129,703 Works

Diapause is not selected as a bet-hedging strategy in insects: a meta-analysis of reaction norm shapes

Jens Joschinski & Dries Bonte
Many organisms escape from lethal climatological conditions by entering a resistant resting stage called diapause, and it is essential that this strategy remains optimally timed with seasonal change. Climate change therefore exerts selection pressure on phenology, which is expected to cause the evolution of mean diapause timing, but also phenotypic plasticity and bet-hedging strategies. Especially the latter as a strategy to cope with unpredictability is so far little considered in the context of climate change,...

Surface indicators are correlated with soil multifunctionality in global drylands

David Eldridge, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, José Luis Quero, Victoria Ochoa, Beatriz Gonzalo, Pablo García-Palacios, Cristina Escolar, Miguel Garcia-Gomez, Laura Beinticinco, Matthew Bowker, Donaldo Bran, Ignacio Castro, Alex Cea, Mchich Derak, Carlos Ivan Espinosa, Adriana Fronertino, Juan Gaitán, Gabriel Gatica, Susana Gómez-González, Wahida Ghiloufi, Julio Gutierrez, Elizabeth Gusmán-M., Rosa Hernandez, Frederic Hughes, Walter Muiño … & Fernando Maestre
1. Multiple ecosystem functions need to be considered simultaneously to manage and protect the many ecosystem services that are essential to people and their environments. Despite this, cost effective, tangible, relatively simple, and globally-relevant methodologies to monitor in situ soil multifunctionality, i.e. the provision of multiple ecosystem functions by soils, have not been tested at the global scale. 2. We combined correlation analysis and structural equation modelling to explore whether we could find easily measured,...

Dryness, wetness and temporary flooding reduce floral resources of plant communities with adverse consequences for pollinator attraction

Julia Walter
1. Climate change alters precipitation regimes worldwide and is regarded as a major threat for pollinators and pollination services. Yet, not much is known on how wetter as well as drier conditions affect food resources for pollinators and pollinator attraction in a multi-species community context. It is unclear how community shifts under changed hydrological conditions might affect pollinators. 2. This mesocosm study addresses existing research gaps by investigating effects of drought, wetness and temporary flooding...

Synergistic impacts of co-occurring invasive grasses cause persistent effects in the soil-plant system after selective removal

Rafael Zenni, Wanderson Da Cunha, Carolina Musso, Jocemara De Souza, Gabriela Nardoto & Heloisa Miranda
1. Human influence on the environment is so extensive that virtually all ecosystems on the planet are now affected by biological invasions. And, often, ecosystems are invaded by multiple co-occurring non-native species. Hence, it is important to understand the impacts these invasions are producing on biodiversity and ecosystem processes. 2. Here, we present results of a two-year long field experiment where we tested the effects of co-occurring invasive C4 African grasses in a Cerrado area...

Distributed flux balance analysis simulations of serial biomass fermentation by two organisms

Edward Vitkin, Amichai Gillis, Mark Polikovsky, Barak Bender, Alexander Golberg & Zohar Yakhini
Intelligent biorefinery design that addresses both the composition of the biomass feedstock as well as fermentation microorganisms could benefit from dedicated tools for computational simulation and computer-assisted optimization. Here we present the BioLego Vn2.0 framework, based on Microsoft Azure Cloud, which supports large-scale simulations of biomass serial fermentation processes by two different organisms. BioLego enables the simultaneous analysis of multiple fermentation scenarios and the comparison of fermentation potential of multiple feedstock compositions. Thanks to the...

Different effects of mating group size as male and as female on sex allocation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

Masami Tamechika, Kohei Matsuno, Satoshi Wada & Yoichi Yusa
Sex allocation theory predicts that the optimal sexual resource allocation of simultaneous hermaphrodites is affected by mating group size (MGS). Although the original concept assumes that the MGS does not differ between male and female functions, the MGS in the male function (MGSm; i.e., the number of sperm recipients the focal individual can deliver its sperm to plus one) and that in the female function (MGSf; the number of sperm donors plus one) do not...

The impact of bioenergy pine plantation management practices on bee communities

Xingwen Loy, David Gruenewald, Isabel Gottlieb, Emily Dobbs, Andriana Miljanic, Jamieson Botsch, Brice Lawley, Holly Ober, Lora Smith, Robert Fletcher & Berry Brosi
1. Cultivation of bioenergy feedstocks is a growing land-use worldwide, yet we have a poor understanding of how bioenergy crop management practices affect biodiversity. This knowledge gap is particularly acute for candidate cellulosic bioenergy feedstocks, such as tree plantations, and for organisms that provide important ecosystem services, such as pollinators. 2. We examined bee communities in 83 sites across three states in the southeastern USA—Alabama, Florida and Georgia. We compared bee abundance and diversity in...

Continent-wide effects of urbanization on bird and mammal genetic diversity

Chloé Schmidt, Michael Domaratzki, Riikka Kinnunen, Jeff Bowman & Colin Garroway
Urbanization and associated environmental changes are causing global declines in vertebrate populations. In general, population declines of the magnitudes now detected should lead to reduced effective population sizes for animals living in proximity to humans and disturbed lands. This is cause for concern because effective population sizes set the rate of genetic diversity loss due to genetic drift, the rate of increase in inbreeding, and the efficiency with which selection can act on beneficial alleles....

Cell-autonomous light sensitivity via Opsin3 regulates fuel utilization in brown adipocytes

Mari Sato, Tadataka Tsuji, Kunyan Yang, Jonathan Dreyfuss, Tian Lian Huang, Chih-Hao Wang, Farnaz Shamsi, Luiz Leiria, Matthew Lynes, Yu-Hua Tseng, Xiaozhi Ren & King-Wai Yau
Opsin3 (Opn3) is a transmembrane heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) with the potential to produce a non-visual photoreceptive effect. Interestingly, anatomical profiling of GPCRs reveals that Opn3 mRNA is highly expressed in adipose tissue. The photosensitive functions of Opn3 in mammals are poorly understood, and whether Opn3 has a role in fat is entirely unknown. In this study, we found that Opn3-knockout (Opn3-KO) mice were prone to diet-induced obesity and insulin-resistance. At the cellular level, Opn3-KO...

Data from: The planet's stressed river basins: too much pressure or too little adaptive capacity?

Olli Varis, Maija Taka & Matti Kummu
Freshwater is one of the most critical elements for sustainable development of ecosystems and societies. River basins, concomitant with administrative zones, form a common unit for freshwater management. So far, no comprehensive, global analysis exists that would link the ecological challenges of the planet's river basins to the capacity of the societies to cope with them. We address this gap by performing a geospatial resilience analysis for a global set of 541 river basins. We...

Clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized for ocular chemical injuries in Shanghai from 2012 to 2017

Tao Li, Bo Jiang & Xiaodong Zhou
Objective: To summarize the clinical characteristics of patients with ocular chemical injuries and evaluate their potential relationship with the visual outcome by analyzing the medical records of these patients from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2017. Design: A retrospective case series study. Setting: Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University in Shanghai. Methods: Patient data included age, gender, occupational classification, location of ocular chemical injury, initial and final best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA), intraocular pressure (IOP),...

Data from: Pollination by wild bees yields larger strawberries than pollination by honey bees

Gail MacInnis & Jessica R.K. Forrest
1. A diverse array of wild bee species may provide more effective pollination than the widely employed European honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). High species richness within crop pollinator assemblages has been linked to enhanced fruit and seed yields, but species richness is often confounded with abundance in studies of pollinator communities. 2. We investigated the effects of bee diversity and species identity on pollen deposition and crop yield in the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa)...

A new target capture phylogeny elucidates the systematics and evolution of wing coupling in sack‐bearer moths

Ryan St Laurent, Carlos G. C. Mielke, Daniel Herbin, Kelly M. Dexter & Akito Y. Kawahara
The frenulum is a wing coupling structure that is found on the wings of most families of Lepidoptera. It is a single bristle or set of bristles that originate from the base of the hindwing that often interlocks with the forewing during flight. This wing coupling mechanism is thought to have been a major evolutionary innovation that allowed for enhanced flight in Lepidoptera. The sack-bearer moths (Mimallonidae) are unusual among Lepidoptera in that not all...

A comparison between mouse, in silico, and robot odor plume navigation reveals advantages of mouse odor-tracking

Justus V. Verhagen, A Gumaste, G Coronas-Samano, J Hengenius, R Axman, EG Connor, KL Baker, B Ermentrout & JP Crimaldi
Localization of odors is essential to animal survival, and thus animals are adept at odor-navigation. In natural conditions animals encounter odor sources in which odor is carried by air flow varying in complexity. We sought to identify potential minimalist strategies that can effectively be used for odor-based navigation and asses their performance in an increasingly chaotic environment. To do so, we compared mouse, in silico model, and Arduino-based robot odor-localization behavior in a standardized odor...

Early angiogenic proteins associated with high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pulmonary hypertension in preterm infants

Sanne Arjaans, Brandie Wagner, Peter Mourani, Erica Mandell, Brenda Poindexter, Rolf Berger & Steven Abman
Introduction: Early pulmonary vascular disease in preterm infants is associated with the subsequent development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and pulmonary hypertension (PH), however, mechanisms that contribute to or identify infants with increased susceptibility for BPD and/or PH are incompletely understood. Therefore, we tested if changes in circulating angiogenic peptides during the first week of life are associated with the later development of BPD and/or PH. We further sought to determine alternate peptides and related signalling...

Resolving fine-scale population structure and fishery exploitation using sequenced microsatellites in a northern fish

Kara K.S. Layton, J. Brian Dempson, Paul V.R. Snelgrove, Steven J. Duffy, Amber M. Messmer, Ian Paterson, Nicholas W. Jeffery, Tony Kess, John B. Horne, Sarah J. Salisbury, Daniel E. Ruzzante, Paul Bentzen, David Côté & Ian R. Bradbury
The resiliency of populations and species to environmental change is dependent on the maintenance of genetic diversity, and as such quantifying diversity is central to combatting ongoing wide spread reductions in biodiversity. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, several methods now exist for resolving fine-scale population structure, but the comparative performance of these methods for genetic assignment has rarely been tested. Here we evaluate the performance of sequenced microsatellites and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)...

Clinical reasoning: sudden hearing loss with vertigo in a 42-year-old woman

Jeong-Yoon Choi, Hyo-Jung Kim & Ji-Soo Kim
Supplemental table: Etiologies of sudden sensorineural hearing loss with or without vertigo

Rapid evolution by sexual selection in a wild, invasive mammal

M. Aaron Owen & David Lahti
Sexual selection theory provides a framework for investigating the evolution of traits involved in attracting and competing for mates. We show that ecological factors can strongly influence the adaptive value of these traits, and changes to these factors can lead to rapid evolutionary change. We compared sexually selected traits in the small Indian mongoose (Urva auropunctata) between their sparsely-populated native range and four tropical islands to which they were introduced within the last 150 years...

Data from: Traits that allow bats of tropical lowland origin to conquer mountains: bat assemblages along elevational gradients in the South American Atlantic Forest

William Douglas De Carvalho, Mayara A. Martins, Carlos Eduardo L. Esbérard & Jorge M. Palmeirim
Aim: This study aims to contribute to the identification of ecological determinants of tropical moist forest montane biodiversity, analyzing changes in the structure of bat assemblages along an elevational gradient and testing the role of species traits shaping those assemblages. Location: Mountain ranges in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Methods: We compiled a dataset with the composition of phyllostomid bat assemblages at 32 forested sites, ranging from 60m to 1960m a.s.l. We quantified how abundance and...

Knee function through finite element analysis and the role of Miocene hominoids in our understanding of the origin of antipronograde behaviours: the Pierolapithecus catalaunicus patella as a case study

Marta Pina, Daniel DeMiguel, Francesc Puigvert, Jordi Marcé‐Nogué & Salvador Moyà‐Solà
Although extensive research has been carried out in recent years on human bipedalism origin and evolution, a full understanding of this question is far to be achieved. In this regard, the role of Miocene hominoids emerges as key to better comprehend the locomotor types observed in living apes and humans. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, an extinct stem great ape from the middle Miocene (c. 12.0 Ma) of the Vallès-Penedès Basin (NE Iberian Peninsula), is the first undoubted...

Data from: Comparative crystallography suggests maniraptoran theropod affinities for latest Cretaceous European ‘geckoid’ eggshell

Seung Choi, Edina Prondvai, Miguel Moreno‐Azanza, Zoltán Csiki‐Sava & Yuong‐Nam Lee
Thin fossil eggshells from Upper Cretaceous deposits of Europe, characterized by nodular ornamentation similar to modern gekkotan eggshells, have mostly been interpreted as gekkotan (=‘geckoid’) in origin. However, in some cases, like the oogenus Pseudogeckoolithus, their theropod affinity was also suggested. The true affinity of these fossil ‘geckoid’ eggshells remained controversial due to the absence of analytical methods effective in identifying genuine gecko eggshells in the fossil record. In this study, we apply electron backscatter...

Polyploidization contributes to evolution of competitive ability: a long term common garden study on the invasive Solidago canadensis in China

Jiliang Cheng, Xianghong Yang, Lifang Xue, Beibei Yao, Huan Lu, Zhongsai Tian, Jun Li, Xin Zhou, Yu Zhang, Muhammad Zia Ul Haq, Shuqi Wu, Xiaoling Song, Shuijin Hu & Sheng Qiang
Plant invasion initiates with the establishment of an alien species population that begins interacting with the existing community in the invaded habitat. Competitive ability may confer advantage to invasive species during establishment. Autopolyploidy has been shown to significantly contribute to successful invasion of China by Solidago canadensis that is native to North America. But how polyploidization improves competitive ability and determines the dominance of invasive species when competing with a plant community in the introduced...

Scope for growth data

Aldwin Ndhlovu
This data set was used to calculate the energy budget and to calculate scope for growth for ecological engineers (intertidal mussels) comparing those that are affected by endolithic cyanobacterial parasites and clean intertidal mussels. It has data for growth, both whole body and shell biomineralization, and the reproductive potential of infested individuals. There is also data for components of scope for growth, feeding rates, ammonium exctretion, standard metabolic rates and lethal temperature measurements data.

Feeding ecology has a stronger evolutionary influence on functional morphology than on body mass in mammals

David Grossnickle
Ecological specialization is a central driver of adaptive evolution. However, selective pressures may uniquely affect different ecomorphological traits (e.g., size and shape), complicating efforts to investigate the role of ecology in generating phenotypic diversity. Comparative studies can help remedy this issue by identifying specific relationships between ecologies and morphologies, thus elucidating functionally-relevant traits. Jaw shape is a dietary correlate that offers considerable insight on mammalian evolution, but few studies have examined the influence of diet...

Phylogenomics resolves the relationships within Antennaria (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) and yields new insights into its morphological character evolution and biogeography

Ramhari Thapa, Randall Bayer & Jennifer Mandel
Antennaria are dioecious perennial herbs distributed mainly in the Holarctic Region with their major center of diversity in the Rocky Mountains of Western North America. The genus comprises 33 known sexual diploid/tetraploid species and at least five polyploid agamic complexes which mostly reproduce by forming asexual seeds. We performed a phylogenetic reconstruction of the 31 sexually-reproducing Antennaria species using a novel target enrichment method that employs custom capture probes and is designed to work across...

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