1,344 Works

Review: Managing weed populations through alteration of the cropping pattern

Zvonko Pacanoski & Arben Mehmeti
Alteration of the cropping pattern, such as manipulation of sowing date, increasing crop sowing rate, alteration in population density and row spacing, the use of cultivars that are more competitive and proper fertilization, particularly nitrogen application, have been the focus of many research studies. These studies aimed for the goal of boosting the crop's capacity to provide domination over weeds and surviving competitive stress. Modifications in sowing date might have tremendously influence on plants growth,...

A theoretical and experimental study of the traction properties of agricultural gantry systems

Volodymyr Bulgakov, Jüri Olt, Volodymyr Kuvachov & Stanislav Smolinsky
The movement conditions experienced by an agricultural gantry system along the solid and level ground surface of permanent artificial tracks must make it possible to generate most of its maximum tractive force. Concurrently, the adhesive ability of the agricultural gantry system on the ground surface of such permanent artificial tracks must be sufficient to generate nominal drawbar pull when working at a certain level of slip. This means that there exists the need to seek...

The aromatic plant Melissa officinalis and effects of its aqueous extracts on summer annual and invasive weed species

Panagiotis Kanatas
The effects of aqueous extracts of the aromatic plant Melissa officinalis were studied on the seed germination and early seedlings growth of ten summer annual species in Petri dish bioassays and pot experiments. The in vitro experiments on the aqueous extracts from M. officinalis on seed germination shows that the extracts of 5 and 10% were the most active inhibitors for all the studied weed species. Seed germination reduction by the aqueous extracts was up...

Mini-review: The role of crop rotation, intercropping, sowing dates and increased crop density towards a sustainable crop and weed management in arable crops

Panagiotis Kanatas
The extended and in many cases unjustified use of herbicides has resulted in herbicide resistance development and serious environmental concerns. Therefore, the need for implementation and wider adoption of several agronomic and cultural practices is imperative. Ecologically-based crop management practices like crop rotation, intercropping, delay of sowing date and increased crop density can be also the basis for effective and sustainable weed management. In the present review, several cases are presented and the key points...

Production of bioethanol from biomass in the conditions of Northern Kazakhstan

S.B. Ismuratov, T.V. Bedych, T.I. Gluchshenko, D.S. Ismuratov & V.S. Kukhar
This article describes using renewable energy for bioethanol production. Kostanay Region is a developed agricultural region. Most part of its area is under grain crops and corn, oil crops and vegetables. In the course of production, transportation, storage and processing of agricultural crops, a large part of them becomes unsuitable for use; in future they cannot be used for the intended purpose. Substandard product often stays in the fields to rot or is thrown away....

A food-grade antioxidant production using industrial potato peel by–products

I. Sepelevs, J. Zagorska & R. Galoburda
Currently, industrial potato processing waste recycling and re–use is an important topic in the food industry, but no actual processing facilities could be found at the moment of this study. The main aim of present research was to develop a method that could, potentially, be practically applicable for industrial potato peel waste recycling into encapsulated phenolic compounds (fine powder), with a further approbation as an antioxidant for ground pork meat. Potato peel wastes were collected...

Epidemiology of Mycoplasma bovis intramammary infection in dairy herds

Anri Aino Elisa Timonen
The aim of the thesis was to identify the within-herd prevalence of M. bovis IMI in Estonian dairy herds and analyse the associations between M. bovis IMI and cow milk yield and milk quality. In addition, the aim was to evaluate the elimination of M. bovis IMI from infected udder quarters during the dry period and to compare the M. bovis strains isolated from clinical mastitis and calf respiratory samples. Cow composite milk samples (CMS)...

Lake Peipsi 1966 (Phytoplankton samples)

Reet Laugaste
Method: Up to 1988 the samples were preserved with formaldehyde (not neutralised), and lots of samples were spoiled: sample sediment was flaked, stuck together, or rusty. By this reason, a number of results of countings are not representative.

Investigation of dual varying area flapping actuator of a robotic fish with energy recovery

I. Tipans, J. Viba, M. Irbe & S.K. Vutukuru
Autonomous under-water vehicles (AUV) performing a commanded task require to utilize on-board energy sources. At the time when on-board power source runs low during operation, the vehicle (AUV) is forced to abort the mission and to return to a charging station. The present work proposes the technique of an energy recovery from surrounding medium. This effect is studied for dual action actuator movement that obtains energy from fluid. It is realized that a flapping or...

Growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing Boer goats

E. Aplocina
In developing countries, goat kids are usually reared naturally under extensive conditions, but kids that are fed high concentrate diets generally have higher daily gains, dressing percentage and carcass quality then those produced in extensive system. Feeding of goat kids is the main factor affecting growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing Boer goats. A study was carried out within the framework of the project ‘Zootechnical and economic efficiency of feeding of fodder pulses to...

Atmospheric attenuation of the Ku band along the space-earth path due to clouds and rain

J. Dvořák, J. Hart & J. Kumhálová
The weather conditions formed in troposphere causes the greatest signal attenuation in satellite communication systems especially at frequencies above 10 GHz. This paper describes possible signal attenuations on the satellite-earth path due to rain and clouds. It was measured whether it is advantageous to use the Ku band for data transmission over other bands. The measurement was carried out in the Czech Republic using a beacon signal from Eutelsat 12W satellite at 12.5 GHz. Clouds...

The sustainable reuse of compost from a new type of olive mill pomace in replacing peat for potted olive tree

L. Regni, D. Pezzolla, G. Gigliotti & P. Proietti
The attention for the replacement of peat in growing substrates is increasing due to its environmental and economic advantages. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of peat substitution by new type olive mill pomace and its compost on the vegetative activity of potted olive trees. A new type of humid pomace (hP) derived from an innovative two phase extraction system and its derived compost (C-hP) are used as total or...

Effect of simultaneous inoculation of commercial yeast starter cultures on Kombucha fermentation

Maarja Abel & Helena Andreson
Kombucha – a spontaneously fermented tea beverage, produced by SCOBY (a symbiont of bacteria and yeasts), has become popular in recent years. Its functional properties and features for industrial production and treatment remain largely unknown, however. Our aim of using additional yeast cultures during the primary fermentation was to modify and ultimately improve the sensory properties of the kombucha beverage. During five fermentation experiments the total viable count (TVC) of microbes was determined both in...

Rheological and physical–chemical properties of yogurt with oat–chia seeds composites

L.A. Nadtochii, D.A. Baranenko, W. Lu, A.V. Safronova, A.I. Lepeshkin & V.A. Ivanova
Currently chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) are considered as a filler of functional food. However, ground chia seeds have a low viscosity and cohesion properties that are limited its applications. Based on previous data oat-chia seeds composites in different proportions as filler for yogurt have been tested. The investigation of water holding capacity of samples allowed to select the yogurt with filler in the ratio of 1:1 (oat bran:chia seed) in the amount of 3%...

Influence of regional technologies of varying intensity on the bioproductivity of sod-podzolic medium loamy soil in the Central region of the Russian Federation

S.M. Viyugin, A.V. Kuchumov, G.V. Viyugina, S.E. Terentyev & I.A. Karamulina
This study is oriented to elucidating the role of the basic elements of regional farming systems in soil-crop complex using agricultural technologies of different levels of cultivation of field crops in the Smolensk Region. As a result of monitoring carried out in 1991–2008 on a reference site located in the Smolensk Region, negative changes of soil profile were revealed. Degree of soil podzolization increased what contributed to its degradation. All genetic horizons demonstrated deterioration in...

Special features of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in animal and poultry farms in the regions with various levels of manmade pollution

I.M. Donnik, A.S. Krivonogova, A.G. Isaeva, I.A. Shkuratova, K.V. Moiseeva & N.B. Musikhina
The research on the P. aeruginosa strains in animal and poultry farms located in the areas with various levels of technogenic pollution were done. The content of P .aeruginosa in composition of opportunistic pathogenic microflora in dairy, pig-breeding and poultry farms was stated. Susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to fluoroquinolone antibiotics and carbapenems was defined. The enterprises were located in the areas with various levels of contamination of agrobiocenosis with Zn, Fe, Cd, Cu, As, Pb,...

Aromatic plant Melissa officinalis extracts selectivity in various biomass crop and legume species

Panagiotis Kanatas, Ioannis Gazoulis, Ioanna Kakabouki & Panayiota Papastylianou
Allelopathic effects of various plants can be exploited for use against weeds; however, the selectivity in different crops is also important. In the current study, the effects of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) allelochemicals on seed germination and seedling emergence of three biomass crops and three legume species were evaluated. Seed germination of rapeseed was reduced by 19, 30, 56, and 80% in the concentrations of 1, 2, 5 and 10%, respectively, as compared to the...

Application of the differential scanning calorimetry method in the study of the tomato fruits drying process

Inha Kuznietsova, Valentyna Bandura, Vadym Paziuk, Oleksii Tokarchuk & Ihor Kupchuk
Structural changes in the process of heating fresh fruit, sundried fruits and powder obtained from the dried tomato fruits were studied by differential scanning calorimetry method application. The kinetics of the shredded fruits in the dryer proves the prospects for using convective drying, which is performed for 295 minutes. The kinetic coefficients of drying and critical moisture content in the crushed fruits of tomato were determined. The kinetic coefficients were determined by the graphicalanalytical method:...

Effect of winter wheat variety, hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) and thousand kernel weight (TKW) on protein content, grain and protein yield

M.I. Kulyk, A.O. Rozhkov, O.V. Kalinichenko, A.O. Taranenko & O.V. Onopriienko
The aim of the research is to clarify the physiological and biochemical processes in the plant organism that occur in the optimal and stressful conditions, as well as to search for anthropogenic methods of their manifestation in connection with the protein content in grain of wheat varieties of different origin in the conditions of the Forest-Steppe Ukraine. The impact of temperature factor and the moistening mode of the period of winter wheat seed formation and...

Investigation of the long-term toxic effect of nanoparticles of different physical-chemical characteristics

D.G. Churilov, S.D. Polischuk, G.I. Churilov, V.V. Churilova & D.N. Byshova
The purpose of this work is to study the effect of metal and oxide nanoparticles on some ecological and functional groups in the soil-plant-animal system to form the stability limits of organisms. Nanoparticles of cobalt, iron, zinc, copper, copper oxide, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide sized 20–80 nm were studied. The concentration range was 0.01–1,000 g of nanoparticles per ton of seeds or soil. Objects suitable for biotesting and environmental monitoring were selected: earthworms (Lumbricina),...

Comparative economic efficiency of using pharmacological agents for the stress prevention in the course of immunization of birds against reovirus tenosynovitis

A. Miftakhutdinov, N. Zhuravel & I. Dikhtyaruk
This article describes the results of studies on the definition and comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of using SPAO-FA (stress protector antioxidant – feed additive) and SPAOcomplex pharmacological preparation (stress protector antioxidant – complex preparation for birds) for the prevention of vaccine stress during immunization of birds against reovirus tenosynovitis. These preparations were used during 5 days (3 days before vaccination, on the day of vaccination and one day after vaccination) at the dose of...

When peace and quiet is not enough: Examining the challenges communities face in Estonian and Latvian rural landscapes

Joanna Tamar Storie
Estonian and Latvian rural landscapes are not static; they evolve under environmental influences, both natural and socioeconomic. The landscapes have undergone rapid transformation from the collectivised Soviet period to independence and privatisation, followed by changes fuelled by accession to the European Union. The people’s relationship to landscape has also changed as perceptions and values respond to their experiences of landscape changes. Investigations were made in small rural communities examining the landscape values that attach inhabitants...

Electric infrared heating panels as an alternative source of heating for greenhouses

P. Kic
The aim of this article is to show the possibilities of supplementary heating of greenhouses. There was used for this research an electric infrared heating panel ITA 700. The average total power was 630.8 W in laboratory measurements, of which 504.3 W has been transferred by the front part of the panel, of which 267.2 W has been transmitted by radiation. The total radiation efficiency of the front part was 42.4%. Similar measurements have been...

Open windrow composting of fish waste in Estonia

Marge Lanno, Maidu Silm, Merrit Shanskiy, Anu Kisand, Kaja Orupõld & Mait Kriipsalu
By-catch fish is caught unintentionally during the fishing and is currently thrown back in water bodies to cause the water pollution. Currently fishermen does not have a motivation to bring the by-catch fish to the shore, as it needs to be sorted by fish species, causing fishermen extra work without additional income. Estonian Ministry of Rural Affairs decided to give funding to present study with purpose to find solution to this matter. One possible solution...

Experimental research into the effect of harrowing unit’s operating speed on uniformity of cultivation depth during tillage in fallow field

V. Bulgakov, V. Nadykto, V. Kaminskiy, Z. Ruzhylo, V. Volskyi & Jüri Olt
Retention of soil moisture is an urgent topic of the day in the cultivation of agricultural crops. Using fallow fields is one of the ways to solve the named problem, but the tilling of such fields requires observing some special conditions, in particular, the capillary effects in their upper soil layers must be cut down. For that purpose, the authors have proposed a special harrow equipped with the tools capable of fulfilling the above-mentioned task....

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