129,205 Works

Phylogenetic and Spatial Distribution of Evolutionary Isolation and Threat in Turtles and Crocodilians (Non-Avian Archosauromorphs)

Timothy J. Colston, Pallavi Kulkarni, Walter Jetz & R. Alexander Pyron
The origin of turtles and crocodiles and their easily recognized body forms dates to the Triassic. Despite their long-term success, extant species diversity is low, and endangerment is extremely high compared to other terrestrial vertebrate groups, with ~ 65% of ~25 crocodilian and ~360 turtle species now threatened by exploitation and habitat loss. Here, we combine available molecular and morphological evidence with machine learning algorithms to present a phylogenetically-informed, comprehensive assessment of diversification, threat status,...
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The Burgess Shale paleocommunity with new insights from Marble Canyon, British Columbia

Karma Nanglu, Jean-Bernard Caron & Robert Gaines
The middle (Wuliuan Stage) Cambrian Burgess Shale is famous for its exceptional preservation of diverse and abundant soft-bodied animals through the “thick” Stephen Formation. However, with the exception of the Walcott Quarry (Fossil Ridge) and the stratigraphically older Tulip Beds (Mount Stephen) which are both in Yoho National Park (British Columbia), quantitative assessments of the Burgess Shale have remained limited. Here we first provide a detailed quantitative overview of the diversity and structure of the...
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Integrating climate adaptation and biodiversity conservation in the global ocean

Derek Tittensor, Maria Beger, Kristina Boerder, Daniel Boyce, Rachel Cavanagh, Aurelie Cosandey-Godin, Guillermo Crespo, Daniel Dunn, Wildan Ghiffary, Susie Grant, Lee Hannah, Pat Halpin, Mike Harfoot, Susan Heaslip, Nicholas Jeffery, Naomi Kingston, Heike Lotze, Jennifer McGowan, Elizabeth McLeod, Chris McOwen, Bethan O'Leary, Laurenne Schiller, Ryan Stanley, Maxine Westhead, Kristen Wilson … & Boris Worm
The impacts of climate change and the socioecological challenges they present are ubiquitous and increasingly severe. Practical efforts to operationalize climate-responsive design and management in the global network of marine protected areas (MPAs) are required to ensure long-term effectiveness for safeguarding marine biodiversity and ecosystem services. Here, we review progress in integrating climate change adaptation into MPA design and management and provide eight recommendations to expedite this process. Climate-smart management objectives should become the default...
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Habitats of Pleistocene megaherbivores reconstructed from the frozen fauna remains

Irena Axmanová, Jan Robovský, Lubomír Tichý, Jiri Danihelka, Elena Troeva, Albert Protopopov & Milan Chytrý
The Late Pleistocene landscape in northern Eurasia and North America was inhabited by a specific megafaunal complex, which largely disappeared during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition. Vegetation changes are considered as one of the factors responsible for these extinctions, but the structure and composition of the Pleistocene vegetation are still poorly known. Here we complement previous studies by comparing the taxonomic composition of the plant remains found in the gastrointestinal tracts of the frozen carcasses of Pleistocene...
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Population fragmentation drives up genetic diversity in signals of individual identity

Calvin Dytham & Michael Thom
Many species advertise their unique identity to conspecifics using dedicated individuality signals: one familiar example is human faces. But how unique in the global population do these signals need to be? While human faces are highly variable, each person interacts with many fewer individuals than are found in the total population. This raises the question of how evolutionary mechanisms drive up population-wide diversity when selection occurs at such a local level. We use an individual-based...
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Data from: Plant-microbial interactions facilitate grassland species coexistence at the community level

Kun Wang
Interspecific competition and plant-soil feedbacks are powerful drivers of plant community structure. However, across a range of edaphic conditions the interactive effects of these drivers on complex plant communities remain unclear. For example, plant-soil feedback studies focus on soil trained by a single plant species. We developed a method to assess effects of plant-microbial interactions (PMI) on a complex plant community. We established mesocosms with 13 grassland species, grown individually or together, in overgrazed or...
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Seed mass, hardness and phylogeny determine the potential for endozoochory by granivorous waterbirds

Ádám Lovas-Kiss, Orsolya Vincze, Erik Kleyheeg, Gábor Sramkó, Levente Laczkó, Réka Fekete, Attila Molnár V. & Andy Green
Field studies have shown that waterbirds, especially members of the Anatidae family, are major vectors of dispersal for a broad range of plants whose propagules can survive gut passage. Widely adopted dispersal syndromes ignore this dispersal mechanism, and we currently have little understanding of what traits determine the potential of angiosperms for endozoochory by waterbirds. Results from previous experimental studies have been inconsistent as to how seed traits affect seed survival and retention time in...
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Data from: Biogeography and anthropogenic impact shape the success of invasive wasps on New Zealand’s offshore islands

Julia Schmack
Aim The theory of island biogeography predicts that the susceptibility of an island to invasion is determined by its isolation and size. However, many island ecosystems have been intensely modified by humans. Here, we investigated the biogeographic, biotic and anthropogenic drivers of invasive social wasps on 36 offshore islands. Location Islands off the east coast of New Zealand’s North Island. Taxa Vespula germanica (Fabricius, 1793), Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus, 1758) and Polistes chinensis antennalis (Fabricius, 1793),...
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Radio-tracking reveals insight into survival and dynamic habitat selection of fledgling Cerulean Warblers

Douglas Raybuck, Scott Stoleson, Jeffery Larkin & Than Boves
The Cerulean Warbler is a declining Nearctic-Neotropical migrant species of concern that breeds in hardwood forests of the eastern United States and Canada. While much knowledge has been gained about the nesting period of this canopy species, little is known about the post-fledging period. During the 2014 and 2015 breeding seasons, after locating and monitoring nests within a matrix of habitat conditions created by various forest management strategies in NW Pennsylvania, USA, we captured fledglings...
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Data from: Experimental trait mis-matches uncover specificity of evolutionary links between multiple signaling traits and their interactions in hummingbirds

Richard K. Simpson & Kevin J. McGraw
Many animal signals co-occur, and these signals may co-evolve due to their interactive properties. Previous work has demonstrated ecological drivers of evolutionary relationships between signals and the environment, which leads to questions about why specific signal pairs evolved among species that possess multiple signals. We asked whether the coloration of different species was optimized for presentation with its natural behavioral display. We investigated this in “bee” hummingbirds, where males exhibit angle-dependent structurally colored plumage and...
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Bats use live fences to move between tropical dry forest remnants

Jose G. Martinez-Fonseca, Marlon Chavez-Velasquez, Kimberly Williams-Guillen & Carol Chambers
Linear features can benefit wildlife by assisting animal movement. We captured bats along barbed-wire and live-tree fences connecting Tropical Dry Forest patches in Nicaragua. Bat species richness and captures were higher along live fences but we noted differences in sex ratios, richness, and species composition compared to surrounding natural forests.
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Low adaptive potential for tolerance to ethynylestradiol, but also low toxicity, in a grayling population (Thymallus thymallus)

Lucas Marques Da Cunha, Diane Maitre & Claus Wedekind
Background: The presence of a novel pollutant can induce rapid evolution if there is additive genetic variance for the tolerance to the stressor. Continuous selection over some generations can then reduce the toxicity of the pollutant but also deplete the additive genetic variance for the tolerance and thereby slow down adaptation. One common pollutant that has been ecologically relevant for some time is 17alpha-ethynyestradiol (EE2), a synthetic compound of oral contraceptives since their market launch...
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Data from: Removal of cattle accelerates tropical dry forests succession in Northwestern Mexico

Leonel Lopez-Toledo, Abdieel Quisehuatl-Medina, Joshua Averet & Bryan Endress
Domestic livestock influence patterns of secondary succession across forest ecosystems. However, the effects of cattle on the regeneration of tropical dry forests (TDF) in Mexico are poorly understood, largely because it is difficult to locate forests that are not grazed by cattle or other livestock. We describe changes in forest composition and structure along a successional chronosequence of TDF stands with and without cattle (chronic grazing or exclusion from grazing for ~8 yr). Forest stands...
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Plant responses to diversity-driven selection and associated rhizosphere microbial communities

Cameron Wagg, Terhi Hahl, Sofia Van Moorsel, Marc Schmid, Debra Zuppinger-Dingley, Bernhard Schmid & Cameron Wagg
1. Plant diversity loss can alter plant interactions and rhizosphere microbial communities. These altered interactions in turn exert diversity-driven selection pressures to which plants may respond with phenotypic changes. Diverse plant communities may favour the survival and fitness of individuals with traits that avoid competition. Conversely monocultures may accumulate species-specific pests favouring greater investment in defence traits. Yet it is unknown how altered plant rhizosphere interactions influence the plant diversity-driven selection for altered plant phenotypes....
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Butterfly phenology in Mediterranean mountains using space-for-time substitution

Konstantina Zografou, Andrea Grill, Robert Wilson, John Halley, George Adamidis & Vassiliki Kati
Inferring species' responses to climate change in the absence of long-term time series data is a challenge, but can be achieved by substituting space for time. For example, thermal elevational gradients represent suitable proxies to study phenological responses to warming. We used butterfly data from two Mediterranean mountain areas to test whether mean dates of appearance of communities and individual species show a delay with increasing altitude, and an accompanying shortening in the duration of...
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Data from: Making soil particle size analysis by laser diffraction compatible with standard soil texture determination methods

Felipe Montes, Giovani Stefani Faé, Ekaterina Bazilevskaya, Rodrigo Masip Añó & Armen Kemanian
The standard sieving, pipette and hydrometer methods for soil particle size analysis (PSA) have three main drawbacks: procedures are tedious, time-consuming, and the results are protocol-dependent. Laser diffraction PSA delivers rapid results using standardized procedures, but so far it has been difficult to reconcile results with those from standard sedimentation methods. The objective of this study was to develop a protocol that would permit direct usage of laser diffraction PSA and render results compatible with...
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Data from: Dietary adaptations and paleoecology of Lophialetidae (Mammalia: Tapiroidea) from the Eocene of the Erlian Basin, China: Combined evidence from mesowear and stable isotope analyses

Yanxin Gong, Yuanqing Wang, Yang Wang, Fang-Yuan Mao, Bin Bai, Haibing Wang, Qian Li, Xun Jin, Xu Wang & Jin Meng
Lophialetidae are an extinct group of endemic Asiatic tapiroids that are widely distributed in the Eocene sediments of Asia. Schlosseria magister and Lophialetes expeditus are the most abundant species in this family. However, their dietary and ecological characteristics are largely unknown to date. For the first time, we reconstruct the paleodiet and habitat of these two lophialetids using a combination of mesowear and stable carbon isotope analyses of fossil teeth excavated from the Erlian Basin,...
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Exp1_EEG_Average

Rosy Southwell, Anna Baumann, Cécile Gal, Nicolas Barascud, Karl Friston, Maria Chait & Rosy Southwell
This data package contains results published in: Is predictability salient? A study of attentional capture by auditory patterns Rosy Southwell, Anna Baumann, Cecile Gal, Nicolas Barascud, Karl Friston, Maria Chait Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Experiment 1 (EEG) Condition-wise averaged ERPs for each of 21 subjects. SPM meeg format; readable with Statistical Parametric Mapping for Matlab (http://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/). Data have been preprocessed as described in the manuscript. Group-level cluster-based permutation statistics are described in...
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Concatenated nuclear tree, partitioned by splice site

Ryan A. Folk, Jennifer R. Mandel & John V. Freudenstein
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Data from: Inter- and intra-specific variation of spider mite susceptibility to fungal infections: implications for the long-term success of biological control

Flore Zélé, Mustafa Altıntaş, Inês Santos, Ibrahim Cakmak & Sara Magalhães
Spider mites are severe pests of several annual and perennial crops worldwide, often causing important economic damages. As rapid evolution of pesticide resistance in this group hampers the efficiency of chemical control, alternative control strategies, such as the use of entomopathogenic fungi, are being developed. However, while several studies have focused on the evaluation of the control potential of different fungal species and/or isolates as well as their compatibility with other control methods (e.g. predators...
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The migration pattern of a monogamous shorebird challenges existing hypotheses explaining the evolution of differential migration

Linus Hedh & Anders Hedenström
Differential migration by sex, where one sex migrates further than the other, occurs in many bird species. How this pattern evolves is however little understood. The first aim of this study was to investigate the extent of differential migration in the common ringed plover Charadrius hiaticula, breeding in southeast Sweden, and test three main hypotheses (the social dominance, body size and arrival time hypothesis) regarding the evolution of differential migration. Geolocators were used to derive...
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Differential impact of nevirapine on artemether-lumefantrine pharmacokinetics in individuals stratified by CYP2B6 c.516G>T genotypes

Sa'ad Abdullahi, Julius Soyinka, Adeniyi Olagunju, Rahman Bolarinwa, Olusola Olarewaju, Moji Bakare-Odunola, Markus Winterberg, Joel Tarning, Andrew Owen & Saye Khoo
There is an increased recognition of the need to identify and quantify the impact of genetic polymorphisms on drug-drug interactions. This study investigated the pharmacogenetics of the pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction between nevirapine and artemether-lumefantrine in HIV-positive and HIV-negative adult Nigerian subjects. Thirty each of HIV-infected patients on nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy and HIV-negative volunteers without clinical malaria, but with predetermined CYP2B6 c.516GG and TT genotypes were administered a complete treatment dose of 3-days of artemether-lumefantrine. Rich...
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Data from: Climate limitation at the cold edge – contrasting perspectives from species distribution modelling and a transplant experiment

Caroline Greiser, Eric Meineri, Miska Luoto, Kristoffer Hylander & Johan Ehrlén
The role of climate in determining range margins is often studied using species distribution models (SDMs), which are easily applied but have well-known limitations, e.g. due to their correlative nature and colonization and extinction time lags. Transplant experiments can give more direct information on environmental effects, but often cover small spatial and temporal scales. We simultaneously applied an SDM using high-resolution spatial predictors and an integral projection (demographic) model based on a transplant experiment at...
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A possible Cambrian stem-group gnathiferan-chaetognath from the Weeks Formation (Miaolingian) of Utah

Simon Conway Morris, Ru Smith, Jennifer Hoyal Cuthill, Enrico Bonino & Rudy Lerosey-Aubril
In recent years the plethora of “weird wonders”, the vernacular for the apparently extinct major bodyplans documented in many of the Cambrian Lagerstätten, has been dramatically trimmed. This is because various taxa have either been assigned to known phyla or at least accommodated in larger monophyletic assemblages. Nevertheless, a number of Cambrian taxa retain their enigmatic status. To this intriguing roster we add Dakorhachis thambus n. gen. n. sp., from the Miaolingian (Guzhangian) Weeks Formation...
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Water potential gradient, root conduit size and root xylem hydraulic conductivity determine the extent of hydraulic redistribution in temperate trees

Benjamin D Hafner, Benjamin D Hesse, Taryn L Bauerle & Thorsten EE Grams
1. Hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water through plant roots is widely described, however its extent, especially in temperate trees, remains unclear. Here, we quantified redistributed water of five temperate tree species. We hypothesized that both, HR within a plant and into the soil increases with higher water-potential gradients, larger root conduit diameters and root-xylem hydraulic conductivities. 2. Saplings of conifer (Picea abies, Pseudotsuga menziesii), diffuse-porous (Acer pseudoplatanus) and ring-porous species (Castanea sativa, Quercus robur)...
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