425 Works

Data from: The Chlamydiales pangenome revisited: structural stability and functional coherence

Fotis E. Psomopoulos, Victoria I. Siarkou, Nikolas Papanikolaou, Ioannis Iliopoulos, Athanasios S. Tsaftaris, Christos A. Ouzounis & Vasilis J. Promponas
The entire publicly available set of 37 genome sequences from the bacterial order Chlamydiales has been subjected to comparative analysis in order to reveal the salient features of this pangenome and its evolutionary history. Over 2,000 protein families are detected across multiple species, with a distribution consistent to other studied pangenomes. Of these, there are 180 protein families with multiple members, 312 families with exactly 37 members corresponding to core genes, 428 families with peripheral...

Data from: Insect herbivores drive real-time ecological and evolutionary change in plant populations

Anurag A. Agrawal, Amy P. Hastings, M. T. J. Johnson, J. L. Maron & Juha-Pekka Salminen
Insect herbivores are hypothesized to be major factors affecting the ecology and evolution of plants. We tested this prediction by suppressing insects in replicated field populations of a native plant, Oenothera biennis, which reduced seed predation, altered interspecific competitive dynamics, and resulted in rapid evolutionary divergence. Comparative genotyping and phenotyping of nearly 12,000 O. biennis individuals revealed that in plots protected from insects, resistance to herbivores declined through time due to changes in flowering time...

Data from: Condition dependence of female choosiness in a field cricket

Kevin A. Judge, Janice J. Ting & Darryl T. Gwynne
Females generally choose mates that produce the loudest, brightest or most elaborate sexual displays, and these costly male displays are predicted to be condition dependent. However, mate choice itself is a costly behaviour also expected to be condition dependent. Male fall field crickets, Gryllus pennsylvanicus, produce a conspicuous long-distance calling song that attracts females and is condition dependent. In this study, we tested the condition dependence of female preferences (preference function and choosiness) for male...

Data from: Antibiotics and the risk of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI): a meta-analysis

K. A. Brown, Nagham Khanafer, Nick Daneman & David N. Fisman
The rising incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) could be reduced by lowering exposures to high risk antibiotics. The objective of this study was to determine the association between antibiotic class and the risk of CDI in the community setting. EMBASE and PubMed were queried without restriction to date or language. Comparative observational studies and RCTs considering the impact of antibiotic exposures on CDI risk among non-hospitalized populations were considered. We estimated pooled odds ratios...

Data from: The condition dependency of fitness in males and females: the fitness consequences of juvenile diet assessed in environments differing in key adult resources

Andrea E. Zikovitz & Aneil F. Agrawal
Variation in environmental or genetic quality leads to phenotypic variation in condition, but how much variation in fitness is created by this variation in condition? Using Drosophila melanogaster, we manipulated condition via alternative larval diets and then tested several key factors predicted to influence how much variation in fitness results from differences in condition. Specifically, we were interested in whether male and female fitness are affected equally by condition and whether the strength of selection...

Data from: The effect of parasites on sex differences in selection

Nathaniel P. Sharp & Crystal M. Vincent
The life history strategies of males and females are often divergent, creating the potential for sex differences in selection. Deleterious mutations may be subject to stronger selection in males, owing to sexual selection, which can improve the mean fitness of females and reduce mutation load in sexual populations. However, sex differences in selection might also maintain sexually antagonistic genetic variation, creating a sexual conflict load. The overall impact of separate sexes on fitness is unclear,...

Data from: Tropical trees in a wind-exposed island ecosystem: height-diameter allometry and size at onset of maturity

Sean C. Thomas, Adam R. Martin & Erin E. Mycroft
1. Tropical tree species adapted to high wind environments might be expected to differ systematically in terms of stem allometry and life-history patterns, as compared with species found in less windy forests. We quantified height-diameter (H-D) allometries and relative size at onset of maturity (RSOM) for rainforest tree and tree fern species native to Dominica, West Indies, an island that experiences some of the highest average wind speeds pantropically. 2. H-D allometries for 17 Dominican...

Data from: A study of canalization and developmental stability in the sternopleural bristle system of Drosophila melanogaster

Ian Dworkin
Among the explanations for minimizing the effects of extraneous variation has been canalization and developmental stability. However, there is little agreement as to whether these two processes reflect a common set of mechanisms. This confusion is inflated due to the lack of consensus as to a precise definition of canalization. In this study, canalization in the sternopleural bristle system is used to investigate the relationships between measures of canalization and developmental stability by comparing how...

Data from: Shell geometry and habitat determination in extinct and extant turtles (Reptilia: Testudinata)

Roger B. J. Benson, Gábor Domokos, Peter L. Várkonyi & Robert R. Reisz
A number of means, including forelimb proportions and shell bone histology have been used to infer the paleoecology of extinct turtles. However, the height to width ratio of the shell (as a one-parameter shell model) has been dismissed because of its unreliability, and more complex aspects of shell geometry have generally been overlooked. Here we employ a more reliable, three-parameter geometric model of the shell outline in anterior view as a means to assess turtle...

Data from: Landmark based thin plate spline relative warp analysis of gastropod shells

J. R. Stone
In the analysis of organismal form, landmark-based geometrical morphometrics now are preferred to traditional morphometrics by many systematists. However, certain forms have eluded geometrical morphometric analysis because landmarks on them are difficult to define; this situation is a problem of logistics rather than an inadequacy of the landmark-based approach. In this article, a landmark-based geometrical morphometric analysis is performed on one such form (the gastropod shell), and the results obtained are compared to those obtained...

Data from: New Middle Cambrian bivalved arthropod from the Burgess Shale (British Columbia, Canada)

David A. Legg & Jean-Bernard Caron
The morphology of two new bivalved arthropods, Loricicaris spinocaudatus gen. et sp. nov. and Nereocaris briggsi sp. nov. from the middle Cambrian (Series 3, Stage 5) Burgess Shale Formation (Collins Quarry locality on Mount Stephen, Yoho National Park, British Columbia, Canada), is described. The material was originally assigned to the genus Branchiocaris, but exhibits distinctive character combinations meriting its assignment to other taxa. Loricicaris spinocaudatus possesses an elongate and spinose abdomen comparable to the contemporaneous...

Data from: Rapid adaptation to climate facilitates range expansion of an invasive plant

Robert I. Colautti & Spencer C.H. Barrett
Adaptation to climate, evolving over contemporary time scales, could facilitate rapid range expansion across environmental gradients. Here, we examine local adaptation along a climatic gradient in the North American invasive plant Lythrum salicaria. We show that the evolution of earlier flowering is adaptive at the northern invasion front where it increases fitness as much as, or more than, the effects of enemy release and the evolution of increased competitive ability. However, early flowering decreases investment...

Data from: Modern spandrels: the roles of genetic drift, gene flow and natural selection in the formation of parallel clines

James S. Santangelo, Marc T.J. Johnson & Rob W. Ness
Urban environments offer the opportunity to study the role of adaptive and non-adaptive evolutionary processes on an unprecedented scale. While the presence of parallel clines in heritable phenotypic traits is often considered strong evidence for the role of natural selection, non-adaptive evolutionary processes can also generate clines, and this may be more likely when traits have a non-additive genetic basis due to epistasis. In this paper, we use spatially-explicit simulations modelled according to the cyanogenesis...

Data from: The ‘filtering’ metaphor revisited: competition and environment jointly structure invasibility and coexistence

Rachel M. Germain, Margaret M. Mayfield & Benjamin Gilbert
‘Filtering’, or the reduction in species diversity that occurs because not all species can persist in all locations, is thought to unfold hierarchically, controlled by the environment at large scales and competition at small scales. However, the ecological effects of competition and the environment are not independent, and observational approaches preclude investigation into their interplay. We use a demographic approach with 30 plant species to experimentally test (i) the effect of competition on species persistence...

Data from: The effects of haploid selection on Y chromosome evolution in two closely related dioecious plants

George Sandler, Felix E.G. Beaudry, Spencer C.H. Barrett, Stephen I. Wright, Felix E. G. Beaudry & Spencer C. H. Barrett
The evolution of sex chromosomes is usually considered to be driven by sexually antagonistic selection in the diploid phase. However, selection during the haploid gametic phase of the lifecycle has recently received theoretical attention as possibly playing a central role in sex chromosome evolution, especially in plants where gene expression in the haploid phase is extensive. In particular, male-specific haploid selection might favour the linkage of pollen beneficial alleles to male sex determining regions on...

Data from: Habitat partitioning during character displacement between the sexes

Stephen P. De Lisle, Samuel Paiva & Locke Rowe
Ecological differences between the sexes are often interpreted as evidence of within-species ecological character displacement (ECD), a hypothesis with almost no direct tests. Here we experimentally-test two predictions, that are direct corollaries of ECD between the sexes, in a salamander. First, we find support for the prediction that each sex has a growth rate advantage in the aquatic microhabitat where it is most commonly found. Second, we test the prediction that selection for ECD in...

Screening the Sigma LOPAC®1280 library of compounds for protective effects against cisplatin-induced oto- and nephrotoxicity

Jaime Wertman, Nicole Melong, Matthew Stoyek, Olivia Piccolo, Stewart Langley, Benno Orr, Shelby Steele, Babak Razaghi & Jason Berman
Dose-limiting toxicities for cisplatin administration, including ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity, impact the clinical utility of this effective chemotherapy agent and lead to lifelong complications, particularly in pediatric cancer survivors. Using a two-pronged drug screen employing the zebrafish lateral line as an in vivo readout for ototoxicity and kidney cell-based nephrotoxicity assay, we screened 1280 compounds and identified 22 that were both oto- and nephroprotective. Of these, dopamine and L-mimosine, a plant-based amino acid active in the...

Maps of northern peatland extent, depth, carbon storage and nitrogen storage

Gustaf Hugelius, Julie Loisel, Sarah Chadburn, Robert B. Jackson, Miriam Jones, Glen MacDonald, Maija Marushchak, David Olefeldt, Maara Packalen, Matthias B. Siewert, Claire Treat, Merritt Turestsky, Carolina Voigt & Zicheng Yu
This dataset is grids of peatland extent, peat depth, peatland organic carbon storage, peatland total nitrogen storage and approximate extent of ombrotrophic/minerotrophic peatlands. The grids are geotiff files in 10 km pixel resolution projected in the World Azimuthal Equidistant projection. Note that the peat depth grid shows potential peat depth everywhere,also where there is no peatland cover. For files on peatland organic carbon, total nitrogen extent and extent of ombrotrophic/minerotrophic peatlands, there are separate files...

Data from: Oecanthus nigricornis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) as the first known host of Stylogaster neglecta (Diptera: Conopidae)

Erik Etzler, William D. Brown, Luc F. Bussière & Darryl T. Gwynne
The conopid fly Stylogaster neglecta Williston (Diptera: Conopidae) is a parasitoid with no known host. We report this species as the first recorded dipteran parasitoid of Oecanthus nigricornis Walker (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) (black-horned tree crickets). We reared field-collected O. nigricornis juveniles over several months in 2017 and found that larval S. neglecta emerged from them during late July into August. We estimated the incubation period for S. neglecta larvae to be around 30 days based on...

Data from: Paleoclimatic evolution as the main driver of current genomic diversity in the widespread and polymorphic Neotropical songbird Arremon taciturnus

Nelson Buainain, Roberta Canton, Gabriela Zuquim, Hanna Tuomisto, Tomas Hrbek, Hiromitsu Sato & Camila Ribas
Several factors have been proposed as drivers of species diversification in the Neotropics, including environmental heterogeneity, the development of drainage systems and historical changes in forest distribution due to climatic oscillations. Here, we investigate which drivers contributed to the evolutionary history and current patterns of diversity of a polymorphic songbird (Arremon taciturnus) that is widely distributed in Amazonian and Atlantic forests as well as in Cerrado gallery and seasonally-dry forests. We use genomic, phenotypic and...

Data from: Testing for latitudinal gradients in defense at the macroevolutionary scale

Daniel N. Anstett, Jeffery R. Ahern, Marc T.J. Johnson, Juha-Pekka Salminen & Jeffrey R. Ahern
Plant defences against herbivores are predicted to evolve to be greater in warmer climates, such as lower latitudes where herbivore pressure is also thought to be higher. Instead, recent findings are often inconsistent with this expectation, suggesting alternative hypotheses are needed. We tested for latitudinal gradients in plant defence evolution at the macroevolutionary scale by characterizing plant chemical defences across 80 species of the evening primroses, spanning both North and South America. We quantified phenolics...

Data from: Sampling schemes and drift can bias admixture proportions inferred by STRUCTURE

Ken Toyama, Pierre-André Crochet & Raphaël Leblois
The interbreeding of individuals coming from genetically differentiated but incompletely isolated populations can lead to the formation of admixed populations, having important implications in ecology and evolution. In this simulation study, we evaluate how individual admixture proportions estimated by the software structure are quantitatively affected by different factors. Using various scenarios of admixture between two diverging populations, we found that unbalanced sampling from parental populations may seriously bias the inferred admixture proportions; moreover, proportionally large...

Data from: Invasive dominance and resident diversity: unpacking the impact of plant invasion on biodiversity and ecosystem function

Stuart Livingstone, Marney Isaac & Marc Cadotte
Plant invasions have consistently been shown to cause significant reductions in the diversity of recipient plant communities; an effect that can cascade through ecosystems to impact the stocks and flows of nutrients and energy as well as the diversity of higher trophic levels. However, the manner in which invasive plants alter ecosystem functioning and trophic interactions is highly variable can occur through the direct effects of the invader’s abundance and its indirect effects via changes...

S. neglecta parasitism in O. nigricornis: 2018 collection

Erik Etzler
In July 2018, we collected O. nigricornis crickets in southern Ontario (Canada) and New York State (United States of America): from the Koffler Scientific Reserve (coded as K or site 2) (King City Ontario, 44.03°N, 79.53°W), rare Charitable Research Reserve (coded as R or site 4) (Cambridge Ontario, 43.38°N, 80.39°W), the University of Toronto at Mississauga (coded as M or site 3) (43.55°N, 79.66°W), and the Edmund Niles Huyck Preserve and Biological Research Station (coded...

Data from: Virtual endocasts of fossil Sciuroidea: brain size reduction in the evolution of fossoriality

Ornella C. Bertrand, Farrah Amador-Mughal, Madlen M. Lang & Mary T. Silcox
Aplodontia rufa (Mountain Beaver) is the only extant member of Aplodontidae. The fossil record indicates that this family displayed greater taxonomic and ecological diversity in the past, and that the burrowing adaptations of Aplodontia might be derived. We describe the first virtual endocasts of A. rufa and of three fossil aplodontids: Prosciurus relictus and Pros. aff. saskatchewaensis (Early Oligocene), and Mesogaulus paniensis (late Miocene). Our results show that the endocasts of early aplodontid rodents are...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    1
  • 2020
    66
  • 2019
    34
  • 2018
    76
  • 2017
    61
  • 2016
    57
  • 2015
    41
  • 2014
    38
  • 2013
    20
  • 2012
    18

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    425

Affiliations

  • University of Toronto
    425
  • University of British Columbia
    25
  • Royal Ontario Museum
    20
  • University of Minnesota
    12
  • McGill University
    10
  • Uppsala University
    10
  • University of Ottawa
    9
  • Duke University
    8
  • University of Guelph
    8
  • Harvard University
    8