131 Works

Digital Humanities and Media History

Huub Wijfjes
Digital humanities is an important challenge for more traditional humanities disciplines to take on, but advanced digital methods for analysis are not often used to answer concrete research questions in these disciplines. This article makes use of extensive digital collections of historical newspapers to discuss the promising, yet challenging relationship between digital humanities and historical research. The search for long-term patterns in digital historical research appropriately positions itself within previous approaches to historical research, but...

Convergent Television and ‘Audience Participation’

Vivi Theodoropoulou
The paper focuses on the introduction of interactive digital television (DTV) in the UK at the turn of the millennium, and its take-up and use by early audiences. It discusses whether the processes of television technological convergence went together with ‘consumer behaviour convergence,’1 enhanced audience engagement with the interactive TV services offered, and participation. Based on findings from a UK-wide survey and in-depth interviews with early Sky digital subscribers conducted during the early days of...

Film Distribution in Occupied Belgium (1940–1944): German Film Politics and its Implementation by the ‘Corporate’ Organisations and the Film Guild

Roel Vande Winkel
The military successes achieved by the Wehrmacht in the first years of World War II, provided Nazi Germany with the opportunity to realise a long-dormant ambition of cultural hegemony. This article, focusing on film distribution in German-occupied Belgium (1940–1944), investigates the concrete steps that were taken to bring this new cultural order into practice and identifies the obstacles the German Propaganda Division (‘Propaganda-Abteilung Belgien’) encountered. Through various measures, the number of Belgian film distributors, and...

Television as a Hybrid Repertoire of Memory

Berber Hagedoorn
In this article, television is reconsidered as a hybrid ‘repertoire’ ofmemory. It is demonstrated how new dynamic production and scheduling practicesin connection with highly accessible and participatory forms of user engagementoffer opportunities for television users to engage with the past, and how suchpractices affect television as a practice of memory. The media platform HollandDoc is discussed as a principal casestudy. By adopting and expanding Aleida Assmann’s model of the dynamics ofcultural memory between remembering and...

The sonic heritage of ecosystems

David Monacchi
This paper discusses the importance of the ‘paleo- soundscapes’ of remote natural habitats as unique footprints of the systemic behaviour of healthy ecosystems and proposes considering them as intangible heritage to be urgently recorded and preserved. The interdisciplinary project Fragments of Extinction has worked toward preserving that ecological heritage through multidimensional sound recording eldwork in primary equatorial rainforests since 2002. The soundscapes of these unique, untouched and undisturbed places – increasingly threatened by human pressure...

"It's Just So Hard to Bring It to Mind"

Hazel Collie
Memory is theorised as constructive and unreliable, while television has been characterised as forgettable and guilty of undermining memory. In a recent series of oral history interviews I asked British women of different generations to tell me their memories of television in the period 1947 to 1989. This article presents some of their memories to demonstrate how, far from undermining memory, television is used a type of memory text for particular life stages.

Multiscreening and Social TV

Alberto Marinelli & Romana Andò
The explosive growth of handheld screen devices has fostered the emergence of new TV consumption practices: “always connected while watching TV” is the expression that best summarizes this transformation. On the one hand, we observe multiscreening practices engendered by the availability of second screen devices, which people use both simultaneously and sequentially while watching. On the other hand, these handheld devices are strengthening the social dimension of the TV-watching experience (Social TV). This paper aims...

TV Goes Social

Luca Barra & Massimo Scaglioni
In recent years, the Italian television scenario has become fully convergent, and social TV is an activity – and a hip buzzword – indicating both a rich set of possibilities for the audience to engage with TV shows, and an important asset developed by the television industry to provide such engagement, with promotional and economic goals. Mainly adopting the perspective of the production cultures of Italian broadcasters, the essay will explore the “Italian way to...

TV Commercials' Second Life

Krystyna Biernawska
The objective of this article is to look at the cultural indicators of television in the Netherlands from the perspective of feature that is essential to commercial TV - audiovisual advertisements. TV advertisements have been continuously gaining recognition as vital part of shared, cultural memory amongst audiences. It is therefore worth looking into the current practices of archiving and reuse of these ephemeral texts, including the digital environment. Once any commercial is removed from its...

Chronology and Ideology

Bosmat Garami
This paper examines two major Israeli historic-documentary television series, PILLAR OF FIRE (POF), product of the 1970's, and REVIVAL (RL), product of the 1990's.The series deal with the Zionist enterprise and its realization. The research applies Gerard Genette's central narratological typology to the series' temporal structures, through the categories of Order, Duration and Frequency. Findings show that while POF's classic, linear, , historicist structure serves its celebration of the Zionist narrative, RL employs a unique,...

`This is what you want, this is what you get´

Mick Newnham
There are limited training options for audiovisual archivists, with most formal courses centred in Europe or the United States of America, but high costs can prevent people working in audiovisual archives from accessing these opportunities. However, there are significant collections of audiovisual heritage spread across the globe, not the least in Southeast Asia and the Pacific region, that are at risk of loss due to a number of factors, including sta competencies. In 1996 audiovisual...

Editorial

Andy O'Dwyer & Tim O'Sulivan
We know little about the ‘behind the scenes’ of television. While the booming field of production studies has been shining a light on the work processes and the personnel in production spaces, there is still a lot to be learnt about the ‘hidden’ professions of television. This issue of VIEW provides a rich but fairly eclectic series of contributions based on the theme.

The Marvelous Clouds: Toward a Philosophy of Elemental Media

Rik Smit
Book review of John Durham Peters. The Marvelous Clouds: Toward a Philosophy of Elemental Media The University of Chicago Press, 2015, 410 pp. ISBN 9780226421353.

Een urgent probleem: conserveren van analoge video en de praktijk van het GAVA

René Duursma & Harry Romijn
Welke strategie heeft het GAVA om het Gronings analoge video-erfgoed beschikbaar te houden voor de toekomst?

Philology in the preservation of audio documents

Federica Bressan
Sound recordings have proven to be irreplaceable primary sources for disciplines like linguistics, musicology, ethnomusicology and sociology. Their fragile physical nature has activated a number of counter-actions aimed at prolonging the life expectancy of their content. Methodological issues have been raised in the past three decades, considering the relationship between the physical object and its (digitized) intangible content, which is not only complex but develops over time. This article re ects on the role of...

Rational Wizards: Audience Interpreters in French Television

Jérôme Bourdon & Cécile Méadel
This paper will tell the story of the smallgroup of people who, in France, have been in charge of the measurement and theappreciation of the audience of television, and had to invent audience research,to organize it and to communicate its results to "clients" whodepended on it much earlier than usually assumed: television managers andprofessionals, public authorities, and, last but not least, advertisers. The paper will explore both change andcontinuity. First, change: the professional origin and...

European Television History Online

Sonja De Leeuw
Increasingly television heritage is being digitized and made accessible to non- industry user, enabling ‘the archival turn’: the study of online archives so as to revisit the dominant discourses in television historiography. This article discusses both conceptual and practical perspectives on online television heritage within a broader European frame- work. It starts from the notion of connectivity, pointing to the development of the archive as a network of connections and continues to address the dynamics...

The Problem of Personality on the Soviet Screen, 1950s-1960s

Simon Huxtable
Over the course of the 1950s and 1960s, Soviet television acquired a growing popularity amongst the public. In a period when its technical and artistic quality remained low, the welcoming presence of TV personalities like Valentina Leont’eva and Iurii Fokin was one key reason for TV’s popularity. In this article, which combines an analysis of selected TV shows with archival documents and press articles, professionals’ discussions over the desirable qualities that personalities needed to possess...

From PSB to Privatisation

Theodora Maniou
In Cyprus the historical evolution of television follows the country's turbulent political history, while clearly depicts the political system's vulnerabilities. This article presents a historical overview of the historical evolution of television in Cyprus, in accordance to the specific historical artefacts that generated a series of disadvantages still reflecting upon private broadcasting. The aim of the article is to present the interrelation between private broadcasting and politics and its current aftermath in Cyprus. Through a...

‘More than a Television Channel’

Hannah Andrews
Obliged by act of Parliament to ‘innovate and experiment’, Channel 4 has, since its birth in 1982, been the UK’s most pioneering commercial television broadcaster. Its arrival broadened the meaning, function and operations of public service broadcasting in the UK, with a particular focus on minorities and pushing boundaries, political and creative. In the late 1990s, though, it was under increasing threat from specialist pay-TV services that could more accurately target its audiences. As a...

The Life and Afterlife of a Socialist Media Friend

Kinga S. Bloch
This paper analyses how the relationship of the Polish audience to a series from the 1970s, Czterdziestolatek (The Fourty-Year Old) evolved during socialism and after the Fall of the Iron Curtain. Contemporary reactions to the original series and a new season that was produced in the early 1990s are compared to nostalgic recollections and memories of the programme in later periods. The study discusses how the Polish audience uses the programme as a historical document...

De poëtica van het verbeelden van geschiedenis op broadcast televisie

Berber Hagedoorn
In modern society, television is one of the most important media for presenting the past. This article focuses on the poetics of history on television broadcasts in relation to the manner in which these broadcasts present our past as well as our collective memory. This study rebuts criticism of television as a medium for historical accounts by demonstrating how professionals in the field actively display an extensive knowledge and understanding of the past, provide frameworks...

Newspaper Video Content

Samuel Negredo
Newspaper websites and online only news operations deliver an increasingly varied and comprehensive offer of original audiovisual content. Videos on Spanish websites cover current affairs and niche interests, complementing the reports supplied by news agencies. The spoken word is a primary mode of expression, in the form of dialogues (interviews and debates) and speeches (comments and analyses), but more complex and visually appealing formats have been developed. Publishers face the challenge of organising these packages...

History In The Backstage Of Romanian Television Archives

Dana Mustata
The historical value of audiovisual archives lies as much in the documented collection they have to offer as in the losses that history has imprinted on them. Controversial material that has been confiscated by the secret police in communist Romania or records of programmes that have been destroyed due to economizing practices of ‘taking the silver out of the pellicle’ are important facts in the history of Romanian television. Equally important for history is the...

Editorial

Dana Mustata
This thematic issue invites its readers to reflect upon two central questions. If we speak about socialist and post-socialist television in Europe, then: What is ‘socialist’ about television in Europe? How do we approach ‘television’ in (post)socialist Europe? These questions come with issues of definition, approach and positioning of this area of study within a broader European agenda.

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