Resilient Communities

Jenna Tyler
Natural disasters continue to plague the United States, undermining the nation’s ability to build disaster resilient communities. Although structural and non-structural mitigation measures are currently in place to lessen the impact natural disasters have on society, little attention has been given to the construction of green infrastructure as a sustainable hazard mitigation strategy. The purpose of this article is to explore the benefits of green infrastructure as a sustainable hazard mitigation strategy and offer recommendations...

Design and Optimization of Mobile Cloud Computing Systems with Networked Virtual Platforms

Young Hoon Jung
A Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) system is a cloud-based system that is accessed by the users through their own mobile devices. MCC systems are emerging as the product of two technology trends: 1) the migration of personal computing from desktop to mobile devices and 2) the growing integration of large-scale computing environments into cloud systems. Designers are developing a variety of new mobile cloud computing systems. Each of these systems is developed with different goals...

Investigation of Melting and Solidification of Thin Polycrystalline Silicon Films via Mixed-Phase Solidification

Ying Wang
Melting and solidification constitute the fundamental pathways through which a thin-film material is processed in many beam-induced crystallization methods. In this thesis, we investigate and leverage a specific beam-induced, melt-mediated crystallization approach, referred to as Mixed-Phase Solidification (MPS), to examine and scrutinize how a polycrystalline Si film undergoes the process of melting and solidification. On the one hand, we develop a more general understanding as to how such transformations can transpire in polycrystalline films. On...

Motivation, Language Attitudes, and Globalisation: A Hungarian Perspective

Tanja Angelovska
The volume, Motivation, Language Attitudes and Globalisation: A Hungarian Perspective, written by Dörnyei, Csizér, and Németh, presents the results of a large survey on motivation in second language learning from over 13,000 Hungarian foreign language learners collected in three successive stages during 1993, 1999, and 2004. The objectives of this book were to provide a quantitative statistical analysis on the significance of the relationship between the socio-political changes in Hungary and the variety of interests...

Co-construction of Word Search Activities in Native and Non-native Speaker Interaction

Innhwa Park
This paper examines the co-construction of word search activities between native and non-native speakers of English. Word searching occurs when two interlocutors use joint resources to retrieve a word that is alluding one of the interlocutors in conversation. Word searches are highly prevalent in interaction, often becoming a central activity in non-native discourse. The focus of this article is twofold: first, on the sequential organization of the word search activity, and second, on the public...

Code-Switching in Spanish/English Bilingual Speech: The Case of Two Recent Immigrants of Mexican Descent

Antonieta Turnbull
This study presents the analysis of a home-based interaction between two Spanish/English bilingual sisters. The purpose of the study is to investigate the functions codeswitching plays in this conversation and the role of these functions in the construction of their identity as elite bilinguals. In addition, this study aims to contribute to the body of research that has been conducted to identify the different functions of code-switching in bilingual interaction, particularly with regards to the...

Language Play: Implications for the Second-Language Learner

Tara Tarpey
Although humor and linguistic play are common in authentic speech and ubiquitous in the communicative classroom, language play has received little serious attention in the field of second language acquisition. The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential effects of language play upon second language acquisition in both children and adult learners. Studies by Aronsson and Cekaite (2005), Belz (2002), Bell (2005), Bongartz and Schneider (2003), Broner and Tarone (2001), Lucas (2005), Peck...

Mechanism of Notch Pathway Activation and Its Role in the Regulation of Olfactory Plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster

Simon Kidd & Toby Lieber
The neural plasticity of sensory systems is being increasingly recognized as playing a role in learning and memory. We have previously shown that Notch, part of an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling pathway, is required in adult Drosophila melanogaster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) for the structural and functional plasticity of olfactory glomeruli that is induced by chronic odor exposure. In this paper we address how long-term exposure to odor activates Notch and how Notch in conjunction...

Recombination-Mediated Telomere Maintenance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Not Dependent on the Shu Complex

Paula M. Van Mourik, Jannie De Jong, Danielle Agpalo, Clémence Claussin, Rodney Joel Rothstein & Michael Chang
In cells lacking telomerase, telomeres shorten progressively during each cell division due to incomplete end-replication. When the telomeres become very short, cells enter a state that blocks cell division, termed senescence. A subset of these cells can overcome senescence and maintain their telomeres using telomerase-independent mechanisms. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, these cells are called ‘survivors’ and are dependent on Rad52-dependent homologous recombination and Pol32-dependent break-induced replication. There are two main types of survivors: type I and...

Pathways into STEM Among Low-Income, Urban Immigrant Emergent Bilingual/Multilingual Young Adults: Opportunity, Access, and Persistence

Jeremy Benjamin Heyman
This project builds upon the author's multi-year critical ethnographic study of urban immigrant students and their trajectories into STEM (science, technology, engineering, or mathematics) from high school through their transition to college. At its core, this study investigates the paths of over three dozen newcomer immigrant English language learner students in high-poverty urban neighborhoods who are not generally considered “legitimate contenders” for Bachelor’s degrees in STEM fields on the basis of such characteristics as test...

Dualization and deformations of the Bar-Natan—Russell skein module

Andrea L. Heyman
This thesis studies the Bar-Natan skein module of the solid torus with a particular boundary curve system, and in particular a diagrammatic presentation of it due to Russell. This module has deep connections to topology and categorification: it is isomorphic to both the total homology of the (n,n)-Springer variety and the 0th Hochschild homology of the Khovanov arc ring H^n. We can also view the Bar-Natan--Russell skein module from a representation-theoretic viewpoint as an extension...

A techno-economic and environmental analysis of a novel technology utilizing an internal combustion engine as a compact, inexpensive micro-reformer for a distributed gas-to-liquids system

Joshua Benjamin Browne
Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) contribute to global warming, and must be mitigated. With GHG mitigation as an overarching goal, this research aims to study the potential for newfound and abundant sources of natural gas to play a role as part of a GHG mitigation strategy. However, recent work suggests that methane leakage in the current natural gas system may inhibit end-use natural gas as a robust mitigation strategy, but that natural gas as a...

A draft framework for measuring progress towards the development of a national health information infrastructure

Dean Sittig, Richard Shiffman, Kevin Leonard, Charles Friedman, Barbara Rudolph, George M. Hripcsak, Laura Adams, Lawrence Kleinman & Rainu Kaushal
Background: American public policy makers recently established the goal of providing the majority of Americans with electronic health records by 2014. This will require a National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) that is far more complete than the one that is currently in its formative stage of development. We describe a conceptual framework to help measure progress toward that goal. Discussion: The NHII comprises a set of clusters, such as Regional Health Information Organizations (RHIOs), which,...

Essential Tremor: What We Can Learn from Current Pharmacotherapy

William Ondo
Background: The pathophysiology of essential tremor, especially at the cellular level, is poorly understood. Although no drug has been specifically designed to treat essential tremor, several medications improve tremor, and others worsen it. Studying the mechanism of actions of these medications can help our understanding of tremor pathophysiology and contribute to future rational drug design. Methods: We reviewed literature, concentrating on mechanisms of action, of various medications that mitigate tremor. Results: Many medications have multiple...

Paroxysmal Exercise-induced Dyskinesias Caused by GLUT1 Deficiency Syndrome

Marie Mongin, Nicolas Mezouar, Pauline Dodet, Marie Vidailhet & Emmanuel Roze
Background: Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome is due to de novo mutations in the SLC2A1 gene encoding the glucose transporter type 1. Phenomenology Shown: Paroxysmal motor manifestations induced by exercise or fasting may be the main manifestations of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome. Educational Value: Proper identification of the paroxysmal events and early diagnosis is important since the disease is potentially treatable.

Seroprevalence of Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 and -2 infections among first-time United States Blood Donors 2000-2009

Yun Brenda Chang, Zhanna Kaidarova, Daniel Hindes, Marjorie Bravo, Nancy Kiely, Hany Kamel, Denise Dubay, Barbara Hoose & Edward Murphy
Background: Human T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and –2) are prevalent at low-level among United States blood donors, but recent data on their prevalence is lacking. Methods: Data on all first-time blood donors in a large network of United States blood centers was examined during the period 2000-2009. Anti-HTLV-1 and -2 was measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screening with type-specific confirmation by immunofluorescence or RIBA. Prevalence and odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence...

Rating Hunger and Satiation: Comparing Dieting and Non-Dieting Women

Sharon Braverman
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Dieters would have less variation between their pre and post prandial ratings than Non-dieters. We compared 159 female college students’ hunger and satiety ratings before and after their consumption of a 420 calorie portion of Entemann’s Butter French Crumb Cake and a 9oz cup of water. Dieter status was assigned by questionnaire responses to Lowes’ Diet and Weight History Questionnaire (Lowe, Kissileff, 2005) yielding...

Concurrent Stress and Depressive Symptoms Increase Risk of Myocardial Infarction or Death

Carmela Alcantara, Paul Muntner, Donald E. Edmondson, Monika M. Safford, Nicole Redmond, Lisandro D. Colantonio & Karina W. Davidson
BACKGROUND: Depression and stress have each been found to be associated with poor prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease. A recently offered psychosocial perfect storm conceptual model hypothesizes amplified risk will occur in those with concurrent stress and depressive symptoms. We tested this hypothesis in a large sample of US adults with coronary heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants included 4487 adults with coronary heart disease from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences...

The Defence of French: A Language in Crisis?

Rachel Nisselson
As Robin Adamson explains in The Defence of French: A Language in Crisis?, due to the long history of centralized power and of governmental control of language, the French have a singular relationship with their mother tongue. It is not surprising then that France’s defense of its language is uniquely passionate and uniquely polemical. By referencing past works on the subject, and through her own analysis of the history and current state of the defense...

Mechanistic Modeling of Dose and Dose Rate Dependences of Radiation-Induced DNA Double Strand Break Rejoining Kinetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Igor Shuryak
Mechanistic modeling of DNA double strand break (DSB) rejoining is important for quantifying and medically exploiting radiation-induced cytotoxicity (e.g. in cancer radiotherapy). Most radiation-induced DSBs are quickly-rejoinable and are rejoined within the first 1–2 hours after irradiation. Others are slowly-rejoinable (persist for several hours), and yet others are essentially unrejoinable (persist for >24 hours). The dependences of DSB rejoining kinetics on radiation dose and dose rate remain incompletely understood. We hypothesize that the fraction of...

Traversing the landscape of experimental power

J. Michelle Brock & Kathryn N. Vasilaky
We present an overview of the use of power calculations in experimental economics as well as other disciplines. We review the methodology proposed by the field of economics as well the pitfalls in failing to incorporate power calculations in lab and field experiments. We write this note to further draw attention to the issue, and to make a case that details of power calculations should be reported in experimental economics papers. This note should serve...

The Energetics of El Niño and La Niña

Lisa M. Goddard & S. George Philander
Data from a realistic model of the ocean, forced with observed atmospheric conditions for the period 1953–92, are analyzed to determine the energetics of interannual variability in the tropical Pacific. The work done by the winds on the ocean, rather than generating kinetic energy, does work against pressure gradients and generates buoyancy power, which in turn is responsible for the rate of change of available potential energy (APE). This means interannual fluctuations in work done...

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