442 Works

Data from: Quantifying inbreeding avoidance through extra-pair reproduction

Jane M. Reid, Peter Arcese, Lukas F. Keller, Ryan R. Germain, Alexander Bradley Duthie, Sylvain Losdat, Matthew Ernest Wolak & Pirmin Nietlisbach
Extra-pair reproduction is widely hypothesised to allow females to avoid inbreeding with related socially-paired males. Consequently, numerous field studies have tested the key predictions that extra-pair offspring are less inbred than females’ alternative within-pair offspring, and that the probability of extra-pair reproduction increases with a female's relatedness to her socially-paired male. However such studies rarely measure inbreeding or relatedness sufficiently precisely to detect subtle effects, or consider biases stemming from failure to observe inbred offspring...

Data from: Density- and trait-mediated effects of a parasite and a predator in a tri-trophic food web

Aabir Banerji, Alison B. Duncan, Joanne S. Griffin, Stuart Humphries, Owen L. Petchey & Oliver Kaltz
1. Despite growing interest in ecological consequences of parasitism in food webs, relatively little is known about effects of parasites on long-term population dynamics of non-host species or about whether such effects are density- or trait- mediated. 2. We studied a tri-trophic food chain comprised of: (i) a bacterial basal resource (Serratia fonticola), (ii) an intermediate consumer (Paramecium caudatum), (iii) a top predator (Didinium nasutum), and (iv) a parasite of the intermediate consumer (Holospora undulata)....

Data from: Selection for niche differentiation in mixed plant communities increases biodiversity effects

Debra Zuppinger-Dingley, Bernhard Schmid, Jana S. Petermann, Varuna Yadav, Gerlinde B. De Deyn & Dan F. B. Flynn
In experimental plant communities, relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning have been found to strengthen over time, a fact often attributed to increased resource complementarity between species in mixtures and negative plant–soil feedbacks in monocultures. Here we show that selection for niche differentiation between species can drive this increasing biodiversity effect. Growing 12 grassland species in test monocultures and mixtures, we found character displacement between species and increased biodiversity effects when plants had been selected...

Data from: Increased gene dosage plays a predominant role in the initial stages of evolution of duplicate TEM-1 beta lactamase genes

Riddhiman Dhar, Tobias Bergmiller & Andreas Wagner
Gene duplication is important in evolution, because it provides new raw material for evolutionary adaptations. Several existing hypotheses about the causes of duplicate retention and diversification differ in their emphasis on gene dosage, sub-functionalization, and neo-functionalization. Little experimental data exists on the relative importance of gene expression changes and changes in coding regions for the evolution of duplicate genes. Furthermore, we do not know how strongly the environment could affect this importance. To address these...

Data from: Adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to saline stress through laboratory evolution.

R. Dhar, R. Sägesser, C. Weikert, J. Yuan & A. Wagner
Most laboratory evolution studies that characterize evolutionary adaptation genomically focus on genetically simple traits that can be altered by one or few mutations. Such traits are important, but they are few compared with complex, polygenic traits influenced by many genes. We know much less about complex traits, and about the changes that occur in the genome and in gene expression during their evolutionary adaptation. Salt stress tolerance is such a trait. It is especially attractive...

Data from: Development of SNP markers identifying European wildcats, domestic cats, and their admixed progeny

Beatrice Nussberger, Maja P. Greminger, Christine Grossen, Lukas F. Keller & Peter Wandeler
Introgression can be an important evolutionary force but it can also lead to species extinction and as such is a crucial issue for species conservation. However, introgression is difficult to detect, morphologically as well as genetically. Hybridization with domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) is a major concern for the conservation of European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris). The available morphologic and genetic markers for the two Felis subspecies are not sufficient to reliably detect hybrids beyond...

Data from: Human cooperation based on punishment reputation

Miguel Dos Santos, Daniel J. Rankin & Claus Wedekind
The threat of punishment usually promotes cooperation. However, punishing itself is costly, rare in non-human animals, and humans who punish often finish with low payoffs in economic experiments. The evolution of punishment has therefore been unclear. Recent theoretical developments suggest that punishment has evolved in the context of reputation games. We tested this idea in a simple helping game with observers and with punishment and punishment reputation (experimentally controlling for other possible reputational effects). We...

Data from: Leaf litter diversity and structure of microbial decomposer communities modulate litter decomposition in aquatic systems

Fabienne Santschi, Isabelle Gounand, Eric Harvey & Florian Altermatt
1. Leaf litter decomposition is a major ecosystem process that can link aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems by flows of nutrients. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning research hypothesizes that the global loss of species leads to impaired decomposition rates and thus to slower recycling of nutrients. Especially in aquatic systems an understanding of diversity effects on litter decomposition is still incomplete. 2. Here we conducted an experiment to test two main factors associated with global species loss...

Data from: The architecture of an empirical genotype-phenotype map

Jose Aguilar-Rodriguez, Leto Peel, Massimo Stella, Andreas Wagner & Joshua L. Payne
Recent advances in high-throughput technologies are bringing the study of empirical genotype-phenotype (GP) maps to the fore. Here, we use data from protein binding microarrays to study an empirical GP map of transcription factor (TF) binding preferences. In this map, each genotype is a DNA sequence. The phenotype of this DNA sequence is its ability to bind one or more TFs. We study this GP map using genotype networks, in which nodes represent genotypes with...

Embryo survival in the oviduct not significantly influenced by major histocompatibility complex social signaling in the horse

Elise Jeannerat, Eliane Marti, Selina Thomas, Harald Sieme, Claus Wedekind, Dominik Burger & Carolina Herrera
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influences sexual selection in various vertebrates. Recently, MHC-linked social signaling was also shown to influence female fertility in horses (Equus caballus) diagnosed 17 days after fertilization. However, it remained unclear at which stage the pregnancy was terminated. Here we test if MHC-linked cryptic female choice in horses happens during the first days of pregnancy, i.e., until shortly after embryonic entrance into the uterus and before fixation in the endometrium. We...

Inferring competitive outcomes, ranks and intransitivity from empirical data: A comparison of different methods

Enrica De Luca, Bernhard Schmid, Yanhao Feng, Santiago Soliveres, Eric Allan, Benjamin Rosenbaum, Cameron Wagg, Andrea Tabi, Nico Eisenhauer, Alexandra Weigelt, Wolfgang W. Weisser, Christiane Roscher & Markus Fischer
The inference of pairwise competitive outcomes (PCO) and multispecies competitive ranks and intransitivity from empirical data is essential to evaluate how competition shapes plant communities. Three categories of methods, differing in theoretical background and data requirements, have been used: (a) theoretically sound coexistence theory‐based methods, (b) index‐based methods, and (c) ‘process‐from‐pattern’ methods. However, how they are related is largely unknown. In this study, we explored the relations between the three categories by explicitly comparing three...

Gene flow limits adaptation along steep environmental gradients

Judith Bachmann, Alexandra Jansen Van Rensburg, Maria Cortazar-Chinarro, Anssi Laurila & Josh Van Buskirk
When environmental variation is spatially continuous, dispersing individuals move among nearby sites with similar habitat conditions. But as an environmental gradient becomes steeper, gene flow may connect more divergent habitats, and this is predicted to reduce the slope of the adaptive cline that evolves. We compared quantitative genetic divergence of Rana temporaria frog populations along a 2000-m elevational gradient in eastern Switzerland (new experimental results) with divergence along a 1550-km latitudinal gradient in Fennoscandia (previously...

Data from: State-dependent decision-making by predators and its consequences for mimicry

Thomas G. Aubier & Thomas N. Sherratt
The mimicry of one species by another provides one of the most celebrated examples of evolution by natural selection. Edible Batesian mimics deceive predators into believing they may be defended, whereas defended Müllerian mimics have evolved a shared warning signal, more rapidly educating predators to avoid them. However, it may benefit hungry predators to attack defended prey, while the benefits of learning about unfamiliar prey depends on the future value of this information. Previous energetic...

Data from: Adaptive reduction of male gamete number in the selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana

Takashi Tsuchimatsu, Hiroyuki Kakui, Misako Yamazaki, Cindy Marona, Hiroki Tsutsui, Afif Hedhly, Dazhe Meng, Yutaka Sato, Thomas Städler, Ueli Grossniklaus, Masahiro Kanaoka, Michael Lenhard, Magnus Nordborg & Kentaro Shimizu
The number of male gametes is critical for reproductive success and varies between and within species. The evolutionary reduction of the number of pollen grains encompassing the male gametes is widespread in selfing plants. Here, we employ genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify underlying loci and to assess the molecular signatures of selection on pollen number-associated loci in the predominantly selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Regions of strong association with pollen number are enriched for signatures...

Data from: Gene swamping alters evolution during range expansions in the protist Tetrahymena thermophila

Felix Moerman, Emanuel Fronhofer, Andreas Wagner & Florian Altermatt
At species’ range edges, individuals often face novel environmental conditions that may limit range expansion until populations adapt. The potential to adapt depends on genetic variation upon which selection can act. However, populations at species’ range edges are often genetically depauperated. One mechanism to increase genetic variation is to reshuffle existing variation through sex. During range expansions, sex can, however, act as a double-edged sword. The gene swamping hypothesis predicts that for populations expanding along...

Sexual size dimorphism is associated with reproductive life history trait differentiation in coexisting sepsid flies

Wolf Blanckenhorn, Julian Baur, Juan Pablo Busso, Athene Giesen, Natalia Gourgoulianni, Nicola Van Koppenhagen, Jeannine Roy, Martin Schäfer, Alexandra Wegmann & Patrick Rohner
Organismal life histories evolve as syndromes, resulting in correlated evolutionary differentiation of key traits that ultimately aid in discerning species. Reproductive success depends both on the absolute body size of an individual and its size relative to the opposite sex: sexual size dimorphism. In an attempt to further elucidate their coexistence and ecological diversification, we compared standard life history (first reproduction, clutch size, egg size) and associated reproductive trait differentiation of 15 widespread European sepsid...

Relative brain size is predicted by the intensity of intrasexual competition in frogs

Chun Lan Mai, Wen Bo Liao, Stefan Lüpold & Alexander Kotrschal
Competition over mates is a powerful force shaping trait evolution. For instance, better cognitive abilities may be beneficial in male−male competition and thus be selected for by intrasexual selection. Alternatively, investment in physical attributes favoring male performance in competition for mates may lower the resources available for brain development, and more intense male mate competition would coincide with smaller brains. To date, only indirect evidence for such relationships exists and most studies are heavily biased...

Data from: Plant biomass, not plant economics traits, determines responses of soil CO2 efflux to precipitation in the C4 grass Panicum virgatum

Robert Heckman, Albina Khasanova, Nicholas Johnson, Sören Weber, Jason Bonnette, Mike Aspinwall, Lara Reichman, Thomas Juenger, Philip Fay & Christine Hawkes
1. Plant responses to major environmental drivers like precipitation can influence important aspects of carbon (C) cycling like soil CO2 efflux (JCO2). These responses may be predicted by two independent classes of drivers: plant size—larger plants respire more and produce a larger quantity of labile C, and plant economics—plants possessing more acquisitive plant economics strategies (i.e., high metabolic rate and tissue nutrient content) produce higher-quality tissue that respires rapidly and decomposes quickly. 2. At two...

How pulse disturbances shape size-abundance pyramids

Claire Jacquet, Isabelle Gounand & Florian Altermatt
Ecological pyramids represent the distribution of abundance and biomass of living organisms across body-sizes. Our understanding of their expected shape relies on the assumption of invariant steady-state conditions. However, most of the world’s ecosystems experience disturbances that keep them far from such a steady state. Here, using the allometric scaling between population growth rate and body-size, we predict the response of size-abundance pyramids within a trophic guild to any combination of disturbance frequency and intensity...

African wild dog dispersal and implications for management

Gabriele Cozzi, Dominik M. Behr, Hugh S. Webster, Megan Claase, Caleb M. Bryce, John W. McNutt & Arpat Ozgul
Successful conservation of species that roam and disperse over large areas requires detailed understanding of their movement patterns and connectivity between subpopulations. But empirical information on movement, space use, and connectivity is lacking for many species, and data acquisition is often hindered when study animals cross international borders. The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) exemplifies such species that require vast undisturbed areas to support viable, self‐sustaining populations. To study wild dog dispersal and investigate potential...

Capture-recapture data with partially known birth date in four populations of yellow-bellied toads

Hugo Cayuela, Jean-François Lemaître, Eric Bonnaire, Julian Pichenot & Benedikt Schmidt
1. Patterns of actuarial senescence can be highly variable among species. Previous comparative analyses revealed that both age at the onset of senescence and rates of senescence are linked to species position along the fast-slow life-history continuum. As there are few long-term datasets of wild populations with known-age individuals, intraspecific (i.e. between-population) variation in senescence is understudied and limited to comparisons of wild and captive populations of the same species, mostly birds and mammals. 2....

Data from: A selfish genetic element linked to increased lifespan impacts metabolism in female house mice

Patricia C Lopes & Anna K Lindholm
Gene drive systems can lead to the evolution of traits that further enhance the transmission of the driving element. In gene drive, one allele is transmitted to offspring at a higher frequency than the homologous allele. This has a range of consequences, which generally include a reduction in fitness of the carrier of the driving allele, making such systems selfish. The t haplotype is one such driver, found in house mice. It is linked to...

Differential ESR1 promoter Methylation in the peripheral blood of healthy middle-aged and older women- findings from the women 40+ healthy aging study

Elena Gardini, Gary G. Chen, Serena Fiacco, Laura Mernone, Jasmine Willi, Gustavo Turecki & Ulrike Ehlert
Background Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) contributes to maintain biological processes preserving health during aging. DNA methylation changes of ERα gene (ESR1) were established as playing a direct role in the regulation of ERα levels. In this study, we hypothesized decreased DNA methylation of ESR1 associated with postmenopause, lower estradiol levels and increased age among healthy middle-aged and older women. Methods We assessed DNA methylation of ESR1 promoter region from dried blood spots and estradiol from...

Data from: Increasing dependence of lowland populations on mountain water resources

Daniel Viviroli, Matti Kummu, Michel Meybeck, Marko Kallio & Yoshihide Wada
Mountain areas provide disproportionally high runoff in many parts of the world, and here we quantify for the first time their importance for water resources and food production from the viewpoint of the lowland areas downstream. The dataset maps the degree to which lowland areas potentially depend on runoff contributions from mountain areas (39% of land mass) between the 1960s and the 2040s.

Data from: A new small, mesorostrine inioid (Cetacea, Odontoceti, Delphinida) from four late Miocene localities of the Pisco Basin, Peru

Olivier Lambert, Alberto Collareta, Aldo Benites-Palomino, Claudio Di Celma, Christian De Muizon, Mario Urbina & Giovanni Bianucci
The moderately rich past diversity of the superfamily Inioidea (Cetacea, Odontoceti) in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans contrasts with the present survival of a single genus (Inia, Amazon river dolphin, family Iniidae) in freshwater deposits of South America and of a single species (Pontoporia blainvillei, Franciscana, family Pontoporiidae) along the eastern coast of that continent. However, part of the late Miocene to Pliocene inioid fossil record is made of relatively fragmentarily known species, for...

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