129,532 Works

Effects of past and present-day landscape structure on forest soil microorganisms

Mélanie Roy, Sophie Mennicken, Floriane Kondratow, Florian Buralli, Sophie Manzi, Emilie Andrieu & Antoine Brin
Principles of landscape ecology have been built on birds and plant species distribution, but the number of clues is now growing on below-ground organisms, whose dispersal may also be affected by above-ground landscape structure. For communities of microorganisms, the question remains if and how they answer to landscape structure, with or without time lag, and if some groups of microorganisms may react more than others. Here, we investigated if fungi or bacteria diversity is driven...

Egg-size plasticity in Apis mellifera: honey bee queens alter egg size in response to both genetic and environmental factors

Esmaeil Amiri, Kevin Le, Carlos Vega Melendez, Micheline K. Strand, David R. Tarpy & Olav Rueppell
Social evolution has led to distinct life-history patterns in social insects, but many colony-level and individual traits, such as egg size, are not sufficiently understood. Thus, a series of experiments was performed to study the effects of genotypes, colony size, and colony nutrition on variation in egg size produced by honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens. Queens from different genetic stocks produced significantly different egg sizes under similar environmental conditions, indicating standing genetic variation for egg...

Escape responses of terrestrial and aquatic birds to drones: towards a code of practice to minimise disturbance

Michael Weston, Michael Weston, Curtis O'Brien, Kristal Kostoglou & Matthew Symonds
1. Advances in human technology can lead to widespread and rapid increases in interactions between wildlife and potentially disturbing stimuli. The recreational use of drones is widespread and increasing, yet laws and codes of practice which aim to manage deleterious impacts (e.g. negative interactions with wildlife) are reactionary, unscientific and inadequate. 2. One prominent potential negative effect of drones interacting with birds is disturbance, the disruption of normal states caused by responses such as escape....

Data from: Modelling of dysregulated glucagon secretion in type 2 diabetes by considering mitochondrial alterations in pancreatic alpha cells

Vladimir Grubelnik, Rene Markovič, Saška Lipovšek, Gerd Leitinger, Marko Gosak, Jurij Dolenšek, Ismael Valladolid-Acebes, Per-Olof Berggren, Andraž Stožer, Matjaž Perc & Marko Marhl
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with insulin resistance and the failure of β-cells to produce and secrete enough insulin as the disease progresses. However, clinical treatments based solely on insulin secretion and action have had limited success. The focus is therefore shifting towards α-cells, in particular to the dysregulated secretion of glucagon. Our qualitative electron-microscopy-based observations gave an indication that mitochondria in α-cells are altered in Western-diet-induced T2DM. In particular, α-cells extracted...

Two new species of Kaempferia subgenus Protanthium (Zingiberaceae) from Northern Thailand

Nattapon Nopporncharoenkul, Woranuch Laongsri & Thaya Jenjittikul
Kaempferia aurora Noppornch. & Jenjitt., from Tak province near the Thailand-Myanmar border, and K. caespitosa Noppornch. & Jenjitt., from Lampang province, Northern Thailand, are described as new species of subgenus Protanthium (Horan.) Baker. The diagnostic characters are clearly compared with the similar species. Detailed illustrations, photographs of floral dissection, information of phenology, distribution and ecology, and preliminary conservation status are provided for each new taxon. An identification key to the species of Kaempferia subgen. Protanthium...

Neighbourhood-dependent root distributions and the consequences on root separation in arid ecosystems

Bin J. W. Chen, Chi Xu, Mao-Song Liu, Zheng Y. X. Huang, Ming-Juan Zhang, Jian Tang & Niels P. R. Anten
1. Inter-specific root separation is an important example of spatial niche differentiation that drives species coexistence in many ecosystems. Particularly under water-stressed conditions, it is believed to be an inevitable outcome of species interactions. However, evidence for and against this idea has been found. So far, studies aiming at reconciling the debate mainly focus on abiotic determinants. It remains unclear if and to what extent root separation depends on the type and growth form of...

Data from: Retracted: Individual and group performance suffers from social niche disruption

Kate L. Laskowski, Pierre-Olivier Montiglio & Jonathan N. Pruitt
THE ASSOCIATED ARTICLE HAS BEEN RETRACTED. Further use of this data is not recommended. See https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/708066 The social niche specialization hypothesis predicts that animal personalities emerge as a result of individuals occupying different social niches within a group. Here we track individual personality and performance, and collective performance among groups of social spiders where we manipulated the familiarity of the group members. We show that individual personalities, as measured by consistent individual differences in boldness...

Landscape context mediates the physiological stress response of birds to farmland diversification

Christopher Latimer, Olivia Smith, Joseph Taylor, Amanda Edworthy, Jeb Owen, William Snyder & Christina M. Kennedy
1. Farmland diversification practices are increasingly adopted to help reverse biodiversity declines in agroecosystems. However, evidence for the effectiveness of this approach often comes from documenting the species attracted to particular farming systems or landscapes, rather than their underlying physiological states that ultimately determine population growth or decline over the longer term. 2. Across 38 organic, mixed-produce farms spanning the U.S. west coast, we quantified three physiological biomarkers that are widely used to capture variation...

Local extinction risk under climate change in a neotropical asymmetrically dispersed epiphyte

Miguel Acevedo, Miguel Acevedo, Lydia Beaudrot, Elvia Melendez-Ackerman & Raymond Tremblay
1. The long-term fate of populations experiencing disequilibrium conditions with their environment will ultimately depend on how local colonization and extinction dynamics respond to abiotic conditions (e.g. temperature and rainfall), dispersal limitation and biotic interactions (e.g. competition, facilitation, or interactions with natural enemies). Understanding how these factors influence distributional dynamics under climate change is a major knowledge gap, particularly for small ranged and dispersal-limited plant species, which are at higher risk of extinction. Epiphytes are...

Is the central-marginal hypothesis a general rule? Evidence from three distributions of an expanding mangrove species, Avicennia germinans (L.) L.

John Paul Kennedy, Richard Preziosi, Jennifer Rowntree & Ilka Feller
The central-marginal hypothesis (CMH) posits that range margins exhibit less genetic diversity and greater inter-population genetic differentiation compared to range cores. CMH predictions are based on long-held ‘abundant-centre’ assumptions of a decline in ecological conditions and abundances towards range margins. Although much empirical research has confirmed CMH, exceptions remain almost as common. We contend that mangroves provide a model system to test CMH that alleviates common confounding factors and may help clarify this lack of...

Intrinsic post-ejaculation sperm ageing does not affect offspring fitness in Atlantic salmon

Simone Immler, Cosima Hotzy, Bao Xuhui & Tuuli Larva
Postmeiotic sperm ageing, both before and after ejaculation, has been shown to negatively affect offspring fitness by lowering the rate of embryonic development, reducing embryonic viability, and decreasing offspring condition. These negative effects are thought to be caused by intrinsic factors such as oxidative stress and ATP depletion or extrinsic factors such as temperature and osmosis. Effects of post-ejaculation sperm ageing on offspring fitness have so far almost exclusively been tested in internal fertilisers. Here,...

Geography, seasonality, and host‐associated population structure influence the fecal microbiome of a genetically depauparate Arctic mammal

Samantha Bird, Erin Prewer, Susan Kutz, Lisa-Marie Leclerc, Sibelle T. Vilaça & Christopher J. Kyle
The Canadian Arctic is an extreme environment with low floral and faunal diversity characterized by major seasonal shifts in temperature, moisture and daylight. Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) are one of few large herbivores able to survive this harsh environment. Microbiome research of the gastrointestinal tract may hold clues as to how muskoxen exist in the Arctic, but also how this species may respond to rapid environmental changes. In this study, we investigated the effects of season...

The neural basis of tadpole transport in poison frogs

Eva K Fischer, Alexandre B. Roland, Nora A. Moskowitz, Elicio E. Tapia, Kyle Summers, Luis A. Coloma & Lauren A O'Connell
The occasional reversal of sex-typical behavior suggests that many of the neural circuits underlying behavior are conserved between males and females and can be activated in response to the appropriate social condition or stimulus. Most poison frog species (Family Dendrobatidae) exhibit male uniparental care, but flexible compensation has been observed in some species, where females will take over parental care duties when males disappear. We investigated hormonal and neural correlates of sex-typical and sex-reversed parental...

Genetic diversity of a marine foundation species, Laminaria hyperborea (Phaeophyceae Laminariales), along the coast of Ireland

Stacy Krueger-Hadfield, Kathryn Schoenrock, Aisha O' Connor, Stephane Mauger, Myriam Valero, Joao Neiva & Ester Serrao
Worldwide, kelp populations are stressed by warming, increased storms and other man-driven disturbances. Marine population distributions are projected to retreat poleward with climate change if they cannot adapt to changing conditions, which would potentially lead to a regime shift in subtidal habitats. In Northern Europe,Laminaria hyperboreais a subtidal ecosystem engineer whose distribution has shifted over millennia, leaving predicted areas of high genetic diversity from the last glacial maximum (LGM) near its southern distribution limit in...

From alpha to beta functional and phylogenetic redundancy

Carlo Ricotta, Fabien Laroche, Laszlo Szeidl & Sandrine Pavoine
1. Plot-level redundancy or alpha redundancy is usually defined as the fraction of species diversity not expressed by functional or phylogenetic diversity. Redundancy is zero when all species in one plot are maximally dissimilar from each other. By contrast, redundancy tends to its maximum if the functional or phylogenetic differences between species tend to be minimal. 2. To explore the ecological drivers of community assembly, ecologists also use dissimilarity measures between pairs of plots (a...

Using genomic information for management planning of an endangered perennial, Viola uliginosa

Kyung Min Lee, Pertti Ranta, Jarmo Saarikivi, Lado Kutnar, Branko Vreš, Maxim Dzhus, Marko Mutanen & Laura Kvist
Species occupying habitats subjected to frequent natural and/or anthropogenic changes are a challenge for conservation management. We studied one such species, Viola uliginosa, an endangered perennial wetland species typically inhabiting sporadically flooded meadows alongside rivers/lakes. In order to estimate genomic diversity, population structure and history, we sampled five sites in Finland, three in Estonia, and one each in Slovenia, Belarus, and Poland using genomic SNP data with double-digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq). We...

What are the most crucial soil variables for predicting the distribution of mountain plant species? a comprehensive study in the Swiss Alps

Aline Buri, Stéphanie Grand, Erika Yashiro, Thierry Adatte, Jorge E. Spangenberg, Eric Pinto-Figueroa, Eric Verrecchia & Antoine Guisan
Aim: To investigate the potential of a large range of soil variables to improve topo-climatic models of plant species distributions in a temperate mountain region encompassing complex relief. Location: The western Swiss Alps. Methods: Fitting topo-climatic models for >60 plant species across >250 sites with and without added soil predictor variables (>30). Testing included: (i) which soil variables improve plant species distribution models; (ii) whether an optimal subset of soil variables can improve models for...

Developmental Cost Theory predicts thermal environment and vulnerability to global warming

Dustin Marshall, Amanda Pettersen, Michael Bode & Craig White
Metazoans must develop from zygotes to feeding organisms. In doing so, developing offspring consume up to 60% of the energy provided by their parent. The cost of development depends on two rates: metabolic rate, which determines the rate that energy is used; and developmental rate, which determines the length of the developmental period. Both development and metabolism are highly temperature-dependent such that developmental costs should be sensitive to the local thermal environment. Here we develop,...

Fitness consequences of a non-recombining sex-ratio drive chromosome can explain its prevalence in the wild

Kelly Dyer & David Hall
Understanding the pleiotropic consequences of gene drive systems on host fitness is essential to predict their spread through a host population. Here we study Sex-ratio (SR) X-chromosome drive in the fly Drosophila recens, where SR causes the death of Y-bearing sperm in male carriers. SR males only sire daughters, which all carry SR, thus giving the chromosome a transmission advantage. The prevalence of the SR chromosome appears stable, suggesting pleiotropic costs. It was previously shown...

Dramatic decline of northern bat Eptesicus nilssonii in Sweden over 30 years

Jens Rydell, Marcus Elfstrom & Sonia Sanchez-Navarro
We monitored northern bat Eptesicus nilssonii (Keyserling & Blasius, 1839) acoustically along a 27 km road transect at weekly intervals in 1988, 1989, and 1990, and again in 2016 and 2017. The methodology of data collection and the transect were the same throughout, except that the insect-attracting mercury-vapour streetlights along parts of the road were replaced by sodium lights between the two survey periods. Counts along sections of the transect with and without streetlights were...

Osteology of the late Triassic bipedal archosaur Poposaurus gracilis (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia) from Western North America

Emma R. Schachner, Randall B. Irmis, Adam K. Huttenlocker, Kent Sanders, Robert L. Cieri & Sterling J. Nesbitt
Poposaurus gracilis is a bipedal pseudosuchian archosaur that has been poorly understood since the discovery of the holotype fragmentary partial postcranial skeleton in 1915. Poposaurus. gracilis is a member of Poposauroidea, an unusually morphologically divergent clade of pseudosuchians containing taxa that are bipedal, quadrupedal, toothed, edentulous, and some individuals with elongated thoracic neural spines (i.e., sails). In 2003, a well preserved, fully articulated, and nearly complete postcranial skeleton of P. gracilis was discovered with some...

Genetic analyses reveal population structure and recent decline in leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) across Indian subcontinent

Supriya Bhatt, Suvankar Biswas, Krithi Karanth, Bivash Pandav & Samrat Mondol
Background Large carnivores maintain the stability and functioning of ecosystems. Currently, many carnivore species face declining population sizes due to natural and anthropogenic pressures. The leopard, Panthera pardus, is probably the most widely distributed and highly adaptable large felid globally, still persisting in most of its historic range. However, we lack subspecies-level data on country or regional scale on population trends, as ecological monitoring approaches are difficult to apply on such wide-ranging species. We used...

From behavior to circuit modeling of light-seeking navigation in zebrafish larvae

Georges Debregeas, Sophia Karpenko, Sebastien Wolf, Julie Lafaye, Guillaume Le Goc, Thomas Panier, Volker Bormuth & Raphael Candelier
Bridging brain-scale circuit dynamics and organism-scale behavior is a central challenge in neuroscience. It requires the concurrent development of minimal behavioral and neural circuit models that can quantitatively capture basic sensorimotor operations. Here we focus on light-seeking navigation in zebrafish larvae. Using a virtual reality assay, we first characterize how motor and visual stimulation sequences govern the selection of discrete swim-bout events that subserve the fish navigation in the presence of a distant light source....

The vegetation composition, structure and regeneration status of Gole Natural Forest, West Arsi Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

Mesfin Belete & Tamru Demsis
This study was conducted in Gole natural forest (Dodola) West Arsi Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. The study was intended to investigate the vegetation composition, structure, community types and the regeneration status. To collect the vegetation data, systematically 62 plots 20 m × 20 m (400 m2) were established at 100 m interval, starting from the top of the mountain. Tree and shrub species were counted and their cover abundance value was estimated. The...

Diapause is not selected as a bet-hedging strategy in insects: a meta-analysis of reaction norm shapes

Jens Joschinski & Dries Bonte
Many organisms escape from lethal climatological conditions by entering a resistant resting stage called diapause, and it is essential that this strategy remains optimally timed with seasonal change. Climate change therefore exerts selection pressure on phenology, which is expected to cause the evolution of mean diapause timing, but also phenotypic plasticity and bet-hedging strategies. Especially the latter as a strategy to cope with unpredictability is so far little considered in the context of climate change,...

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