9 Works

GL Transparency: Through a Glass Clearly

Keith Jeffery & Anne Asserson
GL (Grey literature, interpreted here as grey objects) is very heterogeneous in content, form and quality. Most GL objects evolve through a workflow. Some of these phases involve some form of evaluation or peer review, commonly internal within the management structure of an organisation and possibly involving external advice, including from ‘friendly peers’ via an e-preprint mechanism. Unlike white literature the evaluation process commonly is unrecorded and undocumented. This leads to accusations that grey literature...

Auditing Grey in a CRIS Environment

Keith Jeffery & Anne Asserson
We define grey as information that is not peer reviewed scholarly publications. In the CRIS (Current Research Information System) domain Grey includes not only non-peer reviewed publications (typically technical papers) but also performance art, art artifacts, design documents, models (e.g. for engineering or architecture) and – increasingly importantly – research datasets. Recently national governments - inspired by the work of W3C on LOD (Linked Open Data in the context of the Semantic Web) – have...

INTEREST - INTERoperation for Exploitation, Science and Technology

Keith Jeffery & Anne Asserson
This paper addresses the topic of interoperation of Grey resources. The title should be read as INTERoperation for Exploitation, Science and Technology. It builds on work by the authors published in previous GL conferences. The method is architectural analysis and comparison. The costs of the study are negligible, but of course the costs of implementing any solution are considerable. The result/conclusion is that CERIF (Common European Research Information Format) is the essential component to meet...

Hyperactive Grey Objects

Keith Jeffery & Anne Asserson
Previous papers on Grey literature by the authors have described (1) the need for formal metadata to allow machine understanding and therefore scalable operations; (2) the enhancement of repositories of grey (and other) e-publications by linking with CRIS (Current Research Information Systems); (3) the use of the research process to collect metadata incrementally reducing the threshold barrier for end-users and improving quality in an ambient GRIDs environment. This paper takes the development one step further...

Relating Intellectual Property Products to the Corporate Context

Keith Jeffery & Anne Asserson
The knowledge society demands that organizations utilise to the full the IP (intellectual property) they generate and acquire. In a context of research, development and innovation, the IP consists of products, patents and publications (in the widest sense – any stored representation of human intellect). While conventional research publications (white literature) provide much of the visible IP, the ‘submerged part of the iceberg’ is the grey literature. With OA (Open Access) technologies the line between...

Grey in the Innovation Process

Keith Jeffery & Anne Asserson
The research lifecycle has multiple objectives materialised as outputs, outcomes and impacts. Typical outputs are research publications (including grey literature), patents and products such as research datasets and software, many kinds of art or prototype engineering artifacts. Outcomes include patent licence income, value of a company set up to exploit the output or trained research staff. Impacts include employment creation, a commercial product that saves lives or labour or development of a new field of...


Keith Jeffery & Anne Asserson
This paper addresses the place of grey not only in the landscape of information, but also of knowledge, wealth creation and improvement of the quality of life. It builds on work by the authors published in previous GL conferences. The very notion of grey is linked conceptually with dull and dismal. It refers to a concept between recognised states. It is also linked with age and distinction, even the magical (Gandalf the Grey). The hypothesis...

Grey in the R&D Process

Keith G. Jeffery & Anne Asserson
The rate of acquisition of data, its structuring into information and its interpretation as knowledge is increasing rapidly. There are more active researchers now than ever and the output of white publications per researcher is increasing. The output of grey publications is orders of magnitude greater. Past techniques of experts (librarians) cataloguing manually with metadata each publication do not scale. The problem is to find ways to manage this resource. The hypothesis is in 4...

MOSAIC: Shades of Grey

Keith Jeffery & Anne Asserson
Grey literature covers a wide range of artifacts. As indicated in a previous paper (Jeffery and Asserson 2004), the authors consider a grey literature repository in a research-based organisation to record the intellectual property of that organisation. However, this is only usable effectively if the repository contains the grey objects and the metadata is formalised (Jeffery 1999, Jeffery and Asserson 2004) or – better - stored and accessed in a CERIF-CRIS (Common European Research Information...

Registration Year

  • 2020
  • 2019

Resource Types

  • Text


  • University of Bergen
  • Science and Technology Facilities Council
  • Rutherford Appleton Laboratory