5,864 Works

Data from: Mortality in Schizophrenia and Related Psychoses: Data from Two Cohorts, 1875-1924 & 1994-2010.

David Healy, Joanna Le Noury, Margaret Harris, Mohammed Butt, Stefanie Linden, Chris Whitaker, Lu Zou & Anthony Roberts
Objective: To investigate mortality rates in schizophrenia and related psychoses. Design: Data from two epidemiologically complete cohorts of patients presenting for the first time to mental health services in North Wales for whom there are at least 1, and up to 10 year follow up data have been used to calculate survival rates and standardized mortality rates for schizophrenia and related psychoses. Setting: The North Wales Asylum Denbigh (archived patient case notes) and the North...

Data from: Kin-bias, breeding site selection, and female fitness in a cannibalistic Neotropical frog

Pavitra Muralidhar, Fábio P. De Sá, Célio F. B. Haddad & Kelly R. Zamudio
Resource availability influences sexual selection within populations and determines whether behaviours such as territoriality or resource sharing are adaptive. In Thoropa taophora, a frog endemic to the Atlantic Coastal Rainforest of Brazil, males compete for and defend limited breeding sites while females often share breeding sites with other females; however, sharing breeding sites may involve costs due to cannibalism by conspecific tadpoles. We studied a breeding population of T. taophora to determine (i) whether this...

Data from: Recombination in the threespine stickleback genome – patterns and consequences

Marius Roesti, Dario Moser & Daniel Berner
Heterogeneity in recombination rate may strongly influence genome evolution and entail methodological challenges in genomic investigations. Nevertheless, a solid understanding of these issues awaits detailed information across a broad range of taxa. Based on 282 F2 individuals and 1,872 single nucleotide polymorphisms, we characterize recombination in the threespine stickleback fish genome. We find an average genome-wide recombination rate of 3.11 cM/Mb. Crossover frequencies are dramatically elevated in the chromosome peripheries as compared to the centers,...

Data from: A century-long genetic record reveals that protist effective population sizes are comparable to those of macroscopic species

Phillip C. Watts, Nina Lundholm, Sofia Ribeiro, Marianne Ellegaard, M. Ellegaard, P. C. Watts & S. Ribeiro
Effective population size (Ne) determines the rate of genetic drift and the relative influence of selection over random genetic changes. While free-living protist populations characteristically consist of huge numbers of cells (N), the absence of any estimates of contemporary Ne raises the question whether protist effective population sizes are comparably large. Using microsatellite genotype data of strains derived from revived cysts of the marine dinoflagellate Pentapharsodinum dalei from sections of a sediment record that spanned...

Data from: Camouflaged or tanned: plasticity in freshwater snail pigmentation

Johan Ahlgren, Xi Yang, Lars-Anders Hansson, Christer Brőnmark, L.-A. Hansson, X. Yang & J. Ahlgren
By having phenotypically plastic traits, such as morphology, behaviour and life history, many organisms optimise their fitness in response to fluctuating threats. Freshwater snails with translucent shells, e.g. snails from the Radix genus, differ considerably in their mantle pigmentation patterns, with snails from the same water body ranging from completely dark pigmented to only a few dark patterns. These pigmentation differences have previously been suggested to be genetically fixed, but we suggest that this polymorphism...

Data from: Conserved class of queen pheromones stops social insect workers from reproducing

Annette Van Oystaeyen, Ricardo Caliari Oliveira, Luke Holman, Jelle S. Van Zweden, Carmen Romero, Cintia A. Oi, Patrizia D'Ettorre, Mohammadreza Khalesi, Johan Billen, Felix Wäckers, Jocelyn G. Millar & Tom Wenseleers
A major evolutionary transition to eusociality with reproductive division of labor between queens and workers has arisen independently at least 10 times in the ants, bees, and wasps. Pheromones produced by queens are thought to play a key role in regulating this complex social system, but their evolutionary history remains unknown. Here, we identify the first sterility-inducing queen pheromones in a wasp, bumblebee, and desert ant and synthesize existing data on compounds that characterize female...

Data from: Infection dynamics in coexisting sexual and asexual host populations: support for the Red Queen hypothesis

Daniela Vergara, Jukka Jokela & Curtis M. Lively
The persistence of sexual reproduction is a classic problem in evolutionary biology. The problem stems from the fact that, all else equal, asexual lineages should rapidly replace coexisting sexual individuals due to the cost of producing males in sexual populations. One possible countervailing advantage to sexual reproduction is that, on average, outcrossed offspring are more resistant than common clones to coevolving parasites, as predicted under the Red Queen hypothesis. In the present study, we evaluated...

Data from: Gene trees, species trees and Earth history combine to shed light on the evolution of migration in a model avian system

Gary Voelker, Rauri C. K. Bowie & John Klicka
The evolution of migration in birds has fascinated biologists for centuries. In this study, we performed phylogenetic-based analyses of Catharus thrushes, a model genus in the study of avian migration, and their close relatives. For these analyses, we used both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and the resulting phylogenies were used to trace migratory traits and biogeographic patterns. Our results provide the first robust assessment of relationships within Catharus and relatives and indicate that both mitochondrial...

Data from: Functional traits explain variation in plant life history strategies

Peter B. Adler, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Aldo Compagnoni, Joanna S. Hsu, Jayanti Ray-Mukherjee, Cyril Mbeau-Ache & Miguel Franco
Ecologists seek general explanations for the dramatic variation in species abundances in space and time. An increasingly popular solution is to predict species distributions, dynamics and responses to environmental change based on easily measured anatomical and morphological traits. Trait-based approaches assume that simple functional traits influence fitness and life history evolution, but rigorous tests of this assumption are lacking because they require quantitative information about the full life-cycles of many species representing different life histories....

Data from: Multilocus patterns of genetic variation across Cryptosporidium species suggest balancing selection at the gp60 locus

Jose Luis Abal-Fabeiro, Xulio Maside, Xabier Bello, Jose Llovo & Carolina Bartolomé
Cryptosporidium is an apicomplexan protozoan that parasites most vertebrates, including humans. Its gp60 gene is functionally involved in its attachement to host’s cells and its high level of genetic variation has made it the reference marker for sample typing in epidemiological studies. To understand the origin of such high diversity and to determine the extent to which this classification applies to the rest of the genome, we analysed the patterns of variation at gp60 and...

Data from: Morphological analysis of phylogenetic relationships among extant rhynchonellide brachiopods

Holly A. Schreiber, Maria Aleksandra Bitner & Sandra J. Carlson
Rhynchonellida is the stratigraphically oldest and phylogenetically most basal of the extant rhynchonelliform brachiopod orders, yet phylogenetic relationships among rhynchonellides are poorly known. The fourteen named rhynchonellide superfamilies (four of which have extant representatives) were defined primarily on the basis of features of the dorsal cardinalia, particularly crural morphology, but their homology and polarity have not been investigated rigorously. Superfamily monophyly is unclear, as is the evolution of several distinctive rhynchonellide morphological features, such as...

Data from: Continental diversification of an African catfish radiation (Mochokidae: Synodontis)

Julia J. Day, Claire R. Peart, Katherine J. Brown, Roger Bills, John P. Friel & Timo Moritz
Despite African rivers containing high species diversity, continental-scale studies investigating the mechanisms generating biological diversity of African riverine faunas are limited compared to lacustrine systems.To investigate the build up of diversity in a tropical aquatic continental radiation, we test different models of lineage diversification and reconstruct the biogeographic history in a species-rich siluriform genus, Synodontis (~130 species), with a broad distribution across all major tropical African drainage basins. The resulting robust species-level phylogeny (~60% complete,...

Data from: Similarity in temporal variation in sex-biased dispersal over short and long distances in the dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis

Eric B. Liebgold, Nicole M. Gerlach & Ellen D. Ketterson
Patterns of sex-biased dispersal are typically consistent within taxa, e.g., female-biased in birds and male-biased in mammals, leading to theories about the evolutionary pressures that lead to sex-biased dispersal. However, generalizations about the evolution of sex biases tend to overlook that dispersal is mediated by ecological factors that vary over time. We examined potential temporal variation in between- and within-population dispersal over an 11-year period in a bird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). We measured...

Data from: Phylogeny of Tetillidae (Porifera, Demospongiae, Spirophorida) based on three molecular markers

Amir Szitenberg, Leontine E. Becking, Sergio Vargas, Júlio C. C. Fernandez, Nadiezhda Santodomingo, Gert Wörheide, Micha Ilan, Michelle Kelly & Dorothée Huchon
Tetillidae are spherical to elliptical cosmopolitan demosponges. The family comprises eight genera: namely, Acanthotetilla Burton, 1959, Amphitethya Lendenfeld, 1907, Cinachyra Sollas, 1886, Cinachyrella Wilson, 1925, Craniella Schmidt, 1870, Fangophilina Schmidt, 1880, Paratetilla Dendy, 1905, and Tetilla Schmidt, 1868. These genera are characterized by few conflicting morphological characters, resulting in an ambiguity of phylogenetic relationships. The phylogeny of tetillid genera was investigated using the cox1, 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA (C1-D2 domains) genes in 88 specimens...

Data from: Parallel evolution of local adaptation and reproductive isolation in the face of gene flow

Roger K. Butlin, Maria Saura, Grégory Charrier, Benjamin Jackson, Carl André, Armando Caballero, Jerry A. Coyne, Juan Galindo, John W. Grahame, Johann Hollander, Petri Kemppainen, Mónica Martínez-Fernández, Marina Panova, Humberto Quesada, Kerstin Johannesson, Emilio Rolán-Alvarez & Johan Hollander
Parallel evolution of similar phenotypes provides strong evidence for the operation of natural selection. Where these phenotypes contribute to reproductive isolation, they further support a role for divergent, habitat-associated selection in speciation. However, the observation of pairs of divergent ecotypes currently occupying contrasting habitats in distinct geographical regions is not sufficient to infer parallel origins. Here we show striking parallel phenotypic divergence between populations of the rocky-shore gastropod, Littorina saxatilis, occupying contrasting habitats exposed to...

Data from: Local adaptation of sex-induction in a facultative sexual crustacean: insights from QTL mapping and natural population of Daphnia magna

Anne C. Roulin, Jarko Routtu, Matthew D. Hall, Tim Janicke, Isabelle Colson, Christoph R. Haag, Dieter Ebert & Jarkko Routtu
Dormancy is a common adaptation in invertebrates to survive harsh conditions. Triggered by environmental cues, populations produce resting eggs that allow them to survive temporally unsuitable conditions. Daphnia magna is a crustacean that reproduces by cyclical parthenogenesis, alternating between the production of asexual offspring and the sexual reproduction of diapausing eggs (ephippia). Prior to ephippia production, males (necessary to ensure ephippia fertilization) are produced parthenogenetically. Both the production of ephippia and the parthenogenetic production of...

Data from: An expansion of age constraints for microbial clades that lack a conventional fossil record using phylogenomic dating

Carrine E. Blank
Most microbial taxa lack a conventional microfossil or biomarker record, and so we currently have little information regarding how old most microbial clades and their associated traits are. Building on the previously published oxygen age constraint, two new age constraints are proposed based on the ability of microbial clades to metabolize chitin and aromatic compounds derived from lignin. Using the archaeal domain of life as a test case, phylogenetic analyses, along with published metabolic and...

Data from: Reconstructing the phylogenetic history of long-term effective population size and life-history traits using patterns of amino acid replacement in mitochondrial genomes of mammals and birds

Benoit Nabholz, Nicole Uwimana & Nicolas Lartillot
The nearly neutral theory, which proposes that most mutations are deleterious or close to neutral, predicts that the ratio of nonsynonymous over synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS), and potentially also the ratio of radical over conservative amino acid replacement rates (Kr/Kc), are negatively correlated with effective population size. Previous empirical tests, using life-history traits (LHT) such as body-size or generation-time as proxies for population size, have been consistent with these predictions. This suggests that large-scale phylogenetic...

Data from: Environmental harshness is positively correlated with intraspecific divergence in mammals and birds

Carlos A. Botero, Roi Dor, Christy M. McCain & Rebecca J. Safran
Life on Earth is conspicuously more diverse in the tropics. Although this intriguing geographical pattern has been linked to many biotic and abiotic factors, their relative importance and potential interactions are still poorly understood. The way in which latitudinal changes in ecological conditions influence evolutionary processes is particularly controversial, as there is evidence for both a positive and a negative latitudinal gradient in speciation rates. Here, we identify and address some methodological issues (how patterns...

Data from: Accelerated rate of molecular evolution for vittarioid ferns is strong and not due to selection

Carl J. Rothfels & Eric Schuettpelz
Molecular evolutionary rate heterogeneity—the violation of a molecular clock—is a prominent feature of many phylogenetic datasets. It has particular importance to systematists not only because of its biological implications, but also for its practical effects on our ability to infer and date evolutionary events. Here we show, using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches, that a remarkably strong increase in substitution rate in the vittarioid ferns is consistent across the nuclear and plastid genomes. Contrary...

Data from: Spatiotemporal SNP analysis reveals pronounced biocomplexity at the northern range margin of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

Nina Overgaard Therkildsen, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Rasmus Berg Hedeholm, Mary S. Wisz, Dorte Meldrup, Sara Bonanomi, Anja Retzel, Steffen Malskær Olsen, Einar Eg Nielsen & Christophe Pampoulie
Accurate prediction of species distribution shifts in the face of climate change requires a sound understanding of population diversity and local adaptations. Previous modeling has suggested that global warming will lead to increased abundance of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the ocean around Greenland, but the dynamics of earlier abundance fluctuations are not well understood. We applied a retrospective spatiotemporal population genomics approach to examine the temporal stability of cod population structure in this region...

Data from: Multilocus species delimitation in a complex of morphologically conserved trapdoor spiders (Mygalomorphae, Antrodiaetidae, Aliatypus)

Jordan D. Satler, Bryan C. Carstens & Marshal Hedin
Species are a fundamental unit for biological studies, yet no uniform guidelines exist for determining species limits in an objective manner. Given the large number of species concepts available, defining species can be both highly subjective and biased. Although morphology has been commonly used to determine species boundaries, the availability and prevalence of genetic data has allowed researchers to use such data to make inferences regarding species limits. Genetic data also have been used in...

Data from: Anolis sex chromosomes are derived from a single ancestral pair

Tony Gamble, Anthony J. Geneva, Richard E. Glor & David Zarkower
To explain the frequency and distribution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes in the lizard genus Anolis we compared the relative roles of sex chromosome conservation vs. turnover of sex determining mechanisms. We used model based comparative methods to reconstruct karyotype evolution and the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes onto a newly generated Anolis phylogeny. We found that heteromorphic sex chromosomes evolved multiple times in the genus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of repetitive DNA showed variable...

Data from: The mating behaviour of the seed shrimp Parapolycope spiralis (Ostracoda: Cladocopina), with insight into the evolution of mating systems in cryptic interstitial habitats

Hayato Tanaka
The mating behaviour of the interstitial ostracod Parapolycope spiralis Tanaka & Tsukagoshi, 2010 is reported here for the first time. This species is adapted to an interstitial environment, and is typified by having tiny body size and being completely blind. In this paper it is presumed that the characteristics of the mating behaviour are typical for species in an interstitial environment. Observations by microscopy on mating behaviour in the laboratory showed various distinct stages: (1)...

Data from: Host species and environmental effects on bacterial communities associated with Drosophila in the laboratory and in the natural environment

Fabian Staubach, John F. Baines, Sven Künzel, Elisabeth M. Bik & Dmitri A. Petrov
The fruit fly Drosophila is a classic model organism to study adaptation as well as the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypes. Although associated bacterial communities might be important for many aspects of Drosophila biology, knowledge about their diversity, composition, and factors shaping them is limited. We used 454-based sequencing of a variable region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene to characterize the bacterial communities associated with wild and laboratory Drosophila isolates. In order...

Registration Year

  • 2013

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  • Dataset


  • University of California System
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • University of Oxford
  • University of British Columbia
  • University of Exeter
  • Uppsala University
  • Yale University
  • French National Institute for Agricultural Research
  • University of Helsinki
  • University of Washington
  • Duke University
  • Cornell University
  • University of Georgia
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Edinburgh