274 Works

Data from: Plasticity and habitat choice match color to function in an ambush bug

Julia Boyle & Denon Start
Individuals aim to maximize their fitness by matching their own phenotype to the optimum phenotype in their environment. Individuals can achieve matching through several mechanism including habitat choice and adaptive plasticity. A key trait of interest to biologists is color, with background matching reciprocally camouflaging predators and prey. However, the multiple mechanisms matching an individual’s color to their background, and its consequences for function (e.g. species interactions), are rarely explored simultaneously. Here we investigate color...

Data from: The ecology and evolution of seed predation by Darwin's finches on Tribulus cistoides on the Galápagos Islands

Sofía Carvajal-Endara, Andrew P. Hendry, Nancy C. Emery, Corey P. Neu, Diego Carmona, Kiyoko M. Gotanda, T. Jonathan Davies, Jaime A. Chaves & Marc T. J Johnson
Predator-prey interactions play a key role in the evolution of species traits through antagonistic coevolutionary arms-races. The evolution of beak morphology in the Darwin’s finches in response to competition for seed resources is a classic example of evolution by natural selection. The seeds of Tribulus cistoides are an important food source for the largest ground finch species (Geospiza fortis, G. magnirostris, and G. conirostris) in dry months, and the hard spiny morphology of the fruits...

The role of spines in anthropogenic seed dispersal on the Galápagos islands

Marc Johnson, Mae Johnson, Oscar Johnson & Reagan Johnson
Dispersal has important ecological and evolutionary consequences for populations, but understanding the role of specific traits in dispersal can be difficult and requires careful experimentation. Moreover, understanding how humans alter dispersal is an important question, especially on oceanic islands where anthropogenic disturbance through species introductions can dramatically alter native ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the functional role of spines in seed dispersal of the plant caltrop (Tribulus cistoidesL., Zygophyllaceae) by anthropogenic agents. We also...

Seizure outcome of pediatric epilepsy surgery: systematic review and meta-analyses

Elysa Widjaja
Objective: This systematic review and meta-analyses assessed seizure outcome following pediatric epilepsy surgery. Methods: MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane were searched for pediatric epilepsy surgery original research from 1990 to 2017. The outcome was seizure freedom at 12 months or longer follow-up. Using random effects models, the effect sizes for controlled studies, uncontrolled studies on surgery locations (temporal lobe [TL], extra-temporal lobe [ETL] or hemispheric surgery), pathologies, non-lesional epilepsy and incomplete resection were estimated. Meta-regression assessed...

Species differences in phenology shape coexistence

Christopher Blackford, Rachel Germain & Benjamin Gilbert
Ecological theory produces opposing predictions about whether differences in the timing of life history transitions, or ‘phenology’, promote or limit coexistence. Phenological separation is predicted to create temporal niche differences, increasing coexistence, yet phenological separation could also competitively favour one species, increasing fitness differences and hindering coexistence. We experimentally manipulated relative germination timing, a critical phenological event, of two annual grass species, Vulpia microstachys and V. octoflora, to test these contrasting predictions. We parameterized a...

Importance of spatio-temporal connectivity to maintain species experiencing range shifts

Jun-Long Huang, Marco Andrello, Alexandre Martensen, Santiago Saura, Dian-Feng Liu, Jian-Hua He & Marie-Josée Fortin
Climate change can affect the habitat resources available to species by changing habitat quantity, suitability and spatial configuration, which largely determine population persistence in the landscape. In this context, dispersal is a central process for species to track their niche. Assessments of the amount of reachable habitat (ARH) using static snap-shots do not account, however, for the temporal overlap of habitat patches that may enhance stepping-stone effects. Here, we quantified the impacts of climate change...

Expression atlas of Selaginella moellendorffii provides insights into the evolution of vasculature, secondary metabolism and roots

Camilla Ferrari, Devendra Shivhare, Bjoern Oest Hansen, Asher Pasha, Eddi Esteban, Nicholas J. Provart, Friedrich Kragler, Alisdair Fernie, Takayuki Tohge & Marek Mutwil
Selaginella moellendorffii is a representative of the lycophyte lineage and is studied to understand the evolution of land plant traits such as the vasculature, leaves, stems, roots, and secondary metabolism. However, only few studies investigated about the gene expression and transcriptional coordination of Selaginella genes, precluding us from understanding the evolution of transcriptional programs behind these traits. We present a gene expression atlas comprising all major organs, tissue types, and the diurnal gene expression profiles...

Relationship of total and calculated free 25-hydroxyvitamin D to biomarkers and metabolic indices in healthy children

Christine Simpson, Jane Zhang, Dirk Vanderschueren, Lei Fu, Teresita Pennestri, Roger Bouillon, David Cole & Thomas Carpenter
ABSTRACT Context: Vitamin D status is usually assessed by serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Whether free 25-hydroxyvitamin D measures better correlate with various clinical outcomes is unclear. Objective: To identify correlations between total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (t25-OHD), calculated and direct measures of free 25-OHD, and to identify associations of these measures with other outcomes in children, across the 6 common GC haplotypes. Design: Healthy urban-dwelling children underwent measurement of relevant variables. Setting: Academic medical center Participants: Healthy,...

Data from: The landscape genetic signature of pollination by trapliners: evidence from the tropical herb, Heliconia tortuosa

Felipe Torres-Vanegas, Adam S. Hadley, Urs G. Kormann, F. Andrew Jones, Matthew G. Betts & Helene H. Wagner
Animal-mediated pollination is essential for the maintenance of plant reproduction, especially in tropical ecosystems, where pollination networks have been thought to have highly generalized structures. However, accumulating evidence suggests that not all floral visitors provide equally effective pollination services, potentially reducing the number of realized pollinators and increasing the cryptic specialization of pollination networks. Thus, there is a need to understand how different functional groups of pollinators influence pollination success. Here we examined whether patterns...

Genetic structure and biogeographic history of the Bicknell’s Thrush/Gray-cheeked Thrush species complex

Alyssa FitzGerald, Jason Weir, Joel Ralston, Ian Warkentin, Darroch Whitaker & Jeremy Kirchman
We examined species limits, admixture, and genetic structure among populations in the Bicknell’s Thrush (Catharus bicknelli) - Gray-cheeked Thrush (C. minimus) species complex to establish the geographic and temporal context of speciation in this group, which is a model system in ecology and a high conservation priority. We obtained mitochondrial ND2 sequences from 186 Bicknell’s Thrushes, 77 Gray-cheeked Thrushes, and 55 individuals of their closest relative, the Veery (C. fuscescens), and genotyped a subset of...

Data from: Integrating over uncertainty in spatial scale of response within multispecies occupancy models yields more accurate assessments of community composition

Luke Frishkoff, D. Mahler & Marie-Josee Fortin
Species abundance and community composition are affected not only by the local environment, but also by broader landscape and regional context. Yet, determining the spatial scales at which landscapes affect species remains a persistent challenge, hindering our ability to understand how environmental gradients shape communities. This problem is amplified by data deficient species and imperfect species detection. Here, we present a Bayesian framework that allows uncertainty surrounding the “true” spatial scale of species’ responses (i.e.,...

Data from: No consistent effects of humans on animal genetic diversity worldwide

Katie Millette, Vincent Fugère, Chloé Debyser, Ariel Greiner, Frédéric Chain & Andrew Gonzalez
Human impacts on genetic diversity are poorly understood yet critical to biodiversity conservation. We used 175,247 COI sequences collected between 1980 and 2016 to assess the global effects of land use and human density on the intraspecific genetic diversity of 17,082 species of birds, fishes, insects, and mammals. Human impacts on mtDNA diversity were taxon and scale-dependent, and were generally weak or non-significant. Spatial analyses identified weak latitudinal diversity gradients as well as negative effects...

Data from: Using text-mined trait data to test for cooperate-and-radiate co-evolution between ants and plants

Katrina M. Kaur, Pierre-Jean G. Male, Erik Spence, Crisanto Gomez & Megan E. Frederickson
Mutualisms may be “key innovations” that spur lineage diversification by augmenting niche breadth, geographic range, or population size, thereby increasing speciation rates or decreasing extinction rates. Whether mutualism accelerates diversification in both interacting lineages is an open question. Research suggests that plants that attract ant mutualists have higher diversification rates than non-ant associated lineages. We ask whether the reciprocal is true: does the interaction between ants and plants also accelerate diversification in ants, i.e. do...

Data from: Eulerian videography technology improves classification of sleep architecture in primates

Emilie M. Melvin, David R. Samson & Charles L. Nunn
Sleep is a critically important dimension of primate behavior, ecology, and evolution, yet primate sleep is under-studied because current methods of analyzing sleep are expensive, invasive, and time-consuming. In contrast to electroencephalography (EEG) and actigraphy, videography is a cost-effective and non-invasive method to study sleep architecture in animals. With video data, however, it is challenging to score subtle changes that occur in different sleep states, and technology has lagged behind innovations in EEG and actigraphy....

FragSAD: A database of diversity and species abundance distributions from habitat fragments

Jonathan M. Chase, Mario Liebergesell, Alban Sagouis, Felix May, Shane A. Blowes, Åke Berg, Enrico Bernard, Berry J. Brosi, Marc W. Cadotte, Luis Cayuela, Adriano G. Chiarello, Jean-François Cosson, Will Cresswell, Filibus Danjuma Dami, Jens Dauber, Christopher R. Dickman, Raphael K. Didham, David P. Edwards, Fabio Z. Farneda, Yoni Gavish, Thiago Gonçalves-Souza, Demetrio Luis Guadagnin, Mickaël Henry, Adrià López-Baucells, Heike Kappes … & Yaron Ziv
Habitat destruction is the single greatest anthropogenic threat to biodiversity. Decades of research on this issue have led to the accumulation of hundreds of data sets comparing species assemblages in larger, intact, habitats to smaller, more fragmented, habitats. Despite this, little synthesis or consensus has been achieved, primarily because of non‐standardized sampling methodology and analyses of notoriously scale‐dependent response variables (i.e., species richness). To be able to compare and contrast the results of habitat fragmentation...

Data from: Predator macroevolution drives trophic cascades and ecosystem functioning

Denon Start
Biologists now recognize that ecology can drive evolution, and that evolution in turn produces ecological patterns. I extend this thinking to include longer time-scales, suggesting that macroevolutionary transitions can create phenotypic differences among species, which then have predictable impacts on species interactions, community assembly, and ecosystem functioning. Repeated speciation can exacerbate these patterns by creating communities with similar phenotypes and hence ecological impacts. Here, I use several experiments to test these ideas in dragonfly larvae...

Data from: Antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits

Kenneth A. Thompson, Marc T. J. Johnson, Ken A. Thompson & Marc T.J. Johnson
While many studies demonstrate that herbivores alter selection on plant reproductive traits, little is known about whether antiherbivore defenses affect selection on these traits. We hypothesized that antiherbivore defenses could alter selection on reproductive traits by altering trait expression through allocation trade-offs, or by altering interactions with mutualists and/or antagonists. To test our hypothesis, we used white clover, Trifolium repens, which has a Mendelian polymorphism for the production of hydrogen cyanide—a potent antiherbivore defense. We...

Data from: Contemporary evolution of plant growth rate following experimental removal of herbivores

Nash E. Turley, Walter C. Odell, Hanno Schaefer, Georg Everwand, Michael J. Crawley & Marc T. J. Johnson
Herbivores are credited with driving the evolutionary diversification of plant defensive strategies over macroevolutionary time. For this to be true, herbivores must also cause short-term evolution within plant populations, but few studies have experimentally tested this prediction. We addressed this gap using a long-term manipulative field experiment where exclosures protected 22 plant populations from natural rabbit herbivory for <1 to 26 years. We collected seeds of Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae) from our plots and grew...

Data from: Genomic signature of successful colonization of Eurasia by the allopolyploid shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris)

Amandine Cornille, Adriana Salcedo, Dmytro Kryvokhyzha, Sylvain Glémin, Kalle Holm, Stephen Wright & Martin Lascoux
Polyploidization is a dominant feature of flowering plant evolution. However, detailed genomic analyses of the inter-population diversification of polyploids following genome duplication are still in their infancy, mainly because of methodological limits, both in terms of sequencing and computational analyses. The shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) is one of the most common weed species in the world. It is highly self-fertilizing, and recent genomic data indicate that it is an allopolyploid, resulting from hybridization between the...

Data from: High speciation rate at temperate latitudes explains unusual diversity gradients in a clade of ectomycorrhizal fungi

Santiago Sanchez-Ramirez, Rampal S. Etienne & Jean-Marc Moncalvo
Understanding the patterns of biodiversity through time and space is a challenging task. However, phylogeny-based macroevolutionary models allow us to account and measure many of the processes responsible for diversity build-up, namely speciation and extinction. The general latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) is a well-recognized pattern describing a decline in species richness from the equator pole-wards. Recent macroecological studies in ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi have shown that their LDG is shifted, peaking at temperate rather than tropical...

Data from: Hybridization in headwater regions, and the role of rivers as drivers of speciation in Amazonian birds

Jason T. Weir, Maya S. Faccio, Paola Pulido-Santacruz, Alfredo Barrera-Guzmán & Alexandre Aleixo
Many understory birds and other groups form genetically differentiated subspecies or closely related species on opposite sides of major rivers of Amazonia, but are proposed to come into geographic contact in headwater regions where narrower river widths may present less of a dispersal barrier. Whether such forms hybridize in headwater regions is generally unknown, but has important implications to our understanding of the role of rivers as drivers of speciation. We used a dataset of...

Data from: Investigation of parallel radiofrequency transmission for the reduction of heating in long conductive leads in 3 tesla magnetic resonance imaging

Clare E. McElcheran, Benson Yang, Laleh Golenstani-Rad & Simon J. Graham
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is increasingly used to treat a variety of brain diseases by sending electrical impulses to deep brain nuclei through long, electrically conductive leads. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients pre- and post-implantation is desirable to target and position the implant, to evaluate possible side-effects and to examine DBS patients who have other health conditions. Although MRI is the preferred modality for pre-operative planning, MRI post-implantation is limited due to the risk...

Data from: The gravity of pollination: integrating at-site features into spatial analysis of contemporary pollen movement.

Michelle F. DiLeo, Jenna C. Siu, Matthew K. Rhodes, Adriana López-Villalobos, Angela Redwine, Kelly Ksiazek & Rodney J. Dyer
Pollen-mediated gene flow is a major driver of spatial genetic structure in plant populations. Both individual plant characteristics and site-specific features of the landscape can modify the perceived attractiveness of plants to their pollinators and thus play an important role in shaping spatial genetic variation. Most studies of landscape-level genetic connectivity in plants have focused on the effects of inter-individual distance using spatial and increasingly ecological separation; yet have not incorporated individual plant characteristics or...

Data from: Understanding the spectacular failure of DNA barcoding in willows (Salix): Does this result from a trans-specific selective sweep?

Diana M. Percy, George W. Argus, Quentin C. Cronk, Aron J. Fazekas, Prasad R. Kesanakurti, Kevin S. Burgess, Brian C. Husband, Steven G. Newmaster, Spencer C. H. Barrett, Sean W. Graham & Spencer C.H. Barrett
Willows (Salix: Salicaceae) form a major ecological component of Holarctic floras, and consequently are an obvious target for a DNA-based identification system. We surveyed two to seven plastid genome regions (~3.8 kb; ~3% of the genome) from 71 Salix species across all five subgenera, to assess their performance as DNA barcode markers. Although Salix has a relatively high level of interspecific hybridization, this may not sufficiently explain the near complete failure of barcoding that we...

Data from: Sexual antagonism for resistance and tolerance to infection in Drosophila melanogaster

Crystal M. Vincent, Nathaniel P. Sharp, N. P. Sharp & C. M. Vincent
A critical task in evolutionary genetics is to explain the persistence of heritable variation in fitness-related traits such as immunity. Ecological factors can maintain genetic variation in immunity, but less is known about the role of other factors, such as antagonistic pleiotropy, on immunity. Sexually dimorphic immunity—with females often being more immune-competent—may maintain variation in immunity in dioecious populations. Most eco-immunological studies assess host resistance to parasites rather than the host's ability to maintain fitness...

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