Raw data for experiment that manipulated the position of a point mass on leaves in wind. All position and size data are given in cm, and masses are in grams.
Occurrences of Laques erythraeus, Leopecten diegensis and Chlamys hastata in living (Live) and death (Dead) assemblages, with latitude, longitude, water depth (m), year of sampling (NA if unknown) and sampling gear. Some data refer to presence-absence data (0-absent, 1-present) and some to abundance data (column Data). Occurrences are partitioned into mainland-shelf and island-shelf occurrences (column Shelf.island). Some occurrences are based on photographic surveys. The column "Survey" refers to monitoring of wastewater agencies (LA City, LA...
A bipolar disjunction is an extreme, yet common, biogeographic pattern in non-vascular plants, yet its underlying mechanisms (vicariance or long-distance dispersal), origin and timing remain poorly understood. Here, combining a large-scale population dataset and multiple dating analyses, we examine the biogeography of four bipolar Polytrichales mosses, common to the Holarctic (temperate and polar Northern Hemisphere regions) and the Antarctic region (Antarctic, sub-Antarctic, southern South America) and other Southern Hemisphere (SH) regions. Our data reveal contrasting...
This is the inferred maximum clade credibility tree based on common ancestor tree heights. The tree summarizes the 1401 randomly subsampled trees of the node dating analysis (with narrow calibration densities), using 15 fossils; resulting from the beast2 analysis using the NDnl.xml input-file.
Data from: The impact of mating systems and dispersal on fine-scale genetic structure at maternally, paternally and biparentally inherited markersRobyn E. Shaw, Sam C. Banks & Rod Peakall
For decades, studies have focused on how dispersal and mating systems influence genetic structure across populations or social-groups. However, we still lack a thorough understanding of how these processes and their interaction, shape spatial genetic patterns over a finer-scale (tens – hundreds of metres). Using uniparentally inherited markers may help answer these questions, yet their potential has not been fully explored. Here, we use individual-level simulations to investigate the effects of dispersal and mating system...
The transcription factor NF-κB plays an important role in the immune system, apoptosis and inflammation. Dorsal, a Drosophila homolog of NF-κB, patterns the dorsal-ventral axis in the blastoderm embryo. During this stage, Dorsal is sequestered outside the nucleus by the IκB homolog Cactus. Toll signaling on the ventral side breaks the Dorsal/Cactus complex, allowing Dorsal to enter the nucleus to regulate target genes. Fluorescent data show that Dorsal accumulates on the ventral side of the...
Data from: EuMIXFOR empirical forest mensuration and ring width data from pure and mixed stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) through EuropeMichael Heym, Ricardo Ruíz-Peinado, Miren Del Río, Kamil Bielak, David I. Forrester, Gerald Dirnberger, Ignacio Barbeito, Gediminas Brazaitis, Indrė Ruškytė, Lluís Coll, Marek Fabrika, Lars Drössler, Magnus Löf, Hubert Sterba, Václav Hurt, Viktor Kurylak, Fabio Lombardi, Dejan Stojanović, Jan Den Ouden, Renzo Motta, Maciej Pach, Jerzy Skrzyszewski, Quentin Ponette, Géraud De Streel, Vit Sramek … & Hans Pretzsch
This data set provides unique empirical data from triplets of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) across Europe. Dendrometric variables are provided for 32 triplets, 96 plots, 7555 trees and 4695 core samples. These data contribute to our understanding of mixed stand dynamics.
Data from: Roads elicit negative movement and habitat-selection responses by wolverines (Gulo gulo luscus)Matthew A. Scrafford, Tal Avgar, Rick Heeres, Mark S. Boyce, Matthew A Scrafford & Mark S Boyce
Wildlife behavior when crossing roads is likely to mirror natural responses to predation risk including not responding, pausing, avoiding, or increasing speed during crossing. We generated coarse-scale behavioral predictions based on these expectations that could be assessed with GPS radiotelemetry. We evaluated our predictions using an integrated step-selection analysis of wolverine (Gulo gulo luscus) space use in relation to spatially and temporally dynamic vehicle traffic on industrial roads in northern Alberta. We compared support for...
Data from: Landscape features along migratory routes influence adaptive genomic variation in anadromous steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss)Steven J. Micheletti, Amanda R. Matala, Andrew P. Matala & Shawn R. Narum
Organisms typically show evidence of adaptation to features within their local environment. However, many species undergo long-distance dispersal or migration across larger geographical regions that consist of highly heterogeneous habitats. Therefore, selection may influence adaptive genetic variation associated with landscape features at residing sites and along migration routes in migratory species. We tested for genomic adaptation to landscape features at natal spawning sites and along migration paths to the ocean of anadromous steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus...
Most existing measures of distance between phylogenetic trees are based on the geometry or topology of the trees. Instead, we consider distance measures which are based on the underlying probability distributions on genetic sequence data induced by trees. Monte Carlo schemes are necessary to calculate these distances approximately, and we describe efficient sampling procedures. Key features of the distances are the ability to include substitution model parameters and to handle trees with different taxon sets...
Data from: A century of changing flows: forest management changed flow magnitudes and warming advanced the timing of flow in a southwestern US riverMarcos D. Robles, Dale S. Turner & Jeanmarie A. Haney
The continued provision of water from rivers in the southwestern United States to downstream cities, natural communities and species is at risk due to higher temperatures and drought conditions in recent decades. Snowpack and snowfall levels have declined, snowmelt and peak spring flows are arriving earlier, and summer flows have declined. Concurrent to climate change and variation, a century of fire suppression has resulted in dramatic changes to forest conditions, and yet, few studies have...
Parental care is critical for fitness, yet little is known about its genetic basis. Here, we estimate the heritability of parenting behaviour in a species famous for its diversity and its behavioural repertoire: three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Male threespined stickleback are the sole providers of paternal care that is necessary for offspring survival, therefore this system offers the opportunity to study the inheritance of parental behavior when selection is primarily acting on males. Fanning behaviour...
Data from: Natural and anthropogenic sounds reduce song performance: insights from two emberizid speciesBenjamin M. Davidson, Gabriela Antonova, Haven Dlott, Jesse R. Barber, Clinton D. Francis & Benjamin Davidson
Anthropogenic sounds influence animal vocal behaviour, species distributions, and community assemblages. Natural sounds also have the potential to affect the behaviour and ecology of animals, but it is currently unknown if the effects of natural sounds match those of anthropogenic sounds. Here, we quantified and compared the effects of natural and anthropogenic sounds on avian song performance by calculating trade-off frontiers based on trill rate and bandwidth of 2 emberizid species. Chipping sparrows (Spizella passerina)...
Data from: Test flattening in the larger foraminifer Heterostegina depressa: predicting bathymetry from axial sectionsWolfgang Eder, Johann Hohenegger & Antonino Briguglio
Previous attempts to quantify the test flattening trend in Heterostegina depressa with water depth have been rather unsuccessful. Due to its broad depth distribution, H. depressa is a perfect model species to calibrate test flattening as a bathymetric signal for fossil assemblages. This might enable us to better reconstruct palaeoenvironments of fossil larger foraminiferal communities or even provide clues on the degree of transport in allochthonous deposits. In this study we used growth-independent functions to...
Data from: Breeding bird species diversity across gradients of land use from forest to agriculture in EuropeMatti J. Koivula, Dan E. Chamberlain, Robert J. Fuller, Stephen C. F. Palmer, Attila Bankovics, Fintan Bracken, Tom Bolger, Eduardo De Juana, Marc Montadert, Renato Neves, Rui Rufino, Angel Sallent, Luís Lopes Da Silva, Pedro J. Leitão, Manfred Steffen & Allan D. Watt
Loss, fragmentation and decreasing quality of habitats have been proposed as major threats to biodiversity world-wide, but relatively little is known about biodiversity responses to multiple pressures, particularly at very large spatial scales. We evaluated the relative contributions of four landscape variables (habitat cover, diversity, fragmentation and productivity) in determining different components of avian diversity across Europe. We sampled breeding birds in multiple 1-km2 landscapes, from high forest cover to intensive agricultural land, in eight...
Data from: A new framework for analysing automated acoustic species detection data: occupancy estimation and optimization of recordings post-processingThierry Chambert, J. Hardin Waddle, David A.W. Miller, Susan C. Walls, James D. Nichols & David A. W. Miller
The development and use of automated species detection technologies, such as acoustic recorders, for monitoring wildlife are rapidly expanding. Automated classification algorithms provide cost- and time-effective means to process information-rich data, but often at the cost of additional detection errors. Appropriate methods are necessary to analyse such data while dealing with the different types of detection errors. We developed a hierarchical modelling framework for estimating species occupancy from automated species detection data. We explore design...
Batesian mimicry evolution entails an initial major mutation that produces a rough resemblance to the model, followed by smaller improving changes. To examine the learning psychology of this process, we applied established ideas about mimicry in Papilio polyxenes asterius of the model Battus philenor. We performed experiments with wild birds as predators and butterfly wings as semi-artificial prey. Wings of hybrids of P. p. asterius and P. machaon were used to approximate the first mutant,...
Adaptation to ecologically contrasting niches can lead to the formation of new species. Theoretically, this process of ecological speciation can be driven by pleiotropic “magic traits” that genetically link natural and sexual selection. To qualify as a true magic trait, the pleiotropic function of a gene must be reflected in biologically relevant mechanisms underlying both local adaptation and mate choice. The immune genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contribute to parasite resistance and also...
Data from: Invasive cane toads are unique in shape but overlap in ecological niche compared to Australian native frogsMarta Vidal Garcia, J. Scott Keogh & Marta Vidal-García
Invasive species are an important issue worldwide but predicting invasiveness, and the underlying mechanisms that cause it, is difficult. There are several primary hypotheses to explain invasion success. Two main hypothesis based on niche spaces stand out as alternative, although not exclusive. The empty niche hypothesis states that invaders occupy a vacant niche space in the recipient community, and the niche competition hypothesis states that invaders overlap with native species in niche space. Studies on...
Postnatal size changes in most vertebrates are unidirectional and finite once the individual reaches full size. In rare cases, changes of body length may occur in response to harsh environmental conditions. Such reactionary changes are distinct from seasonal, often anticipatory morphological changes, such as the reversible size change of some adult bird brains. A unique pattern of profound anatomical change known as Dehnel’s phenomenon has been described for the body, skull and brain size of...
Data from: Malagasy cichlids differentially limit impacts of body shape evolution on oral jaw functional morphologyChristopher M. Martinez & John Steven Sparks
Patterns of trait covariation, like integration and modularity, are vital factors that influence the evolution of vertebrate body plans. In functional systems, decoupling of morphological modules buffers functional change in one trait by reducing correlated variation with another. However, for complex morphologies with many-to-one mapping of form to function (MTOM), resistance to functional change may also be achieved by constraining morphological variation within a functionally stable region of morphospace. For this research, we used geometric...
Data from: Different phylogenetic and environmental controls of first-order root morphological and nutrient traits: evidence of multidimensional root traitsRuili Wang, Qiufeng Wang, Ning Zhao, Zhiwei Xu, Xianjin Zhu, Cui Jiao, Guirui Yu, Nianpeng He & Cuicui Jiao
1. Although fine roots are essential for the water and nutrient uptake of plants, there is limited understanding of root trait variation and the underlying mechanism. 2. Here, six first-order root morphological and chemical traits were measured for 181 species from eight subtropical and boreal forests to test the hypothesis of different phylogenetic and environmental regulations of root morphological and nutrient traits result in the multidimensions of root traits. 3. Two independent root trait dimensions...
University of California System108
University of Oxford74
University of Minnesota63
University of Florida63
University of Zurich54
French National Centre for Scientific Research48
University of Toronto47
University of Washington44
University of Cambridge43
University of British Columbia42
University of Exeter42
Michigan State University42
University of Melbourne41