246 Works

Harvest time and ensilage suitability of giant reed and miscanthus for bio-methane production and characterization of digestate for agronomic use

F. da Borso, C. Di Marzo, F. Zuliani, F. Danuso & M. Baldini
In many countries, biogas plants are mainly fed by livestock slurry and dedicated crops, including maize, which still represents one of the main energy crops utilized. Many concerns are now arising on environmental impact due to the high water consumption, chemical fertilizer and pesticide requirements and on adverse effect of maize as energy crop on the price of food and feed commodities. For these reasons two perennial crops, in particular miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) and...

Fatty acid composition of oilseed rapeseed genotypes as affected by vermicompost application and different thermal regimes

E. Samadzadeh Ghale Joughi, E. Majidi Hervan, A.H. Shirani Rad & Gh. Noormohamadi
Vegetable oils with a high relative amount of unsaturated fatty acids are of great significance for human health. Hence, in a 2-year factorial split plot experiment, the effects of different sowing date (optimum (October 17) and late (October 27)), vermicompost (0 and 20 ton ha-1 ) and genotypes (BAL104, DIE710.08, BAL102, FJL330, FJL290 and Okapi) on the fatty acid composition of rapeseed were evaluated. Rapeseed genotypes and the combination of sowing date and vermicompost application...

Additional concentrates do not affect feeding times of cows, but social positions of cows do

Maria Soonberg, Marko Kass, Tanel Kaart, Ragnar Leming & David R. Arney
In robotic milking dairy systems lack of control over intakes can be problematic for balancing the forage and concentrate portions of diets. This can lead to proble ms associated with high concentrate intakes and concomitant low forage intakes. To check this as a problem, the feeding behaviour of cows was observed: the number of daily visits to the feed barrier, the duration of these visits and actual feeding, of high and low yielding cows. The...

Assessment of Calotropis natural dye extracts on the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

A.H. Alami, K. Aokal, D. Zhang, M. Tawalbeh, A. Alhammadi & A. Taieb
This work presents the construction and testing of solar cells sensitized with natural dyes extracted from plants indigenous to the desert. Calotropis plants are self - sufficient as they grow in very harsh environments, and yet are not consumed by humans or livestock due to their irritating agents to the skin and eyes. The energy generators of these plants are the leaves, which are crushed and processed to produce the dye solution. Also, the Calotropis...

Efficiency of the use of field beans in fattening lambs

D. Kairisa & E. Aplocina
The breeding and feeding of self produced pulses to livestock is one of the important directions of research for reducing the production costs of livestock products. Experiment on the effective using of the field beans to lambs for fattening was arranged in three replications using the Latvian Da rk - headed breed male lambs. The mixture of concentrated feed consisted of 50% of bean and 50% of oat. Lambs were weighed at the starting and...

Mathematical model of cleaning potatoes on surface of spiral separator

V. Bulgakov, S. Nikolaenko, Margus Arak, I. Holovach, Z. Ruzhуlo & Jüri Olt
Cleaning potato tubers from soil impurities and plant debris after digging them out of soil is a topical problem in the work process of potato production. Therefore, the engineer ing of new designs of potato heap separators necessitates the further studying of them and the optimisation of their kinematic and design parameters, which must not only ensure the high quality of cleaning, but also rule out the possibility of damaging the tubers. The aim of...

Application of conversion model for designing hydrodynamic pumps in turbine mode

M. Polák
The use of the smallest water resources has been coming again to the centre of interest in recent years. A water engine – turbine, is the heart of these power plants. This is usually the highest expense for the investor, in terms of cost. The effort is therefore to seek investment less demanding alternatives. One of them is the use of hydrodynamic pumps in reverse turbine operation. This paper provides a methodology for conversion of...

Soil bulk density and phytosanitary conditions at potato field

Luule Tartlan & Edvin Nugis
The aim of this paper is to present the microorganisms and their activities and soil bulk density. It is a fact that both have a great impact on soil fertility and its health status. Among the microorganisms in soil, the bacteria and fungi are the most important ones for potato cultivation; the bacteria living on the plant roots serve to uphold the nutrient intake of plants. Our previous research has shown that Paenibacillus Polymyxa Rizobacter...

A comparative analysis of functional traits in semi-natural grasslands under different grazing intensities

S. Targetti, A. Messeri, G. Argenti & N. Staglianò
The reduction of traditional management practices is a major threat for the conservation of permanent grasslands in many European marginal areas. The ecological importance of grasslands is acknowledged by the European Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC (1992) which includes many natural or semi-natural grassland types, and by the growing attention of society towards functions and services provided by these ecosystems. Nonetheless, the efficiency of conservation policies is questioned also for the lack of local-scale information on trends...

Kihilise kasvatamise/kahandamise meetodid jääk- pingete määramiseks ortotroopsetes mittehomogeen- setes silindrites: rakendus kasvupingete määramiseks puu tüves

Jakub Kõo & Jaak Valgur
Kihilise kasvatamise/kahandamise meetodid jääkpingete määramiseks mittehomogeensetes ortotroopsetes silindrites pakuvad huvi jääkpingete uurimisel kihilistes komposiitmaterjalides, samuti puidu jääkpingete uurimisel ja kasvupingete modelleerimisel. Ettekandes kirjeldatakse meetodi algoritmi ja tuuakse rakendusnäitena kasvupingete modelleerimine Jaapani punase männi (Pinus densiflora) tüves. Meetodi algoritm mittehomogeensetele isotroopsetele silindritele on esitatud töös [Kõo, Valgur: 5th Int. Conf. On Residual Stresses, Linköping, 1997].

Role of historical slash and burn cultivation in the development of cultural landscapes and forest vegetation in south Estonia

Pille Tomson
The objective of this PhD thesis was to estimate the effects of historical rotational slash and burn cultivation on the formation of southern Estonian cultural landscapes and forest vegetation. Slash and burn cultivation was practised in Northern and Central Europe until the 20th century. With regard to Estonia, previous studies have suggested that slash and burn cultivation resulted in soil depletion, podsolization and the formation of species-poor forest habitats. This research was based on land...

The role of field beans in nutrition of Boer goat

E. Aplocina
A study on the effective using of field beans to Boer mother goats feeding was carried out on a farm whose main activity is the production of goat meat. Since the Boer goat breed is still very rare in Latvia, there is a lack of experience in the feeding of meat goat. Goat productivity was analyzed according to the birth weight of goat kids a nd kids live weight at 50 days, as well as...

Properties of local produced animal-fat based biodiesel and its blend with fossil fuel

K. Sirviö, S. Heikkilä, R. Help, S. Niemi & E. Hiltunen
In the near future, more emphasis must be put on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in road transportation, house heating, agricultural activities, marine transport etc. This study concentrated on the use of alternative fuels in engine - driven applicat ions of non - road machineries and decentralized energy production . Today, the engines are mainly designed for crude oil derived fuels and liquid renewable fuels are blended with crude oil based fuels to fulfill the...

Exhaust particle size distributions of a non-road diesel engine in an endurance test

T. Ovaska, S. Niemi, T. Katila & O. Nilsson
The main objective of this study was to find out how th e non - road diesel engine running period of 500 hours affects the exhaust particle size distribution. By means of an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS), particle number was measured before the endurance test and after 250 and 500 hours of engine operation . The size distributions were determined at full and 75% loads both at rated and at intermediate speeds. The soot,...

Lake blue clay - sapropel - flax shive briquettes for water absorption and desorption

R. Tretjakova, A. Martinovs, M. Avisane & G. Kolcs
Latvian lakes are rich in sapropel sediments and below the sapropel layer there is another valuable natural resource, namely blue clay. Flax shives are formed in large quantities as a waste in flax processing factories. The problem involves processing and rational use of these reso urces. The paper studies the obtaining of briquettes from flax shives using sapropel and lake clay as a binding material. Briquettes are intended for use in cases when problems with...

Energy consumption of milking pump controlled by frequency convertor during milking cycle

P. Vaculik, M. Prikry, J. Bradna & L. Libich
The article deals with selected parameters affecting the energy consumption of a vacuum pump in a milking system during the whole milking cycle in variants with and without regulation by a frequency convertor. When put into practice, the latest research of creation, control and stabilization of vacuum in milking devices allows dairy farmers to obtain a vacuum system that ensures maximum stability of milking pressure, which is a basic requirement affecting the health of dairy...

Comparison of power consumption of a two-roll mill and a disc mill

A. Smejtkova & P. Vaculik
Grinding or milling is often used process, for example in the production of feed, grinding of malt in beer production, grinding of cereals on flour, etc. In order to optimize the energy intensity of the whole production process, it is necessary to know the energy consumption of individual processes. The grinding of malt influences the mashing process, the drawing-off and the boiling yield. Correct grain grinding makes the endosperm available for enzyme and physicochemical reactions...

Research on the mineral composition of cultivated and wild blueberries and cranberries

A. Karlsons, A. Osvalde, G. Čekstere & J. Pormale
European cranberry ( Vaccinium oxycoccos L.) and European bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) are among the most popular wild - harvested fruits in Latvia, traditionally used in folk - medicine and food. The commercial cultivation of American cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) and highbush blueber ry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) was successfully started during last 20 years. With a berry production increase due to considerable hectarage of plantings and growing consumer interest in health -...

The theory of cleaning the crowns of standing beet roots with the use of elastic blades

V. Bulgakov, V. Adamchuk, M. Arak & J. Olt
A standing beet root crown cleaner has been designed. The design comprises the vertical drive shaft that carries two flat elastic cleaning blades installed on axes and connected through the articulated connection. The aim of the study was to develop the new theory of cleaning the crowns of standing roots with the use of an elastic blade installed on the vertical drive shaft in order to determine its optimal design and kinematic parameters. The first...

Inoculation technology for legumes based on alginate encapsulation

E.N. Shcherbakova, A.V. Shcherbakov, P.Yu. Rots, L.N. Gonchar, S.A. Mulina, L.M. Yahina, Yu.V. Lactionov & V.K. Chebotar
The main purpose of seeds inoculation is to provide the sufficient number of viable efficient bacteria that are able to actively colonize the plant roots immediately after germination. One of the promising forms of bacterial preparations is cells encapsulation in the polymer gel. Advantages of using alginate microspheres are slow, controlled release of bacteria, biodegradation in the soil and an increased shelf life. As a result of this study the effectiveness of using capsulated biopreparation...

Particle size distribution analysis of pine sawdust: comparison of traditional oscillating screen method and photo-optical analysis

V. Chaloupková, T. Ivanova & A. Muntean
Particle size and particle size distribution (PSD) are crucial parameters which affect properties of particulate and agglomerated materials, and have an impact on a quality and utilization of a final product. The aim of this paper was to determine PSD as well as to assess dimensional features of pine sawdust fractions via mechanical sieve analysis and photo-optical analysis. The first one is a traditional and standard method taking into account only one parameter of particle...

Environmental risk assessment studies on new plant protection products which have been elaborated from coniferous tree bark

L. Jankevica, O. Polis, A. Korica, I. Samsone, V. Laugale & M. Daugavietis
Nowadays there are still various chemical pesticides being applied in the course of ensuring plant protection. Since 2010, we have been working on the development of new, environmentally-friendly plant protection products which will provide an effective tool against pathogenic fungi and bacteria which cause disease in crop plants. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate a risk assessment for new plant protection products that have been elaborated on the basis of coniferous tree...

Agronomic evaluation of a Colombian passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) germplasm collection

C.H. Galeano Mendoza, I. Cerón-Souza & L.V. Arango
Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) is one of the most promissory crops in Colombia with approximately 7,400 ha cultivated, an average production of 89,000 t and an average yield of 15 t ha-1. However, low yields as well as harvest problems including fruit quality, generate important losses, mainly due to lack of improved cultivars with particular characteristics for each market (fresh consumption, agroindustry) and specific adaptations to biotic and abiotic stress factors in producer areas....

Effects of Dormex (Hydrogen Cyanamide) on the performance of three seedless table grape cultivars grown under greenhouse or open - field conditions

I.Y. El Masri, Jad Rizkallah & Y.N. Sassine
Greenhouse cultivation of table grapes is still limited to some experimental trials at Lebanese coast. One major constraint facing this type of cultivation is the lack of enough chilling hours causing irregular bud - break and yield reductions. Dormex, with Hydrogen Cyanamide as active ingredient, is an effective mean for dormancy release adopted in warm winter regions. The work investigated separate and combined effects of two factors: greenhouse cultivation and Dormex application on vine buds...

Fatty acid composition in pork fat: De-novo synthesis, fatty acid sources and influencing factors – a review

K. Vehovský, K. Zadinová, R. Stupka, J. Čítek, N. Lebedová, M. Okrouhlá & M. Šprysl
Fats are among the basic nutrients the human organism needs as a source of energy, as well as to grow and regenerate cells, tissues, and organs. Particularly animal fats, with their higher proportion of saturated fatty acids and low content of n-3 fatty acids, are often seen by the public as relatively undesirable food components. Fatty acid (FA) composition of pork is affected by many factors: genotype, breeding, gender and feeding methods. Numerous research teams,...

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