1,344 Works

The possibility of using microwaves to obtain extracts from berry press residues and jelly products with bioactive characteristics

L. Nilova, R. Ikramov & S. Malyutenkova
The paper explores the possibility of development a microwave technology for obtaining water extracts from berry press residues (wild bilberries and cranberries as the objects) and jelly products based on them, which will allow using the waste of freshly squeezed juices in business, such as restaurants and catering services. The antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP methods), content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid were determined in berries and in berry press residues. The antioxidant...

Thermal decontamination of sewage sludge

L. Dubova, N. Strunnikova, N. Cielava, I. Alsina, O. Kassien & A. Bekker
Every year a huge amount of sewage sludge is formed at municipal wastewater treatment plants. Sewage sludge contains a sufficient amount of biogenic elements and organic components, which characterizes them as possible raw materials for the production of organic fertilizers. However, direct incorporation of these sediments into the soil is impossible due to the fact that, in addition to useful organic and mineral components, they contain pathogens, viruses and helminth eggs. The aim of the...

In vitro effects of regulators on growth and morphogenesis of Ocimum basilicum L. ‘Alfavaca Green’ stem apexes

J.R. Trettel, M. D.S. Queiroz, M.M. Andrade & H.M. Magalhães
Large-scale cultivation of contamination free plants requires a good standardization protocol and production methods. Basil is widely used for cosmetics, food and pharmaceutical industries as it is rich in many bioactive compounds. This present study aimed to evaluate the growth and in vitro anatomical aspects of apical buds of basil grown under different concentrations rowth regulators like: NAA (Naphthalenoacetic Acid), BAP (6-benzylaminopurine), and KIN (Kinetin). The in vitro establishment was evaluated every 20 days to...

Hairy fleabane (Conyza bonarienis) response to saflufenacil in association with different formulations of glyphosate subjected to simulated rainfall

G. Dalazen, A. Pisoni, C. Menegaz & A. Merotto Jr.
Saflufenacil has been used to control glyphosate resistant weeds, including hairy fleabane. There are several glyphosate formulations, which are related to different salts and adjuvants. Differences between these formulations may result in variations in efficacy, especially in the face of unfavorable environmental conditions, such as the occurrence of unexpected rainfall after application. The objective of this study was to evaluate the control of hairy fleabane with saflufenacil in tank mix with different formulations of glyphosate...

A control method for increasing the heat usage efficiency of nearly-zero-energy buildings with heat pumps

Heino Pihlap, Andres Annuk, M. Lehtonen, Siim Muiste, Allan Tooming & Alo Allik
In the retrofitting of older buildings with central heating into nearly zero-energy buildings more and more air to water heat pumps are used. These heat pumps are normally connected to heating systems, producing heat only on demand. The greatest demand for heat occurs when the outside temperature and therefore the COP of the pump is lowest. Outside temperature varies during the day, meaning it is possible to save energy by producing and storing heat in...

The impact of herd health on the efficiency of dairy farms

Reet Põldaru & Helis Luik-Lindsaar
Maximization of profit is one of the main interests of any farmer. Profit depends on managerial decisions and many economic factors, but also on the health of the herd. Thus, it is important to study how different factors related to herd health impact farms’ economic performance. The objective of this paper is to determine how herd health influences farm technical efficiency by comparing Estonian farm data from two periods, the years 2012 and 2017. Typically,...

Variation in the mass and moisture content of solid organic waste originating from a pig complex during its fermentation

E. Shalavina, A. Briukhanov, E. Vasilev, R. Uvarov & A. Valge
The focus of the study was the fermentation of an organic waste mixture originating from a pig-rearing complex. The organic waste was processed in the laboratory-scale drum fermenter. Through the fermentation process, the fermented material was weighed by a system of four strain gauges installed under the fermenter. In our previous study, the following initial mixture characteristics were justified to have the fermentation process going – 65% to 70% moisture content and 400–600 kg m-3...

Development of metabolic engineering approaches to regulate the content of total phenolics, antiradical activity and organic acids in callus cultures of the highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.)

A. Ramata-Stunda, V. Valkovska, M. Borodušķis, D. Livkiša, E. Kaktiņa, B. Silamiķele, A. Borodušķe, A. Pentjušs & N. Rostoks
Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is increasingly cultivated to produce high quality berries for consumption and potential applications in medicine, nutrition and as industrial precursors. Seasonal availability sets limitations on chemical compound isolation from cultivated plants. Biotechnological solutions, such as tissue cultures and metabolic engineering, can provide sufficient amounts of plant material with reasonably high metabolite levels, which may be adjusted by different strategies. Here, we describe our approach to modifying total phenolic content (TPC), antiradical...

Research on energy efficiency of pneumatic cylinder for pneumatic vehicle motor

M. Gailis, J. Rudzitis, Marten Madissoo & J. Kreicbergs
Compressed gas is relatively expensive source of energy. When compressed gas is used for propelling of pneumatically driven vehicle, efficient gas utilization is favoured. Design and control strategy of pneumatic cylinder, with the emphasis on effective energy conversion is being discussed in this paper. Mathematical model, results of computer simulation and experimental work are provided and discussed. Experimental research is performed on the competition vehicle, equipped with pneumatically driven piston motor and instrumented. Relative significance...

A prototype reactor to compost agricultural wastes of Fusagasuga Municipality. Colombia

T. Ahmadi, C.A. Casas Díaz, Y.E. García Vera & N. Escobar Escobar
Crop and animal production generate a high level of organic waste that causes negative effects on the environment and communities. The use of composting processes can improve the quality of these biowastes. Additionally, the application of technologies such as telemetry and remote sensors, allows optimizing the transformation of organic matter in a more controlled and efficient way. The city of Fusagasugá is well known in agriculture. However, it lacks sustainable management of the organic waste...

The biological basis for the use of protein growth stimulant made from cattle split for wheat foliar feeding and disease suppression

L.E. Kolesnikov, M.I. Kremenevskaya, I.E. Razumova, Yu.R. Kolesnikova, E.V. Tambulatova & E.O. Yazeva
The new modern preparation – protein growth stimulant – was generated in accordance with technology of employees of Saint-Petersburg ITMO University and SaintPetersburg State Agrarian University. Biological activity of the preparation was determined by measurements of 20 indicators of the wheat productivity. In addition, 16 indicators of different types of pathogenesis were determined. These can be formed at distribution of Helminthosporium root rot, wheat rust species, powdery mildew and wheat leaf blotch. The use of...

The usage of a binder system for frozen berries in the manufacture of confectionery

M. Kremenevskaya, V. Аret, E. Tambulatova, O. Sosnina, T. Shkotova, E. Kuprina, I. Makeeva, A. Manuylov, M. Kipchatova & A. Anikina
The aim of the research was to create binding systems for confectionery using gelling agents. The possibility of using partially hydrolyzed liquid egg white (egg hydrolyzate) in the binding system of gelling agents (egg hydrolyzate - agar (EG-A), egg hydrolyzate - starch (EG-S)) was determined to obtain the required mechanical characteristics when creating coatings, ornaments or fillers in confectionery with whole berries or pieces of fruit. In this regard, a technology has been developed for...

Psychosocial risks analysis for employees in public administration

D. Pastare, Z. Roja, H. Kalkis & I. Roja
Nowadays psychosocial risks at work have a serious impact not only on the health of employees, but also on the economic performance of organisations, and this is the biggest challenge in working environment. In Latvia, employees in public administration comprise 11% of the total population. Hence the aim of this study was to analyse the causes of psychosocial risks and the differences in their prevalence among inspectorate officials employed in the State Administration compared to...

The effect of yeast growth stages on the absorption of polyphenols

R.A. Harbah, T.V. Meledina & A.A. Morozov
Colloidal stability of beer is one of the most critical challenges facing the brewing industry. In brewing, stabilization agents are widely used to remove colloids such as proteins and polyphenols. However, the removal efficiency of polyphenols depends on the yeast, which adsorbs these compounds on its surface. The adsorption of polyphenols on the yeast surface is associated with the zeta potential of the cell wall, which correlates with the mannan content in them. The purpose...

Review article: Current research trends in fruit and vegetables wastes and by-products management-Scope and opportunities in the Estonian context

Dunja Malenica & Rajeev Bhat
Globally on an annual scale, considerable amounts of fruit and vegetables wastes (FVW) are generated in the agri-food industrial sector. Costs insured for safe disposal of FVW remains uneconomical and they can pose a serious environmental hazard if left untreated. However, FVW have high potential for reuse, recycle and recovery, which is an indication that there are productive, sustainable and affordable ways of reducing and tackling them at the industrial levels. Recent years have seen...

Applicability of low-cost electromyographs in ergonomic assessment

Märt Reinvee
Every year a considerable amount of gross domestic product in several countries is lost due to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Thus, one of the goals of ergonomics is to prevent WMSDs. A body of knowledge required to prevent WMSDs has existed for decades; however, the exploitation of this knowledge is hindered by the shortcomings in the risk assessment methods. As a rule, objective methods should be preferred to subjective methods, though often access to objective...

Enrichment of the low-fat yoghurt with oat β-glucan and EPS-producing Bifidobacterium bifidum improves its quality

M. Ibrahim, N. Barakova & Ivi Jõudu
The addition of β-glucan or EPS-producing bacteria is mainly used to improve the quality and the acceptability of low-fat yoghurt. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of adding β-glucan, EPS-producing Bifidobacterium bifidum, or both on physical properties, fermentation time, and organoleptic criteria of low-fat yoghurt, additionally to the viability of L. bulgaricus and B. bifidum. Two types of low-fat yoghurt (1.5% fat) were prepared, with the addition of standard oat β-glucan...

Siseõhu kvaliteet põhu- ja pilliroopakkidest seintega elumajades

Jane Raamets, Aime Ruus, Mari Ivask, Lembit Nei & Karin Muoni
Straw and reed are natural local insulation- and construction materials, which properties allow them to replace energy intensive building materials. In general, straw and reed as building materials are considered harmless to the environment and human health. Unfortunately, the use of these materials may bring about mould growth in buildings which may result in different diseases (for example irritation of eyes, nose and throat, allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma) in people with weaker immune systems....

Comparative analysis of performance by cows confined in different typologies of compost barns

D.A. Valente, C.F. Souza, R.R. Andrade, I.F.F. Tinôco, F.C. Sousa & G. Rossi
The compost barn system was designed to be a sustainable alternative housing system for dairy cows. In order to help producers in the region to choose the best type of facility from the point of view of the milk production of the animals, this study compared the productivity of cows confined in an open composting barn with natural ventilation and in a closed composting barn with negative pressure ventilation and evaporative cooling panels. The temperature...

Comparison of airflow homogeneity in Compost Dairy Barns with different ventilation systems using the CFD model

B. Fagundes, F.A. Damasceno, R.R. Andrade, J.A.O. Saraz, M. Barbari, F.A.O. Vega & J.A.C. Nascimento
In the pursuit of high milk productivity, producers are using confinement systems in order to improve performance and animal welfare. Among the housing systems, the Compost bedded-pack barns (CBP) stand out. In these barns a bedding area is provided inside, where cows move freely. Generally this area is covered with carbon source material (such as sawdust or fine dry wood shavings) which together with manure, thanks a regular mechanically stirring, ensures the aerobic composting process....

A sustainable approach to boosting liquid biofuels production from second generation biomass resources in West Africa

I.S. Dunmade, E. Akinlabi & M. Daramola
West African region has abundant second generation biomass resources consisting of agricultural residues, forest resources; municipal solid wastes; and animal wastes that could be harnessed to produce liquid biofuels. A number of countries in the region have developed energy policies to foster bioenergy production. Despite the national intent expressed in various countries’ bioenergy policies, development of bioenergy facilities and liquid biofuels production from cellulosic sources in the region are essentially at the research and development...

Comparison between the thermal properties of cement composites using infrared thermal images

P.F.P. Ferraz, R.F. Mendes, G.A.S. Ferraz, F.A. Damasceno, I.M.A. Silva, L.E.V.S.B. Vaz, L.M. Mendes, D. Cecchin & J.O. Castro
The use of agribusiness residual lignocellulosic fibres can be a good alternative in the development of lignocellulosic composites. The current work aimed to investigate the thermal performance of cement-based composites with lignocellulosic materials: Eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse, coconut fibre in comparison with commercial gypsum board to be used as internal partitions of the building using infrared thermal images. Three repetitions for each kind of lignocellulosic material were made, and three commercial gypsum boards were used. In...

Separation of reducing sugars from lignocellulosic hydrolysate: Membrane experiments & system dynamic modelling

A.R.P.P. Weerasuriya Arachchige, L. Mezule & T. Juhna
Separation of fermentable sugars after hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass plays a vital role in second-generation biofuel production. Byproducts and solid fractions generated during pretreatment and hydrolysis can have adverse effects on fermentation efficiency. Previous studies have shown that a maximum of 40% (w/w) of sugar yield can be obtained by sequential UF and NF permeate recovery. This study aimed to introduce a multi-step membrane filtration process to recover fermentable sugars while removing inhibitory bi-products. Fermentable...

The spatio-temporal trend of rapeseed yields in Ukraine as a marker of agro-economic factors influence

A. Zymaroieva, O. Zhukov, T. Fedonyuk & T. Pinkina
The paper demonstrates the applicability of several statistical methods to the analysis and interpretation of the average rapeseed yield data. It proves our hypothesis that the general trend of rapeseed yield variations in Ukraine during 1991–2017 occurred due to agro-economic and agro-technological factors, which are the determinants of the revealed general trend. The temporal trend of rapeseed yield in most administrative districts can be described by a fourthdegree polynomial, namely, its characteristic points enabled us...

Improvement of the elk domestication technology at Sumarokovsky State Nature Reserve

N.L. Grachev, V.V. Bourdeiniy, V.V. Reshetnyak, M.S. Volkhonov, M.D. Elokhin, N.G. Karenkova & V.S. Kukhar
The paper discusses the technology of elk domestication and measures for its improvement at Sumarokovsky state nature reserve, the largest world center for the domestication of elks, as well as an environmental, research, cultural and educational institution. The article contains the data on ethological observations, the evolution of elk behavior in the conditions of ecological tourism, on elk keeping and on the conditions of the food base, on technological processes and suggests possible ways to...

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