2,654 Works

Large-scale Functional Connectivity in the Human Brain Reveals Fundamental Mechanisms of Cognitive, Sensory and Emotion Processing in Health and Psychiatric Disorders

Spiro Pantazatos
Functional connectivity networks that integrate remote areas of the brain as working functional units are thought to underlie fundamental mechanisms of perception and cognition, and have emerged as an active area of investigation. However, traditional approaches of measuring functional connectivity are limited in that they rely on a priori specification of one or a few brain regions. Therefore, the development of data-driven and exploratory approaches that assess functional connectivity on a large-scale are required in...

Takin' It On: Communicating AIDS Through Universal Templates in Guyana

Linnea Marie Carlson
This dissertation is based on an anthropological research project that was conducted over a period of eight months in Guyana, South America. The exploratory study used ethnographic methodologies, including participant observation of voluntary HIV counseling sessions, 50 in-depth interviews with HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients, and 10 in-depth interviews with doctors, nurses, counselors, government officials, and program administrators who work in HIV programs in Guyana. In addition, a range of other HIV program and policy materials...

Disparities in Adequate Mental Health Care for Past-Year Major Depressive Episodes Among White and Non-White Youth

Pierre K. Alexandre, Mustafa Z. Younis, Silvia S. Martins & Patrick Richard
Objective: Following efforts made in recent years to have effective mental health treatments based on evidence-based guidelines, a working-definition of a minimum level of ‘adequate mental health care (AMHC)’ for serious mental illness (SMI) was developed in the literature. However, little is known about racial/ethnic disparities in receipt of adequate mental health care for SMI. The objective of this study was to examine disparities among Whites and non Whites in receiving adequate mental health care...

A New Ethic of Transparency in Charities: The Shared Goal of Journalists and State Regulators

Rick Cohen
Transparency for charities is talked about as a core value of the nonprofit sector, but it is a value articulated more often than practiced. Few aspects of the 501(c) tax status are as stridently defended by nonprofits as the provisions that allow nonprofits to keep much of their core information secret from the public, particularly donors, and other information relatively obscure such as investments. In this author’s experience with organizations ostensibly devoted to disclosure, the...

Centering the Periphery: Manchurian Exile(s) and the North Korean State

Charles K. Armstrong
Kim Il sung and other Manchurian guerrilla veterans who came to dominate North Korean politics after 1945 were profoundly influenced by the experience of their antiJapanese struggle in exile. This influence has shaped the ideology, historiography, and domestic and external policies of the DPRK to the present. At the same time, this exile experience has been given a mythical status in North Korean history, centered on the personality and activities of Kim Il Sung, but...

The Cultural Cold War in Korea, 1945-1950

Charles K. Armstrong
By definition, the cold war was understood on both sides of the conflict to be a global struggle that stopped short of direct military engagement between the superpowers (the U.S. and the USSR). In Europe, the putative center of that struggle, the geopolitical battle lines were fixed after the early 1950s, or they at least could not be altered by normal military means without provoking World War III-which would result in mutual annihilation. Therefore, each...

Trends in the Study of North Korea

Charles K. Armstrong
North Korean leader Kim Jong Il can be criticized for many failings, but if one of his goals has been keeping his country in the global media spotlight, he has been wildly successful. Of course, North Korea gets this international attention for all the wrong reasons: military provocations, a clandestine nuclear program, a bankrupt economy, an atrocious record on human rights, and an eccentric if not deranged leadership. Some of the accusations leveled against North...

Archival Materials Related to the Soong Family at Columbia University

Jim Cheng
An introduction to the archival materials and digital projects that related to the Soong family at Columbia University.

Investor-State Contracts, Host-State \"Commitments\" and the Myth of Stability in International Law

Lise Johnson & Oleksandr Volkov
The paper compares pronouncements in international investment law dispute regarding the stability and enforceability of government “commitments” to foreign investors with doctrines that have been developed in the United States’ domestic law relating to the scope and nature of enforceable “commitments” and the government’s ability to interfere with those commitments through changes to the general framework.

Policy Recommendations for Capital Market Development in China

Alveena Bakhshi
This research covers the role of institutions, instruments and infrastructure in capital market development and contrasts it with that of China in an attempt to recommend policies that would strengthen China's capital markets.

Review of the 2013 MoMA exhibition: \"Henri Labrouste: Structure Brought to Light\"

Dagmar A. Riedel
The 2013 exhibition in New York's Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was part of a Franco-American project that accompanied the recent renovation of Henri Labrouste’s Bibliothèque national de France in Paris. Henri Labrouste (1801–1875) was one of the most important French Romantic architects, and among his most important public buidings are the Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève and the Bibliothèque nationale at the site Richelieu in Paris.

Remembering Joseph Anthony Mazzeo

Teodolinda Barolini
Joseph Anthony Mazzeo, who died on July 6, 1998, is best known to the readers of Dante Studies as the author of two volumes on Dante. Published back to back in 1958 and 1960, these books--Structure and Thought in the 'Paradiso' (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1958) and Medieval Cultural Tradition in Dante's 'Comedy' (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1960)--bear witness to a white-hot period of meditation on Dante and his cultural matrix that took place in...

\"Only Historicize\": History, Material Culture (Food, Clothes, Books), and the Future of Dante Studies

Teodolinda Barolini
The Commedia has produced a prodigious amount of exegesis since the fourteenth century, and consequently one of our tasks is to direct and reassure the responsible young scholar who may think there is nothing left to say. The fact, however, is that there is plenty left to say, in part because for many centuries many commentaries did little more than repeat previous commentaries and in part because the implicit hermeneutic guidelines structured by Dante into...

The Time of His Life: Petrarch's Marginalia and Rerum vulgarium fragmenta 23

Teodolinda Barolini
Petrarch's draft notebooks, MS Vaticano Latino 3196, contain marginalia that often record the date and time of composition of a poem, along with date and time of transcription into Vaticano Latino 3195 (the volume of collected poems that became known to posterity as Canzoniere), interleaved with personal notations. I examine these marginalia, haunting in their immediacy and intimacy, for what they can tell us about Petrarch's poetics, with particular attention to the notations to Nel...

A Tree-Ring-Based Reconstruction of Delaware River Basin Streamflow Using Hierarchical Bayesian Regression

Naresh Devineni, Upmanu Lall, Neil Pederson & Edward R. Cook
A hierarchical Bayesian regression model is presented for reconstructing the average summer streamflow at five gauges in the Delaware River basin using eight regional tree-ring chronologies. The model provides estimates of the posterior probability distribution of each reconstructed streamflow series considering parameter uncertainty. The vectors of regression coefficients are modeled as draws from a common multivariate normal distribution with unknown parameters estimated as part of the analysis. This leads to a multilevel structure. The covariance...

Thailand: Financial Crisis of 1997

Alveena Bakhshi, Dipak Roy, Nataliya Averyanova & Richard Goh
Thailand is widely considered to be where the Asian financial crises began. The examination reveals that Thailand's banking system was not equipped to handle the financial liberalization which began in 1989. And the appreciation of the US dollar against the Yen in 1996 led to the Currency and Banking Financial crises that followed.

Micropatterning of Cells Reveals Chiral Morphogenesis

Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, Mark Guirguis, Kacey Ronaldson & Leo Q. Wan
Invariant left-right (LR) patterning or chirality is critical for embryonic development. The loss or reversal of LR asymmetry is often associated with malformations and disease. Although several theories have been proposed, the exact mechanism of the initiation of the LR symmetry has not yet been fully elucidated. Recently, chirality has been detected within single cells as well as multicellular structures using several in vitro approaches. These studies demonstrated the universality of cell chirality, its dependence...

Engineered Microenvironments for Controlled Stem Cell Differentiation

Jason A. Burdick & Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
In a developing organism, tissues emerge from coordinated sequences of cell renewal, differentiation, and assembly that are orchestrated by spatial and temporal gradients of multiple regulatory factors. The composition, architecture, signaling, and biomechanics of the cellular microenvironment act in concert to provide the necessary cues regulating cell function in the developing and adult organism. With recent major advances in stem cell biology, tissue engineering is becoming increasingly oriented toward biologically inspired in vitro cellular microenvironments...

Controllable Expansion of Primary Cardiomyocytes by Reversible Immortalization

Yue Zhang, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, Edem Nuglozeh, Fatouma Touré & Ann Marie Schmidt
Cardiac tissue engineering will remain only a prospect unless large numbers of therapeutic cells can be provided, either from small samples of cardiac cells or from stem cell sources. In contrast to most adult cells, cardiomyocytes are terminally differentiated and cannot be expanded in culture. We explored the feasibility of enabling the in vitro expansion of primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes by lentivector-mediated cell immortalization, and then reverting the phenotype of the expanded cells back to...

e‐Science Task Force Final Report

James G. Neal & Patricia E. Renfro
In several recent reports and solicitations, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has not only emphasized the importance of shared technological resources for academic work and research in all disciplines, but also pointed out the need to embed resources, tools, and services within a larger system—a cyberinfrastructure (CI). Based on networks, computers, and data storage, a CI’s foundation is the services, software, and human expertise that organize these resources to make them ubiquitously and seamlessly accessible...

Major Dust Events in Europe during Marine Isotope Stage 5 (130–74 ka): a Climatic Interpretation of the \"Markers\"

Denis-Didier Rousseau, M. Ghil, G. Kukla, A. Sima, Pierre Antoine, M. Fuchs, Christine Hatté, F. Lagroix, M. Debret & Olivier Moine
At present, major dust storms are occurring at mid-latitudes in the Middle East and Asia, as well as at low latitudes in Northern Africa and in Australia. Western Europe, though, does not experience such dramatic climate events, except for some African dust reaching it from the Sahara. This modern situation is of particular interest, in the context of future climate projections, since the present interglacial is usually interpreted, in this context, as an analog of...

An Unknown Exegete: Uncovering the Biblical Theology of Elizabeth Barrett Browning

Anthony J. Elia
The present essay provides a survey of a previously unexplored, formative period in the life of the famed Victorian English poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning (EBB). Her personal Bibles (Hebrew, LXX, and Greek New Testament), held in The Burke Library at Union Theological Seminary/Columbia University, have been discovered to contain Barrett Browning’s own extensive handwritten notes. These notes demonstrate that EBB read extensively among the biblical exegetes and scholars of the day, many of whom influenced...

Engineered Microenvironments for Controlled Stem Cell Differentiation

Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic & Jason A. Burdick
In a developing organism, tissues emerge from coordinated sequences of cell renewal, differentiation, and assembly that are orchestrated by spatial and temporal gradients of multiple regulatory factors. The composition, architecture, signaling, and biomechanics of the cellular microenvironment act in concert to provide the necessary cues regulating cell function in the developing and adult organism. With recent major advances in stem cell biology, tissue engineering is becoming increasingly oriented toward biologically inspired in vitro cellular microenvironments...

Cardiac Tissue Engineering

Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic & Milica Radisic
We hypothesized that clinically sized (1-5 mm thick),compact cardiac constructs containing physiologically high density of viable cells (~108 cells/cm3) can be engineered in vitro by using biomimetic culture systems capable of providing oxygen transport and electrical stimulation, designed to mimic those in native heart. This hypothesis was tested by culturing rat heart cells on polymer scaffolds, either with perfusion of culture medium (physiologic interstitial velocity, supplementation of perfluorocarbons), or with electrical stimulation (continuous application of...

Employment Determination in Enterprises Under Communism and in Transition: Evidence from Central Europe

Jan Svejnar, Swati Basu & Saul Estrin
The authors present a comparative analysis of employment determination in four transition economies as they moved from central planning to a market economy in the early 1990s. They use firm-level panel data sets from the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia to estimate dynamic employment equations for the period immediately before and after the start of transition. For the most part, firms appear to have been quick to adjust employment to wage levels, and there...

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