147,196 Works

The ALE/GAGE/AGAGE Network (DB1001)

Ronald Prinn, Ray Weiss, Paul Krummel, Simon O'Doherty & Jens Muhle
In the ALE/GAGE/AGAGE global network program, continuous high frequency gas chromatographic measurements of four biogenic/anthropogenic gases (methane, CH4; nitrous oxide, N2O; hydrogen, H; and carbon monoxide, CO) and several anthropogenic gases that contribute to stratospheric ozone destruction and/or to the greenhouse effect have been carried out at five globally distributed sites for several years. The program, which began in 1978, is divided into three parts associated with three changes in instrumentation: the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment...

Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations from Aircraft for 1972-1981, CSIRO Monitoring Program

David Beardsmore & Graeme Pearman
From 1972 through 1981, air samples were collected in glass flasks from aircraft at a variety of latitudes and altitudes over Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica. The samples were analyzed for CO2 concentrations with nondispersive infrared gas analysis. The resulting data contain the sampling dates, type of aircraft, flight number, flask identification number, sampling time, geographic sector, distance in kilometers from the listed distance measuring equipment (DME) station, station number of the radio navigation distance...

Volcanic Loading: The Dust Veil Index (1985) (NDP-013)

H. Lamb
Lamb's Dust Veil Index (DVI) is a numerical index that quantifies the impact of a particular volcanic eruption's release of dust and aerosols over the years following the event, especially the impact on the Earth's energy balance. DVIs have been calculated for eruptions occurring from 1500 through 1983. The methods used to calculate the DVI have been intercalibrated to give a DVI of 1000 for the eruption of Krakatoa in 1883. The DVI for any...

Annual and Seasonal Global Variation in Total Ozone and Layer-Mean Ozone, 1958-1987 (1991)

J. Angell, J. Korshover & W. Planet
For 1958 through 1987, this data base presents total ozone variations and layer mean ozone variations expressed as percent deviations from the 1958 to 1977 mean. The total ozone variations were derived from mean monthly ozone values published in Ozone Data for the World by the Atmospheric Environment Service in cooperation with the World Meteorological Organization. The layer mean ozone variations are derived from ozonesonde and Umkehr observations. The data records include year, seasonal and...

Carbon-13 Isotopic Abundance and Concentration of Atmospheric Methane for Background Air in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres from 1978 to 1989 (NDP-049)

C. Stevens
This data package presents atmospheric CH4 concentration and 13C isotopic abundance data derived from air samples collected over the period 1978-1989 at globally distributed clean-air sites. The data set comprises 201 records, 166 from the Northern Hemisphere and 35 from the Southern Hemisphere. The air samples were collected mostly in rural or marine locations remote from large sources of CH4 and are considered representative of tropospheric background conditions. The air samples were processed by isolation...

Global and Hemispheric Temperature Anomalies: Land and Marine Instrumental Records (1850 - 2015)

P. Jones, D. Parker, T. Osborn & K. Briffa
These global and hemispheric temperature anomaly time series, which incorporate land and marine data, are continually updated and expanded by P. Jones of the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) with help from colleagues at the CRU and other institutions. Some of the earliest work in producing these temperature series dates back to Jones et al. (1986a,b,c), Jones (1988, 1994), and Jones and Briffa (1992). Most of the discussion of methods given here has been gleaned from...

A Computer-Based Atlas of Global Instrumental Climate Data (DB1003)

Raymond Bradley, Linda Ahern & Frank Keimig
Color-shaded and contoured images of global, gridded instrumental data have been produced as a computer-based atlas. Each image simultaneously depicts anomaly maps of surface temperature, sea-level pressure, 500-mbar geopotential heights, and percentages of reference-period precipitation. Monthly, seasonal, and annual composites are available in either cylindrical equidistant or northern and southern hemisphere polar projections. Temperature maps are available from 1854 to 1991, precipitation from 1851 to 1989, sea-level pressure from 1899 to 1991, and 500-mbar heights...

Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data for 223 Former-USSR Stations (NDP-040)

V. Razuvaev, E. Apasova & R. Martuganov
The stations in this dataset are considered by RIHMI to comprise one of the best networks suitable for temperature and precipitation monitoring over the the former-USSR. Factors involved in choosing these 223 stations included length or record, amount of missing data, and achieving reasonably good geographic coverage. There are indeed many more stations with daily data over this part of the world, and hundreds more station records are available through NOAA's Global Historical Climatology Network...

Six and Three-Hourly Meteorological Observations From 223 Former U.S.S.R. Stations (NPD-048)

V. Razuvaev, E. Apasova & R. Martuganov
This database contains 6- and 3-hourly meteorological observations from a 223-station network of the former Soviet Union. These data have been made available through cooperation between the two principal climate data centers of the United States and Russia: the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), in Asheville, North Carolina, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Centre (RIHMI-WDC) in Obninsk, Russia. The first version of this database extended through the mid-1980s (ending year dependent...

Global and Latitudinal Estimates of del 13C from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture (DB1013)

R. Andres, Greg Marland & Steve Bischof
This database contains estimates of the annual mean value of 13C of CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and cement manufacture for 1860-1992. It also contains estimates of the value of 13C for 1° latitude bands for the years 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 1991, and 1992. These estimates of the carbon isotopic signature account for the changing mix of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being consumed and for the changing mix of petroleum from various...

Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (1950 - 2010) (V.2010)

R. Andres, T. Boden & G. Marland
The monthly, fossil-fuel CO2 emissions estimates from 1950-2010 provided in this database are derived from time series of global, regional, and national fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (Boden et al. 2013), the references therein, and the methodology described in Andres et al. (2011). The data accessible here take these tabular, national, mass-emissions data and distribute them spatially on a one degree latitude by one degree longitude grid. The within-country spatial distribution is achieved through a fixed population...

Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (NDP-058.2011)

R. Andres, T. Boden & G. Marland
The 2011 version of this database presents a time series recording 1° latitude by 1° longitude CO2 emissions in units of million metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1751-2008. Detailed geographic information on CO2 emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions. Global, regional, and national annual estimates for 1751 through 2008 were published earlier (Boden et al. 2011). Those national, annual...

Major World Ecosystem Complexes Ranked by Carbon in Live Vegetation: A Database (NDP-017) (2001 version of original 1985 data)

Jerry Olsen, Julia Watts & Linda Allison
In 1980, this data base and the corresponding map were completed after more than 20 years of field investigations, consultations, and analyses of published literature. They characterize the use and vegetative cover of the Earth's land surface with a 0.5° × 0.5° grid. This world-ecosystem-complex data set and the accompanying map provide a current reference base for interpreting the role of vegetation in the global cycling of CO2 and other gases and a basis for...

Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database (NPD-068)

Sandra Brown, Louis Iverson & Anantha Prasad
A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and...

Grassland Management and Conversion into Grassland: Effects on Soil Carbon

Richard Conant, Keith Paustian & Edward Elliott
Grasslands are heavily relied upon for food and forage production. A key component for sustaining production in grassland ecosystems is the maintenance of soil organic matter (SOM), which can be strongly influenced by management. Many management techniques intended to increase forage production may potentially increase SOM, thus sequestering atmospheric carbon (C). Further, conversion from either cultivation or native vegetation into grassland could also sequester atmospheric carbon. We reviewed studies examining the influence of improved grassland...

Changes in Soil Carbon Following Afforestation

K. I. Paul, P. J. Polglase, J. G. Nyakuengama & P. K. Khanna
Quantifying changes in soil C may be an important consideration under large-scale afforestation or reforestation. We reviewed global data on changes in soil C following afforestation, available from 43 published or unpublished studies, encompassing 204 sites. Data were highly variable, with soil C either increasing or decreasing, particularly in young (<10-y) forest stands. Because studies varied in the number of years since forest establishment and the initial soil C content, we calculated change in soil...

Soil Carbon Sequestration and Land-Use Change: Processes and Potential

W. M. Post & K. C. Kwon
When agricultural land is no longer used for cultivation and allowed to revert to natural vegetation or replanted to perennial vegetation, soil organic carbon can accumulate. This accumulation process essentially reverses some of the effects responsible for soil organic carbon losses from when the land was converted from perennial vegetation. We discuss the essential elements of what is known about soil organic matter dynamics that may result in enhanced soil carbon sequestration with changes in...

Estimated Annual Net Change in Soil Carbon per US County, 1990-2004

Tristram West, Craig Brandt, Bradly Wilson, Chap Hellwinckel, Donald Tyler, Gregg Marland, Daniel De La Torre Ugarte, James Larson & Richard Nelson
These data represent the estimated net change (Megagram per year) in soil carbon due to changes in the crop type and tillage intensity. Estimated accumulation of soil carbon under Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)lands is included in these estimates. Negative values represent a net flux from the atmosphere to the soil; positive values represent a net flux from the soil to the atmosphere. As such, soil carbon sequestration is represented here as a negative value.

Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Cropland Production in the United States, 1990-2004

R. G. Nelson, C. H. Hellwinckel, C. C. Brandt, T. O. West, D. G. De La Torre Ugarte & G. Marland
These data represent energy use and fossil-fuel CO2 emissions associated with cropland production in the U.S. Energy use and emissions occurring on the farm are referred to as on-site energy and on-site emissions. Energy use and emissions associated with cropland production that occur off the farm (e.g., use of electricity, energy and emissions associated with fertilizer and pesticide production) are referred to as off-site energy and off-site emissions. The combination of on-site and off-site energy...

Bibliography on CO2 Effects on Vegetation and Ecosystems: 1990-1999 Literature

Stephanie Wand, Guy Midgley, Jessica Gurrevitch, Larry Hedges, Elizabeth Kellogg & Art Dunham
This database provides complete bibliographic citations (plus abstracts and keywords, when available) for more than 2700 references published between 1990 and 1999 on the direct effects of elevated atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) on vegetation, ecosystems, their components and interactions. This bibliography is an update to Direct Effects of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Plants and Ecosystems: An Updated Bibliographic Data Base (ORNL/CDIAC-70), edited by Boyd R. Strain and Jennifer D. Cure, which covered literature...

FORAST Database: Forest Responses to Anthropogenic Stress (FORAST)

S. McLaughlin, D. Downing, T. Blasing, B. Jackson, D. Pack, D. Duvick, L. Mann & T. Doyle
The Forest Responses to Anthropogenic Stress (FORAST) project was designed to determine whether evidence of alterations of long-term growth patterns of several species of eastern forest trees was apparent in tree-ring chronologies from within the region and to identify environmental variables that were temporally or spatially correlated with any observed changes. The project was supported principally by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with additional support from the National Park Service. The FORAST project was...

Growth and Chemical Responses to CO2 Enrichment Virginia Pine (Pinus Virginiana Mill.) (NDP-009)

R. Luxmoore, R. Norby, E. O'Neill, D. Weller, J. Ells & H. Rogers
From June 28 to October 29 in 1982, Virginia pine seedlings were exposed to elevated CO2 levels in open-top growth chambers at one of four concentrations (75, 150, 300, and 600 ppm above ambient). Plant dry weight; height; stem diameter; and chemical contents of leaf, stem, and root tissues were measured before and after exposure. Soil variables were also characterized. These data illustrate the short-term physical and chemical response of Virginia pine seedlings to elevated...

A Database of Woody Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 (NDP-072)

Peter Curtis, Robert Cushman & Antoinette Brenkert
To perform a statistically rigorous meta-analysis of research results on the response by woody vegetation to increased atmospheric CO2 levels, a multiparameter database of responses was compiled. Eighty-four independent CO2-enrichment studies, covering 65 species and 35 response parameters, met the necessary criteria for inclusion in the database: reporting mean response, sample size, and variance of the response (either as standard deviation or standard error). Data were retrieved from the published literature and unpublished reports. This...

Name that compound: The numbers game for CFCs, HFCs, HCFCs, and Halons

T. Blasing & Sonja Jones
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) contain Carbon and some combination of Fluorine and Chlorine atoms. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) contain Hydrogen, Fluorine, and Carbon (no chlorine). Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) contain Hydrogen, Chlorine, Fluorine, and Carbon atoms. Hydrobromofluorocarbons (HBFCs) contain Hydrogen, Bromine, Fluorine, and Carbon atoms. Perfluorocarbons contain Fluorine, Carbon, and Bromine atoms, and some contain Chlorine and/or Hydrogen atoms. These compounds are often designated by a combination of letters and numbers (e.g., CFC-11, HCFC-142b). In the latter example, the lower-case b...

The Increasing Concentrations of Atmospheric CO2: How Much, When and Why?

Gregg Marland & Tom Boden
There is now a sense that the world community has achieved a broad consensus that: 1.) the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is increasing, 2.) this increase is due largely to the combustion of fossil fuels, and 3.) this increase is likely to lead to changes in the global climate. This consensus is sufficiently strong that virtually all countries are involved in trying to achieve a functioning agreement on how to confront, and mitigate,...

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