129,703 Works

Data from: Males’ calls carry information about individual identity and morphological characteristics of the caller in burrowing petrels

Charlène Gémard
We took morphometric measurements on males of two burrowing petrel species: blue petrel Halobaena caerulea ("BP") and Antarctic prion Pachyptila desolata ("AP"). We also provoked them with a playback and measured acoustic parameters on their provoked calls. Fieldwork was performed in a small sub-Antarctic island (Ile Verte, 49°51′S, 70°05′E) of the Kerguelen Archipelago, in the southern Indian Ocean, where blue petrels and the during the 2017 and 2018 birds’ incubation period (25 November 2017 to...

Data from Soil chemistry turned upside down: a meta-analysis of invasive earthworm effects on soil chemical properties

Olga Ferlian, Madhav P. Thakur, Alejandra Castañeda González, Layla M. San Emeterio, Susanne Marr, Barbbara Da Silva Rocha & Nico Eisenhauer
Recent studies have shown that invasive earthworms can dramatically reduce native biodiversity, both above and below the ground. However, we still lack a synthetic understanding of the underlying mechanisms behind these changes, such as whether earthworm effects on soil chemical properties drive such relationships. Here, we investigated the effects of invasive earthworms on soil chemical properties (pH, water content, and the stocks and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) by conducting a meta-analysis. Invasive earthworms...

Investigation of lightning ignition characteristics based on an impulse current generator.

Junwei Feng, Hao Shen & Dong Liang
Lightning strike is an important ignition source of forest fires. Artificial lightning discharge is a method for studying lightning fires. However, there is not enough data on the ignition of combustible materials caused by artificial lightning discharge. Previous studies on lightning ignition have focused on the heating and ignition effects of long continuing current (LCC), but the function of the impulse current that occurs before the LCC has not been taken into account. In this...

Data from: A new tetraradial olivooid (Medusozoa) from the Lower Cambrian (Stage 2) Yanjiahe Formation, South China

Junfeng Guo, Jian Han, Heyo Van Iten, Zuchen Song, Yaqin Qiang, Wenzhe Wang, Zhifei Zhang, Guoxiang Li, Yifei Sun & Jie Sun
Octapyrgites elongatus n. gen. n. sp., a relatively rare, tetraradial olivooid (Cnidaria, Medusozoa), is described from Bed 5 of the Yanjiahe Formation (Cambrian Stage 2) near Yichang, China. Though similar to Olivooides and Quadrapyrgites from the Fortunian Stage in consisting of a partially corrugated (long.) periderm with a quadrate (transv.) apical portion and V-shaped apertural lobes, O. elongatus is substantially larger than other olivooids. The elongate apical region of O. elongatus is similar to four-sided...

Data from: Molecular responses to freshwater limitation in the mangrove tree Avicennia germinans (Acanthaceae)

Mariana Vargas Cruz, Gustavo Maruyama Mori, Dong-Ha Oh, Maheshi Dassanayake, Maria Imaculada Zucchi, Rafael Silva Oliveira & Anete Pereira De Souza
Environmental variation along the geographical space can shape populations by natural selection. In the context of global warming and changing precipitation regimes, it is crucial to understand the role of environmental heterogeneity in tropical trees adaptation, given their disproportional contribution to water and carbon biogeochemical cycles. Here, we investigated how heterogeneity in freshwater availability along tropical wetlands has influenced molecular variations of the Black Mangrove (Avicennia germinans). Fifty-seven trees were sampled in seven sites differing...

Data from: Understory diversity and composition after planting of teak and mahogany in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Cicik Udayana, Harry P. Andreassen & Christina Skarpe
Forest rehabilitation is when a desired tree species is planted in degraded forests or lands. Rehabilitation by planting a single tree species is a common way to restore exploited forests to maintain ecological processes. We compared woody and herbaceous understory vegetation between forests rehabilitated by mahogany (N = 12) or teak (N = 12) planted from 1941 until 2003 in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Understory vegetation of these areas were compared with that of three native forests....

Links between prey assemblages and poison frog toxins: a landscape ecology approach to assess how biotic interactions affect species phenotypes

Ivan Prates, Andrea Paz, Jason Brown & Ana Carnaval
Ecological studies of species pairs showed that biotic interactions promote phenotypic change and eco-evolutionary feedbacks. However, it is unclear how phenotypes respond to synergistic interactions with multiple taxa. We investigate whether interactions with multiple prey species explain spatially structured variation in the skin toxins of the Neotropical poison frog Oophaga pumilio. Specifically, we assess how dissimilarity (i.e., beta diversity) of alkaloid-bearing arthropod prey assemblages (68 ant species) and evolutionary divergence between frog populations (from a...

The amount of RNA editing sites in liverwort organellar genes is correlated with GC content and nuclear PPR protein diversity

Shanshan Dong, Chaoxian Zhao, Shouzhou Zhang, Hong Wu, Weixue Mu, Tong Wei, Na Li, Tao Wan, Huan Liu, Jie Cui, Ruiliang Zhu, Bernard Goffinet & Yang Liu
RNA editing occurs in the organellar mRNAs of all land plants but the marchantioid liverworts, making liverworts a perfect group for studying the evolution of RNA editing. Here we profiled the RNA editing of 42 exemplars spanning the ordinal phylogenetic diversity of liverworts, and screened for the nuclear-encoded PPR proteins in the transcriptome assemblies of these taxa. We identified 7,428 RNA editing sites in 128 organellar genes from 31 non-marchantioid liverwort species, and characterized 25,059...

Data from: The Chord-Normalized Expected Species Shared (CNESS)-distance represents a superior measure of species turnover patterns

Yi Zou & Jan Axmacher
1. Measures of β-diversity characterizing the difference in species composition between samples are commonly used in ecological studies. Nonetheless, commonly used dissimilarity measures require high sample completeness, or at least similar sample sizes between samples. In contrast, the Chord-Normalized Expected Species Shared (CNESS) dissimilarity measure calculates the probability of collecting the same set of species in random samples of a standardized size, and hence is not sensitive to completeness or size of compared samples. To...

Data from: Altitude shapes the environmental drivers of large-scale variation in abundance of a widespread mammal species

Mickaël Jacquier, Clément Calenge, Ludovic Say, Sébastien Devillard & Sandrine Ruette
Habitat quality and heterogeneity directly influence the distribution and abundance of organisms at different spatial scales. Determining the main environmental factors driving the variation in species abundance is crucial to understand the underlying ecological processes and this is especially important for widely distributed species living in contrasting environments. However, the responses to environmental variation are usually described at relatively small spatial scales. Here, we studied the variation in abundance of a widely distributed mustelid, the...

The Relationship between Obesity-Related Factors and Graves' Orbitopathy

Ching Lu, Chao-Lun Lai, Chih-Man Yang, Chie-Shung Kao, Tien-Chun Chang & Ming-Der Perng
Background/Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are relationships between obesity-related factors including body mass index (BMI), diabetes or prediabetes, hyperlipidemia, fasting plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Graves’ orbitopathy (GO). Subjects/Methods: Eighty-four patients with Graves’ disease (GD) (42 without GO and 42 with GO) were enrolled in this Cross-sectional cohort study. Sex, age, GD treatment history, height, body...

Demography of the giant monocarpic herb Rheum nobile in the Himalayas and the effect of disturbances by grazing

Bo Song, Peter Stoll, Deli Peng, Hang Sun, Juerg Stoecklin & Jürg Stöcklin
Abstract Background Perennity of giant rosette species in combination with a single “big bang“ reproduction followed by death of the genetic individual is relatively rare among plants. Such long-lived monocarpic plants are usually slow growing and can be found in deserts, bogs or in alpine regions of the tropics or subtropics. Due to their longevity monocarpic perennials risk to lose everything before reproduction, which make them particularly susceptible to disturbances. Because of the inherent difficulties...

GaN and InGaN nanowires prepared by metal-assisted electroless etching: experimental and theoretical studies

Adel Najar, Assa S. Aravindh, Bin Xin, Somak Mitra & Iman S. Roqan
We investigate the optical and structural properties of GaN and InGaN nanowires (NWs) fabricated by metal-assisted electroless etching in a hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution. The emission spectra of GaN and InGaN NWs exhibit a red shift compared to the as-grown samples resulting from an increase in the surface-to-volume ratio and stress relaxation in these nanostructures. The carrier lifetimes of GaN and InGaN NWs were measured. In addition, density functional theory (DFT) investigations were carried out...

Antibacterial medicine use in the management of children under five years with symptoms of Acute respiratory tract infections in Northern Uganda

Hindum Lanyero
Abstract: Background: Symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) in children under five years are usually treated with antibacterial medicines. Inappropriate use of antibacterial medicines is a major public health issue of concern since it can promote emergence of resistance, wastage of financial resources, morbidity and mortality. Aims: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with antibacterial use in managing symptoms of ARIs in households in rural communities of northern Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional study...

Data from: Rapid adaptation of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans to changing temperature

Jiasui Zhan, E-Jiao Wu, Yan-Ping Wang, Lurwanu Yahuza, Meng-Han He, Dan-Li Sun, Yan-Mei Huang, Yu-Chan Liu, Li-Na Yang1, Wen Zhu & Jiasui Zhan
Temperature plays a multidimensional role in host-pathogen interactions. As an important element of climate change, elevated world temperature resulting from global warming presents new challenges to sustainable disease management. Knowledge of pathogen adaptation to global warming is needed to predict future disease epidemiology and formulate mitigating strategies. In this study, 21 Phytophthora infestans isolates originating from seven thermal environments were acclimated for 200 days under stepwise increase or decrease of experimental temperatures and evolutionary responses...

Data from: Isolation of Metrosideros (`Ohi`a) taxa on O`ahu increases with elevation and extreme environments

Elizabeth Stacy, Tomoko Sakishima, Heaven Tharp & Neil Snow
Species radiations should be facilitated by short generation times and limited dispersal among discontinuous populations. Hawaii’s hyper-diverse, landscape-dominant tree, Metrosideros, is unique among the islands’ radiations for its massive populations that occur continuously over space and time within islands, its exceptional capacity for gene flow by both pollen and seed, and its extended life span (ca. >650 years). Metrosideros shows the greatest phenotypic and microsatellite DNA diversity on O`ahu, where taxa occur in tight sympatry...

Cultural linkage: the influence of package transmission on cultural dynamics

Justin Yeh, Laurel Fogarty & Anne Kandler
Many cultural traits are not transmitted independently, but together as a package. This can happen because, for example, media may store information together making it more likely to be transmitted together, or through cognitive mechanisms such as causal reasoning. Evolutionary biology suggests that physical linkage of genes (being on the same chromosome) allows neutral and maladaptive genes to spread by hitchhiking on adaptive genes, while the pairwise difference between neutral genes is unaffected. Whether packaging...

Shrinking dinosaurs and the evolution of endothermy in birds

Enrico Rezende
The evolution of endothermy represents a major transition in vertebrate history and a major factor underlying the diversity of birds and mammals. Despite the several advantages of an endothermic lifestyle, the tempo and mode of the evolution of endothermy in these lineages remains one of the most controversial subjects in paleontology and evolutionary physiology. Here, we combine a heat transfer model with body size estimates in the theropod phylogeny to reconstruct the evolution of metabolic...

Shared morphological consequences of global warming in North American migratory birds

Brian Weeks, David Willard, Marketa Zimova, Aspen Ellis, Max Witynski, Mary Hennen & Ben Winger
Increasing temperatures associated with climate change are predicted to cause reductions in body size, a key determinant of animal physiology and ecology. Using a four-decade specimen series of 70,716 individuals of 52 North American migratory bird species, we demonstrate that increasing annual summer temperature over the 40-year period predicts consistent reductions in body size across these diverse taxa. Concurrently, wing length—an index of body shape that impacts numerous aspects of avian ecology and behavior—has consistently...

Nest microhabitats and tree size mediate shifts in ant community structure across elevation in tropical rainforest canopies

Nichola Plowman, Ondrej Mottl, Vojtech Novotny, Clifson Idigel, Frank Jurgen Philip & Petr Klimes
Declines or mid-elevation peaks in invertebrate diversity with elevation are often attributed to climate and geometric constraints. However, vegetation structure may also drive diversity patterns, especially for tree-dwelling species, via its effects on microhabitat use and competitive interactions. Here we investigate these effects on the diversity and community structure of tree-nesting ants over elevation. We exhaustively sampled ant nests in 1254 trees within continuous plots of primary rainforest at low (200 m a.s.l.), mid (900...

Data from: Rain shadow effects predict population differences in thermal tolerance of leaf-cutting ant workers (Atta cephalotes)

Kaitlin M. Baudier & Sean O'Donnell
Tests of hypotheses for the evolution of thermal physiology often rely on mean temperatures, but mounting evidence suggests geographic variation in temperature extremes is also an important predictor of species’ thermal tolerances. Although the tropics are less thermally variable than higher latitude regions, rain shadows on the leeward sides of mountains can experience greater diel and seasonal variation in temperature than windward sites. Rain shadows provide opportunities to test predictions about the relationships of extreme...

Data from: Allometric scaling laws linking biomass and rooting depth vary across ontogeny and functional groups in tropical dry forest lianas and trees

Chris M. Smith-Martin, Xiangtao Xu, David Medvigy, Stefan Schnitzer & Jennifer Powers
There are two theories about how allocation of metabolic products occurs. The allometric biomass partitioning theory (APT) suggests that all plants follow common allometric scaling rules. The optimal partitioning theory (OPT) predicts that plants allocate more biomass to the organ capturing the most limiting resource. We used whole-plant harvests of mature and juvenile tropical deciduous trees, evergreen trees, and lianas and model simulations to address the following knowledge gaps: 1) Do mature lianas comply with...

Data from: Activation of β-catenin signaling and its cross talk with estrogen and histone deacetylases in human uterine fibroids

Mohamed Ali, Sara Shahin, Nagwa Sabri, Ayman Al-Hendy & Qiwei Yang
Context: Uterine Fibroid (UF) is the most common benign tumor in myometrium (MM) of reproductive age women. However, mechanism underlying disease pathogenesis is largely unknown. Objective: To explore the link between nuclear β-catenin and UF phenotype and β-catenin cross-talk with estrogen and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Design protein/RNA levels of β-catenin (CTNNB1), its responsive markers [CyclinD1, c-Myc], Androgen receptor (AR), p27 and class-I HDACs were measured in matched UF/MM tissues or cell populations. Chemical inhibition/activation and...

DNA methylation profiles suggest intergenerational transfer of maternal effects

Clare Venney, Oliver Love, Jane Drown & Daniel Heath
The view of maternal effects (non-genetic maternal environmental influence on offspring phenotype) has changed from one of distracting complications in evolutionary genetics to an important evolutionary mechanism for improving offspring fitness. Recent studies have shown that maternal effects act as an adaptive mechanism to prepare offspring for stressful environments. Although research into the magnitude of maternal effects is abundant, the molecular mechanisms of maternal influences on offspring phenotypic variation are not fully understood. Despite recent...

Direct and indirect effects of island size and wave exposure on shoreline arthropod diversity

Peter Hambäck, Alma Strandmark, Elsa Aggemyr & Sara Cousins
Aim: Available theories suggest that the species number increases with island size, but the relationship between island size and species density, the number of species per unit area, is less understood. Moreover, mechanisms connecting island size and species density are not always evident because small and large islands differ in physical characteristics other than island size. The purpose here was to disentangle direct and indirect effects of island size and wave exposure on the species...

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