107 Works

Effect of rake angle and cutting speed on energy demands of mulcher with vertical axis of rotation

J. Čedík, M. Pexa & R. Pražan
The contribution deals with the reduction of agriculture energy demands. For maintenance and treatment of permanent grassland areas, areas left fallow and put to rest the mulching in combination with other workflows (mowing, grazing) is advantageous procedure. As conventional impact grass cutting and chopping is energy demanding procedure, it is proper to reduce the energy demands of such device. In the paper the effect of shape of cutting tool, particularly the rake angle, on energy...

Influence of chemical composition on the biochemical methane potential of agro-industrial substrates from Estonia

M.A Luna-del Risco, K. Orupõld, I. Diaz-Forero & M. González-Palacio
Batch trials were carried out to evaluate the Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) of 61 different substrates collected from agricultural farms and industrial sites in Estonia. Tests were performed in 500 mL plasma bottles at 36°C. The highest methane yield from all tested substrates was obtained from unconsumed dairy products (557 ± 101 L kg-1 VS) while the lowest was obtained from animal slurries (238 L kg-1 VS ± 42). From tested energy crops, foxtail millet...

The Socio-Economic Determinants of Entrepreneurship in Estonian Rural Municipalities

Anne Põder
The aim of the present thesis was to study the impact of socio-economic determinants on the development of entrepreneurship in Estonian rural municipalities. The socio-economic determinants refer to external economic, social, spatial and institutional factors. The thesis studies the effects of the main developments in Estonian agriculture and the rural economy on entrepreneurship in rural areas following the transition to the market economy, and it analyses the development of entrepreneurship and SMEs in different types...

Dimethyl ether as a renewable fuel for diesel engines

P. Zeman, V. Hönig, P. Procházka & J. Mařík
The area of automotive fuel, or fuel components, which can be produced from biomass also includes dimethyl ether, otherwise known as DME. The issue of the use of DME as a fuel is one which has been monitored until recently. Biomass can also be used as the raw material for the production of DME. DME has therefore replaced the previously-used CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), which are now banned for their role in dangerous levels of ozone depletion....

Chemical composition of seeds and green beans of common bean varieties, breeded in Omsk State Agrarian University under conditions of southern forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia

N. Kazydub, A. Pinkal, T. Marakayeva, S. Kuzmina, M. Korobeinikova & O. Kotsyubinskaya
The article considers the biochemical composition of green beans and seeds of common beans varieties, breeded in Omsk State Agrarian University named after P.A. Stolypin (OmSAU). The research was conducted in 2014–2016. Varieties of locally breeded beans, in comparison with the standards, have advantages in the content of protein, zinc, iodine, calcium, iron, sugar; green bean technological properties and tenderizing of seeds during cooking, which becomes an indispensable component of the diet.

Implementation of the Land Reform in Estonia: Institutional Arrangement, Speed of Implementation and Land Plot Fragmentation

Evelin Jürgenson
The implementation of land reform has been an important task in Estonia since the regaining of independence in 1991. Land reform is implemented according to the aim stated in the Land Reform Act and is carried out by the Government of the Republic through the Land Board, county governors and local governments. The implementation of that aim has created conflicts among different persons, for example, between entitled subjects of restitution and privatisation. A major obstacle...

The perceivable landscape a theoretical-methodological approach to landscape

Nele Nutt
The goal of the case studies was to identify a semiosphere in landscape, the properties characteristic of memory and reminiscences, in order to identify the universal functioning mechanisms of the object and to comprehend the inner logics of the functioning of landscape. Several traits characteristic of semiospheres are present in landscapes, such as delimitation, unevenness, homogeneity, individuality, wholeness. The semiospheric border of landscape determines the structural and functional nature of landscape as semiosphere, which enables...

Morphological lodge of desi cotton (gossypium arboreum l.) genotypes and stage-manage by planting log under dry tropical prospect

Karim Jan, Muhammad Waseem, Mohammad Dost Baloch, Adbul Hameed Baloch, Mustajab A. Khan, Taimoor Khan, Muhammad Rashid & Qurban Ali
Planting log is the most considerable factor which directly manipulates the plant traits under naturally prevailing environment. The aim of the trial was to ensure the influence of planting hiatus on the morphological cabin of Desi cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.) varieties under dry tropical coast. The research was carried out during 2016 on three desi cotton genotypes C1 (FDH-512), C2 (FDH-502), C3 (FDH-170) under three-fortnightsowing regimes (S1 = 15. March, S2 = 1. April and...

Impact of slurry fertilization on nutrient leaching and on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in agricultural soil

Mailiis Tampere
Present thesis studies the impacts of slurry fertilization on nutrient leaching and on the efficiency of using activated carbon (AC) as a measure in its reduction. In addition research assesses the cattle slurry as a source of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) entering grassland soil. It was hypothesised that N and K leaching depends on fertilizer type, N rate used and sward type. Also it was assumed that the use of AC reduces N and K...

Cultivar resistance and population studies of late blight pathogen in potato breeding in Estonia

Terje Tähtjärv
Potato (Solanum spp.) is the third most important food crop in the world after rice and wheat by FAO in 2014 in terms of human consumption. In the cold temperate climate zone, potato is one of the essential vitamins source throughout the year. People’s preferences and consumption habits have changed; thereby fluctuating demands of the food industry are setting up additional requirements for new potato cultivars. Potato late blight caused by pathogen Phytophthora infestans is...

Monitoring and evaluation of forest ecosystem restoration

Diana Laarmann
This thesis synthesizes several studies of forest ecosystem restoration in Estonia, including afforestation on abandoned oil-shale mining areas and initiating natural processes and fostering natural structures and species composition. Silvicultural systems for timber production have caused changes in ecosystem structure and function associated with anthropogenic alterations of natural disturbance regimes. Increasingly, forest management is based on understanding of processes of natural disturbances, their effects for stand and landscape composition and structure, considering that this enables...

Performance analysis of biodegradable municipal solid waste collection in the Czech Republic

O. Chotovinský & V. Altmann
The article deals with the issues of biodegradable municipal solid waste management system, focusing on its separate collection. The two basic locations are compared – rural area and urban area. The emphasis is put on evaluation of individual biodegradable municipal solid waste collections development from 2012 to 2015. Individual technological performances of collection are also observed and evaluated (e.g. biodegradable municipal solid waste production, development of container quantity and collection frequency). The observed data also...

Design of Distributed Energetics Solution Based on the Increasing of Direct Consumption of Electricity Generated from Wind and Solar Energy

Alo Allik
This doctoral thesis presents six original papers, which are used to demonstrate the design possibilities for increasing the local renewable energy consumption of buildings equipped with renewable energy production devices. The findings and visualisations can be used for educational purposes as well as for the practical engineering of building based energy systems. The findings from papers can be used to decrease the necessary grid connection capacity of buildings. It was found in the thesis that...

Listeria monocytogenes'e levimus valmistoidus

Mati Roasto, Kadrin Meremäe, Toomas Kramarenko, Mihkel Mäesaar & Maiu Kuningas
RTE meat and fish products with a long shelf-life are associated with the high risk of transmission of L. monocytogenes to human. Also, soft and semi-soft cheeses are in focus according to potential contamination with L. monocytogenes bacteria. The aim of the study was to give an overview about the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in readyto-eat food products obtained at food business operator’s self-control and at official control level. It was found that the highest...

Tetraploidse punase ristiku seemnepõllu rajamine kattevilja aluse külviga

Ants Bender & Sirje Tamm
In 2013–2014 field trials were organised in Estonian Crop Research Institute to comply with the applied project of the Estonian Ministry of Agriculture. In the establishment of a red clover seed production field 2 cover crops (barley and spring wheat) were investigated on 4 treatments and 4 seed rates (2, 4, 6 and 8 kg ha-1 ). Based on the field trials it can be concluded that both two-row barley (the variety 'Maali') and spring...

Begomovirus infection in tomato fruit

Kadri Just
In an era of globalization and increased food trade, and considering the implementations of climate change on establishment of pathogens into new areas, it is of importance to monitor traded plant material for the presence of plant pathogens. Tomato is economically one of the most important vegetable crop worldwide and it is susceptible to more than 200 plant diseases. Among viruses infecting tomato, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, genus Begomovirus) is most destructive. It...

Theoretical research into the stability of motion of the ploughing tractor-implement unit operating on the ‘push-pull’ principle

V. Bulgakov, V. Adamchuk, V. Nadykto, O. Kistechok & Jüri Olt
The reduction of power consumption in the ploughing operations can be achieved by way of improving the grip properties of the implement-carrying tractors, which is facilitated by setting up ploughing units for operation on the ‘push-pull’ principle. The aim of the current research is to substantiate the set-up and parameters of the ploughing unit with a front-mounted plough basing on the theoretical investigation of the stability of its motion in the horizontal plane. The methods...

AFLP-analysis of genetic diversity in soybean [Glycine max (l.) Merr.] cultivars Russian and foreign selection

M. Zargar, E. Romanova, A. Trifonova, E. Shmelkova & P. Kezimana
Genetic diversity of 11 cultivars of soybean (Glycine max) from a VIR (N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Resources) collection was analyzed by the AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) technique. From 18 tested primer combinations, both of them were selected for further analysis. From these two primer combinations (E32/M60 and E32/M59), 90 DNA fragments were obtained, 39 (43%) of them were polymorphic. Unique DNA fragments were found in accessions SibNIISHoz 6, Soer-4, Determinant. The Jaccard's...

The effect of Silicon on the organically grown iceberg lettuce growth and quality

Margit Olle
Si helps plants to mitigate with abiotic and biotic stresses because of Si-treated plants become stronger, sturdier and naturally more tolerant. The purpose of the investigations was to look the effect of Silicon on the iceberg lettuce growth and quality. There were two treatments: 1. stabilized silicic acid treatment; 2. control. The first spray, when 1 real leaf was present; the second spray was 2 weeks after spray 1; the third spray was 2 weeks...

Production and analysis of non-traditional beer supplemented with sea buckthorn

P. Adadi, E.G. Kovaleva, T.V. Glukhareva, S.A. Shatunova & A.S. Petrov
In recent years, there has been a growing demand for non-traditional beer (craft) with different flavours hence the main aim of this research is to produce beer with sea buckthorns (SBT). Brewing software BeerSmith was used to design the Kölch beer. After one month of primary fermentation, SBT were sanitised and crashed before adding into the green beer. Carbonation was done using keg with 1.8 bar of carbon dioxide. Physicochemical properties, microbial load and sensory...

Through Economic Growth to the Viability of Rural Space

B. Rivza, M. Kruzmetra & V. Zaluksne
Rural areas as a living space for the population has been increasingly explored in official documents of various EU institutions and in research topics. Both the documents and the research papers stress the necessity to enhance and maintain the viability of rural areas. The viability of rural areas is ensured by employment opportunities and readiness of residents for active and innovative economic activities. The paper presents an analysis of vertical and horizontal changes in entrepreneurship...

Effect of flame weed control on various weed species at various developmental stages

M. Mojžiš, I. Vitázek & J. Klúčik
Physical methods of weed control as solarization, mulching, use of electricity, steam and flame are now an alternative in the organically grown crop. Flame weeder already has a wide range of practical use , particularly in the cultivation of vegetables in alternative form without any chemical treatment. Compared to chemical spraying, the use of flame weeder is more expensive, but we can compensate the costs by the added value of bioproducts. The issue of costs...

Qualitative classification of mulchers

R. Hnilica, M. Kotus, M. Jankovský, M. Hnilicová & M. Dado
Mulchers are helpful in forest establishment and tending. Numerous mulchers are available, so buyers can become disoriented when choosing one. This paper was aimed at creating a classification of mulchers based on the evaluation of the most important parameters: weight, required engine performance, and mulching diameter. Through ANOVA, and regression and correlation analyses of our database, we created six machine classes, devised their upper limits, and assigned mulchers to the classes. Class K1 (weight up...

Soil organic carbon in long–term experiments: comparative analysis in Slovakia and Serbia

M. Macák, I. Đalović, J. Turan, S. Šeremešić, S. Tyr, D. Milošev & M. Kulina
Soil organic carbon plays an important role in a long-term agroecosystem productivity, in the global C cycle, maintaining a soil nutrient pool and improving its availability. The objective of this study is the assess the impacts of long–term cropping practices on SOC dynamics in Slovakia and Serbia. Soil C sequestration is a complex process that is influenced by many factors, such as agricultural practice, climatic and soil conditions. For the both location the initial SOC...

Effect of slurry lagoon redesign on reduction of ammonia emission during livestock manure storage

A. Aboltins, J. Priekulis, B. Aboltina & L. Melece
In accordance with the international and EU aims to reduce emissions of ammonia and other air pollution substances farm manure management, including its storage, especially for the animal breeding sector, is one of the most essential stages. One of the preventing steps is covering of the slurry lagoons. The most effective – hard covering can be provided only after the lagoon is constructed. The aim of the research: to develop methodology for calculations of emission...

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  • 2017
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