129,792 Works

Environmental stress maintains trioecy in nematode worms

Janna Lynn Fierst, Ashlyn G. Anderson & Louis T. Bubrig
Sex is determined by chromosomes in mammals but it can be influenced by the environment in many worms, crustaceans and vertebrates. Despite this, there is little understanding of the relationship between ecology and the evolution of sexual systems. The nematode Auanema freiburgensis has a unique sex determination system in which individuals carrying one X chromosome develop into males while XX individuals develop into females in stress-free environments and self-fertile hermaphrodites in stressful environments. Theory predicts...

Assessing the benefits and risks of translocations in depauperate species: a theoretical framework with an empirical validation

Elise Furlan, Bernd Gruber, Catherine Attard, Robert Wager, Adam Kerezsy, Leanne Faulks, Luciano Beheregaray & Peter Unmack
1. Conservation translocations are becoming more common to assist in the management of threatened native species. While many translocation programs focus on maximizing survival in newly established populations, consideration is also required for the persistence of source populations. 2. Here, we present and test a theoretical framework that assesses the translocation trade-off between increasing a species probability of survival and decreasing a species’ overall genetic diversity. We anticipate that i) the genetic diversity of translocated...

The signal detection problem of aposematic prey revisited: integrating prior social and personal experience

Rose Thorogood & Liisa Hämäläinen
Data collected during three separate experiments using the "novel world" (Alatalo & Mappes, Nature 1996) approach to test how social information changes predator discrimination of novel aposematic prey from a cryptic palatable alternative. Experiments were conducted with great tits (Parus major), captured from the wild and released afterwards, at the University of Jyväskylä Research Station, Konnevesi, Finland (62.6° N, 26.3° E) during three winters (2013-2014, 2016-2017, 2017-2018). Social information was provided by video playback of...

Differences in architecture and performance between two sub-canopy congeneric tropical tree species

Rafael Costa & Flavio Santos
We report architectural divergence between two congeneric tropical tree species coexisting in the same stratum which suggests different strategies: reducing self-shading and support costs, or maximizing light foraging. We found species-specific differential performance across light environments, suggesting that architectural differentiation could facilitate the coexistence of species with similar vertical habitat.

The mosaic distribution pattern of two sister bush-cricket species and the possible role of reproductive interference

Peter Kanuch, Martina Dorkova, Benjamin Jarcuska & Anton Kristin
Reproductive interference can shape regional distribution patterns in closely related species, if prezygotic isolation barriers are weak. The study of such interaction could be more challenging in nuptial gift-giving species due to the direct nutritional effects on both sexes of both species during copulation. We mapped the distribution of two sister bush-cricket species, Pholidoptera aptera and P. transsylvanica, at the northern margin of their overlapping ranges in Europe and, with a behavioural experiment, we tested...

Data from: Stoichiometric constraints modulate the effects of temperature and nutrients on biomass distribution and community stability

Arnaud Sentis, Bart Haegeman & Jose Montoya
Temperature and nutrients are two of the most important drivers of global change. Both can modify the elemental composition (i.e. stoichiometry) of primary producers and consumers. Yet their combined effect on the stoichiometry, dynamics, and stability of ecological communities remains largely unexplored. To fill this gap, we extended the Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model by including thermal dependencies, nutrient dynamics, and stoichiometric constraints on both the primary producer and the consumer. We found that stoichiometric constraints dampen...

Limited mass-independent individual variation in resting metabolic rate in a wild population of snow voles (Chionomys nivalis)

Andres Hagmayer, Glauco Camenisch, Cindy Canale, Erik Postma & Timothée Bonnet
Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a potentially important axis of physiological adaptation to the thermal environment. However, our understanding of the causes and consequences of individual variation in RMR in the wild is hampered by a lack of data, as well as analytical challenges. RMR measurements in the wild are generally characterized by large measurement errors and a strong dependency on mass. The latter is problematic when assessing the ability of RMR to evolve independently...

Herbivore phenology can predict response to changes in plant quality by livestock grazing

Yu Zhu
Livestock grazing can have a strong impact on herbivore abundance, distribution and community. However, not all species of herbivores respond the same way to livestock grazing, and we still have a poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms driving these differential responses. Here, we investigate the effect of light intensity cattle grazing on the abundance of two grasshoppers (Euchorthippus cheui and E. unicolor) that co-occur in the same grasslands and feed on the same food plant...

Microsatellite-based analysis of genetic structure and gene flow of Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in China

Mei-Mei Li, Bo‐Liao Li, Shi‐Xiong Jiang, Yu‐Wan Zhao, Xiang‐Li Xu & Jun‐Xiang Wu
The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata, is a serious agricultural pest in China. Seasonal and roundtrip migration has recently led to sudden, localized outbreaks and crop losses. To evaluate genetic differentiation between populations in eastern and western China and elucidate gene flow, the genetic structure of 20 natural populations from nine provinces was examined using seven microsatellite markers. The results indicated high genetic diversity. However, little to moderate (0 < FST < 0.15) genetic differentiation was...

Genetic structure of Polygonatum cyrtonema in Anhui province from eastern China

Xiaohong Li & Jianwen Shao
Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua, a rhizome-propagating herb endemic to China, is often used in many traditional Chinese medicines and foods. The hilly mountains in western and southern Anhui province is one of its main natural distribution and artificial cultivation areas. The genetic diversity and structure of P. cyrtonema germplasm resources in Anhui were assessed by 9 pairs of SSR primers. The results showed that the 13 sampled populations of P. cyrtonema possessed normal levels of genetic...

Reductions in the dietary niche of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from the Holocene to the Anthropocene.

Emma Elliott Smith, M. Tim Tinker, Emily Whistler, Douglas Kennett, René Vellanoweth, Diane Gifford-Gonzalez, Mark Hylkema & Seth Newsome
The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal hunted to near extinction during the 1800s. Despite their well-known importance as a keystone species, we know little about historical sea otter ecology. Here, we characterize the ecological niche of ancient southern sea otters (E. lutris nereis) using d13C and d15N analysis of bones recovered from archaeological sites spanning ~7,000 to 350 years before present (N=112 individuals) at five regions along the coast of California. These...

Hierarchical multi-grain models improve descriptions of species’ environmental associations, distribution, and abundance

Katherine Mertes, Marta Jarzyna & Walter Jetz
The characterization of species’ environmental niches and spatial distribution predictions based on them are now central to much of ecology and conservation, but implicitly requires decisions about the appropriate spatial scale (i.e. grain) of analysis. Ecological theory and empirical evidence suggest that range-resident species respond to their environment at two characteristic, hierarchical spatial grains: (i) response grain, the (relatively fine) grain at which an individual uses environmental resources, and (ii) occupancy grain, the (relatively coarse)...

Orbit Image Analysis: An open-source whole slide image analysis tool

Manuel Stritt, Anna Stalder & Enrico Vezzali
This is a whole slide image (WSI) dataset for glomeruli segmentation on kidney tissue, in total 88 images. The train-set (58 images) and test-set (32 images) has been used in the publication "Orbit Image Analysis: An open-source whole slide image analysis tool" to train and test the glomeruli segmentation model.

The neglected impact of tracking devices on terrestrial arthropods

Femke Batsleer, Dries Bonte, Daan Dekeukeleire, Steven Goossens, Ward Poelmans, Eliane Van Der Cruyssen, Dirk Maes & Martijn L. Vandegehuchte
Tracking devices have become small enough to be widely applied to arthropods to study their movement. However, possible side effects of these devices on arthropod performance and behaviour are rarely considered. We performed a systematic review of 173 papers about research in which tracking devices –Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), harmonic radar, and radio telemetry tags– were attached to terrestrial arthropods. The impact of such tags was quantified in only 12% of the papers, while in...

Small temperature variations are a key regulator of reproductive growth and assimilate storage in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)

Naoki Tani, Zubaidah Aimi Abdul Hamid, Natra Joseph, Othman Sulaiman, Rokiah Hashim, Takamitsu Arai, Akiko Satake, Toshiaki Kondo & Akihiko Kosugi
Oil palm is an important crop for global vegetable oil production, and is widely grown in the humid tropical regions of Southeast Asia. Projected future climate change may well threaten palm oil production. However, oil palm plantations currently produce large amounts of unutilised biological waste. Oil palm stems – which comprise two-thirds of the waste - are especially relevant because they can contain high levels of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) that can serve as feedstock for...

Data from: Phylogenetics and seed morphology of African Nymphoides (Menyanthaceae)

Nicholas P. Tippery & John T. Sokolik
We evaluated the boundaries among Nymphoides (Menyanthaceae) species in Africa, a region where the genus has received relatively little study. We gathered morphological data from seeds using light and scanning electron microscopy, and we conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses using nuclear sequence data from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Morphological and molecular features distinguished six species and affirmed their respective geographic ranges. No African specimens were attributable to Nymphoides indica, even though this paleotropical species...

Data from: Effects of niche overlap on co-existence, fixation, and invasion in a population of two interacting species

Matthew Badali & Anton Zilman
Synergistic and antagonistic interactions in multi-species populations - such as resource sharing and competition - result in remarkably diverse behaviors in populations of interacting cells, such as in soil or human microbiomes, or clonal competition in cancer. The degree of inter- and intra-specific interaction can often be quantified through the notion of an ecological "niche". Typically, weakly interacting species that occupy largely distinct niches result in stable mixed populations, while strong interactions and competition for...

Traits and depth: what do hydroids tell us about morphology and life-history strategies in the deep sea?

Marina Oliveira Fernandez, Allen Collins, Arjan Gittenberger, Roy Kaustuv & Antonio Carlos Marques
Aim: Traits affect the survival and reproduction of individuals in different habitat conditions, ultimately altering their distributions. In the oceans, changes in environmental conditions with bathymetry may influence the occurrence of specific traits. Therefore, characterizing trait variation with depth can illuminate drivers related to the distribution of diversity of forms, functions, and life histories. We aimed to investigate patterns of variation in the diversified life histories and morphologies of hydroids with depth, integrating these patterns...

Understanding the fate of shrimp aquaculture effluent in a mangrove ecosystem: aiding management for coastal conservation

Kathryn Hargan, Kathryn Hargan, Branwen Williams, Bunlung Nuangsaeng, Sarawut Siriwong, Pisut Tassawad, Chatdanai Chaiharn, Brian Mcadoo & Marc Los Huertos
1. Areas dedicated to shrimp aquaculture have increased dramatically over the last 50 years. Resultant land-use changes directly threaten the extent of mangroves and yield conflicts on the discharge location of aquaculture effluent. 2. Khung Krabaen Bay (KBB), Thailand, is reforesting mangroves while increasing the efficiency of shrimp aquaculture for local farmers. In this coupled shrimp farm-mangrove system, effective management requires understanding the fate of aquaculture organic matter (OM) in the coastal environment. 3. We...

Quality-quantity tradeoffs drive functional trait evolution in a model microalgal “climate change winner”

Sinead Collins & Rasumus Lindberg
Phytoplankton are the unicellular photosynthetic microbes that form the base of aquatic ecosystems, and their responses to global change will impact everything from food web dynamics to global nutrient cycles. Some taxa respond to environmental change by increasing population growth rates in the short-term, and are projected to increase in frequency over decades. To gain insight into how these projected “climate change winners” evolve, we grew populations of microalgae in ameliorated environments for several hundred...

Conservation genomics of Wyethia reticulata (Asteraceae)

Dylan Burge
Wyethia reticulata is a rare perennial herb found only on gabbro-derived soils of the Pine Hill formation in the Sierra Nevada foothills of El Dorado County, California. Wyethia reticulata is capable of both vegetative (clonal) and sexual reproduction, although the former is thought to be more common than the latter, with sexual reproduction tied to fire. The potential dominance of vegetative reproduction has conservation implications for W. reticulata, as populations could appear healthy in terms...

Wavelet filters for automated recognition of birdsong in long-time field recordings

Nirosha Priyadarshani, Stephen Marsland, Julius Juodakis, Isabel Castro & Virginia Listanti
1. Ecoacoustics has the potential to provide a large amount of information about the abundance of many animal species at a relatively low cost. Acoustic recording units are widely used in field data collection, but the facilities to reliably process the data recorded -- recognising calls that are relatively infrequent, and often significantly degraded by noise and distance to the microphone -- are not well developed yet. 2. We propose a call detection method for...

Data from: Human occupation and ecosystem change on Upolu (Samoa) during the Holocene

William Gosling, David Sear, Jonathan Hassall, Pete Langdon, Mick Bönnen, Tessa Driessen, Zoë Van Kemenada, Kevin Noort, Melanie Leng, Ian Croudace, Anna Bourne & Crystal McMichael
Aim To track the peopling of the South Pacific and assess their impact on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Location Upolu, Samoa. Taxon Ancient charcoal, pollen, sprores, algae and cyanobacteria types are recorded. Methods A sedimentary record covering the last c. 10,500 years was recovered from the volcanic crater that contains Lake Lanoto'o near the centre of Upolu Island. Information on past ecological change was obtained from microscopic and macroscopic remains extracted from the sediments: charcoal...

Using a coalescent approach to assess gene flow and effective population size of Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. Ex Mart. in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

Renan Marcelo Portela, Evandro Vagner Tambarussi, João Ricardo Bachega Feijó Rosa, Ananda Virginia De Aguiar, Fabiana Schmidt Bandeira Peres & Flávio Bertin Gandara
Acrocomia aculeata is a tropical palm tree native to Central and South America that has significant economic, social, and environmental potential. However, land encroachment due to the expansion of agribusiness, and other factors such as urban sprawl, have resulted in the fragmentation and destruction of its habitat, leading to the loss of genes and genotypes in A. aculeata populations. In this context, the objective of this study was to characterize the genetic variability of A....

Prevalence, injury-, and non-injury-related predictors of anxiety and depression in polytrauma patients – A 20 year follow-up study

Sascha Halvachizadeh
Introduction Survival rate after polytrauma increased over the past decades resulting in an increase of long-term complications. These include physical and psychiatric impairments. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and risk factors for developing depression and anxiety more than twenty years after polytrauma. Methods We contacted patients who were treated due to a polytrauma between 1973 and 1990 at one level 1 trauma centre after more than 20 years. These patients...

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